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Full text of "Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries"

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*J' *• National Mu» 



DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR 



BULLETIN 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



VOL. XXV 



1905 



GEORGE M. BOWERS, Commissioner 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1906 



f?EB 8 1907 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

The golden tkout of the southern High Sierras. By Barton Warren Evermann. (Lssued 

May 19, 1906.) ! ■ 1-51 

The physiological effects upon pishes op changes ix the density and salinity op water. 

By Francis B. Sumner. (Issued May 22, 1906. ) 5.3-108 

Opisthobranchi.\te Mollusca from Monterey Bay, California, and vicinity. By F. M. 

MacFarland. (Issued May 24, 1906. ) .' 109-151 

HiRUDiNEA AND Oligoch.eta COLLECTED IN THE Great Lakes REGION. By J. Percy Moore. 

( Issued August 25, 1906. ) 153-171 

The fi.shes of Samoa: Description op the species found in the ARcniPEL.Kio, with a pro- 
visional CHECK LIST OP THE FISHES OF OcE.KXTA. By Uavid Starr Jordan and Alvin 
Seale. (Issued Dccenil icr 15, lVJu6 ) 1 73-4.55 

General inde.x 457-488 



ILLUSTRATIONS, 



PLATES. 

Golden trout of the sonxHERN High Sierras: Facing page. 

Plate I. Golden trout of Volcano Creek, Salmo roosevelti 3 

II. (1) Marble Fork of Kaweah River. (2) South Fork of Kaweah Kiver. (3) South Fork of 

Kaweah River 4 

III. (4) Middle Tule River. (5) Firstseriesof fallsinLittleKernRiver. (6) Upper part of first series 

of falls in Little Kern River '. 6 

IV. (7) View upstream from sandspit at head of Kern Lake. (8) Kern Ldke from near its head. 

(9) Wet Meadow Creek 8 

V. (10) Looking up Kern Lake from a point near outlet on west side. (11) Looking up Kern River 
from sandspit at upper end of Kern Lake. (12) Alluvial ridge separating Volcano Creek 
and South Fork of Kern. (13) Tunnel connecting Volcano Creek and South Fork of Kern. 8 
VI. (14) View of upper Kem River Canyon. (15) Toowa Valley. (Ifi) Meadow at Siberian Outpost. 8 
VII. (17) Coyote Creek, showing second and third falls. (18) Broder Falls, Coyote Creek. (19) Fo\irth 

falls in Coyote Creek s 

Vin. (20) Fifth falls, Coyote Creek. (21) Volcano Creek. (22) Shields Falls, Volcano Creek 10 

IX. (23) Langley's Camp and smalllakes at end of horse trail, base of Mount Whitney. (24) Looking 
northwest from Mount Whitney. (25) Cliffs south of Langley's Camp, base of Mount 

Whitney 10 

X. (26) Whitney Creek as it enters Crabtree Meadow. (27) Whitney Falls in Whitney Creek. (28) 

Mouth of Volcano Creek Canyon and floor of Upper Kern Canyon 12 

XI. (29) View north-northwest from Siberian Outpost. (30) Toowa Valley. (31) South side of Toowa 

Valley 12 

XII. (32) Agua-bonita Falls, Volcano Creek. (33) Stewart Falls, Volcano Creek 14 

XIIL (34) SurbyFalls.VoleanoCreek. (35) Twin Falls, Volcano Creek. (36) View down Kern Canyon. 34 
XIV. (37) Natural bridge over small tributary of Volcano Creek. (38) View from slope above camp at 

Siberian Outpost. (39) Basaltic cliff at first crossing of trail over Volcano Creek 11 

XV. Kern River trout, Salmo gilberti IS 

XVI. Golden trout of Soda Creek, Salmo whitei 20 

XVII. Map of Kern River region 52 

Opisthobranchiate Mollusca from Monterey Bay and vicinity: 

Plate XVIII. (1-5) Archidoris montereyensis. (6-11) Anisodoris nobilis. (12-17) Discodoris heathl. (18-21) 
Rostanga pulchra. (22-24) Diaulula sandiegensis. (25-26) Aldisa sanguinea. (27-31) Cadlina 

marginata 152 

XIX. (32-37) Cadlina flavomaculata. (38-40) Doriopsis fulva. (41-44) jEgires albopunctatus. (45-50) 
Laila cockerelli. (51-55) Triopha carpenter!. (55a-59) Triopha maculata. (00-64) Triopha 

grandis 152 

XX. (65-72) Polycera atra. (73-80) Acanthodoris hudsoni. (81-88) Acanthodoris brunnea. (89-92) 

Ancula pacifica 162 

XXI. (93-%) Ancula pacifica. (97-103) Hopkinsia rosacea. (104) Acanthodoris brunnea. (105, 111) 
Polycera atra. (106-107) Triopha maculata. (108,113) Triopha carpenteri. (109) Rostanga 

pulchra. (110) Cadlina flavomaculata. (112,114) Aldisa sanguinea 152 

XXU. (1-2) Anisodoris nobilis. (3) Doriopsis fulva 1.52 

XXIII. (4) Archidoris montereyensis. (5) Diaulula sandiegensis. (6) Discodoris heathi 1.52 

XXIV. (7) Aldisa sanguinea. (8) Rostanga pulchra 152 

XXV. (9) Cadlina flavomaculata. (10-12) Cadlina marginata '. 152 

XXVI. (13-14) Chromodoris porterae 152 

XXVII. iln) Laila cockerelli. (16-17) Triopha carpenteri 152 

XXVni. (18) Triopha maculata. (19) Triopha grandis 152 

XXIX. (20-21) Acanthodoris brunnea. (22) Polycera atra 152 

XXX. (23) Ancula pacifica 152 

XXXI. (24-25) Hopkinsia rosacea 152 

HiRtJDIXEA AND OLIGOCHiETA OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION: 

Plate XXXII. Lake Erie leeches 172 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fishes of Samoa: 

Plate XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

xxxvii. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 

XLIII, 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 

L. 

LI. 



Facing page. 

Callyodon abacurus 324 

Ctillyodon fumifrons 32G 

Tetraodon nigropunctatus 370 

(1) Asterropterix scmipimctatus. (2) Hetereleotrisclara. (3) Hetereleotris phaenna 392 

(1) Vitreola sagitta. (2) Khinogobius neophytus. (3) Chtenogobius erythrops 400 

(1) Archamialineolata. (2) Gnimmlstes sexlinoatu.s. (3) Pharopteryx melas 456 

Oceaiiops latovit Uita 4.56 

(1) Pomacentrus pavo. (2) Pomacentrus vaiuli 456 

(1) Abudefduf oa?lcsttaus. (2) Abiidefduf dicki 456 

(1) Abudefduf anmbilis. (2) Abudefduf antjerius 456 

(1) Abudefduf leucopomus. (2) Abudefduf unioeellatus. (3) Abudefduf taupou 456 

(1) , Chromis Cicruleus. (2) Pseudocheilinus hexatEenia 456 

(1) StethojuU.s casturi. (2) Stethojulis bandanensis. (3) Leptojulis pardalis 456 

(1) I'latyglossusmargiuatus. (2) Platyglossus flos-eorallis. (2) Halichceres centiquadrus 456 

(1) Haliehceres trimaculatus. (2) Halichceres daedalma. (3) Halichosres opercularis 456 

(]) Callyodon spilouotus. (2) Callyodon prasiognathus. (3) Callyodon maoricus 456 

Callyodon latax -456 

(1) Megaprotodon trifascialis. (2) O.Kymonacanthua longirostris 456 

Pterols volltans 4.56 

(1) Dendrochirus sausaulele. (2) Valenciennea Tiolifera 456 

(1) Kelloggella cardinalis. (2) Synchiropus lili. (3) Petroseirtes atrodorsalis 456 



TEXT FIGURES. 



Page. 
Physiological effects upon fishes of changes in 
eexsity and salinity of water: 

1-2. Dc\ice used in experiment to determine the 

part played by the gills in osmotic exchanges. 98 

HlRUDINEA AND OLIGOCH.*:TA OF THE GREAT LAKES 

region: 

1. Actinobdella atinectens, anterior end 161 

2. Actinobdella anncctens, posterior end 161 

3. Stylaria fossularis 168 

4. Schmardaella filiformis 168 

5. Limnodrilus gracilis 169 

6. Diagram of the principal reproductive organs 

contained in the tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth somites of Limnodrihts tn'tJriliii, as 

seen from the side 170 

Fishes of Samoa: 

1. Periopbthalmus barbarus 17S 

2. Himantura fai 184 

3. Anchovia apiensis 187 

4. Anchovia evermanni 188 

5. Chlevastes fasciatus 195 

6. RhinamurEena eritima 196 

7. Gymnothorax talofa 201 

8. Echidna trossula 204 

9. Anarchias allardicei 205 

10. Anarchias knighti 205 

11. Zenarchopterus vai.siganiK 208 

12. Cypsilurus unicolor 209 

IS. Cypsilurus speculiger 209 

14. Cypsilurus pcecilopterus 210 

15. Cypsilurus quindecimradiatus 210 

16. Cypsilurus katoptron 211 

17. Cory throichthys waitei 212 

IS. Corythroichthys sealei 213 

19. Corythroichthys mataafse 213 

20. Microphis brachyurus '. 214 

21. Microphis caudatus 214 

22. Microphis torrentius 215 

23. Athcrina uisila 216 

24. Myripristis sanguineus. . . , 221 

25. Holotrachys lima 222 

26. Holocentrus pruslin 225 



of Samoa — Continued. Page. 

Decapierus lundini 230 

Caranx plumbeus 233 

Caranx gilbert! 234 

Monodactylus argentcus 237 

.\mia exostigma 238 

Amia crassiceps 239 

Amia savayensis 240 

Amia koilomatodon 241 

Amia aroubiensis 242 

Amia novemfasciata 243 

Amia novemfasciata, color variation 243 

Amia fusca 244 

Amia doryssa 246 

Amia lateralis 246 

Mionorus grseffei 247 

Foalo 248 

Foa vaiulffi 249 

Apogonichthysmarmoratus 250 

Afiogonichthys isostigma 251 

Ambassis lafa 253 

Ambassis vaivasensis 254 

Chorististium susumi 256 

V:,n"]:' v..:.,:,!l-iliata 257 



. Tlialassoma cyanogaster 306 

. Scarichthys cseruleopunetatus 312 

. Callyodon pyrrhurus 315 

. Callyodon ruberrimus 316 

. Callyodon purpureus 317 

. Callyodon ery thacus 318 

. Callyodon upolensis 320 

. Callyodon zonularis 322 

. Callyodon bataviensis 323 

. Callyodon keUoggli 327 

. Callyodon cyanogrammus 330 

. Callyodon ultramarinus 332 

, Callyodon lazulintis 334 

. Hepatus aquilinus 353 

. Lo vulpinus 361 



ILLCTSTRATIOJSrS. 



vn 



s of Samoa— Continued. Page. 

9. Monarantlius molanocephalus 366 

0- I : i ' • I • I . 1 . ipiinctatus 370 

1 - .■.i.va 375 

ii'itale 377 

.-;. ;-;:i ■! ! .1- >clateri 384 

4. Hypsclootrisguntheri 385 

5. Eviota Eonura 386 

6. Eviota prasites 387 

7. EviotaaJelei : 388 

S. Eviota smaragdus 388 

9. Eviota distigma 389 

0. Eviota sebreei 390 

1. Eviotaherrei 390 

2. Eviota pruinosa 391 

3. Trimma casiura 392 

4. Gnatliolepis deltoides 395 

5. Vaimosa f ontinalis 396 

6. Zonogobius semidoliatus 397 

7. Vailima stevensoni 398 

8. Drombus tutuilse 399 

9. Rhinogobius coralluius lOO 

0. Rliinogobius musearum -101 



Fishes of Samoa— Continued. Page. 

91. Gobiusomatus 402 

9^. Mapo crassiceps 403 

93. Glossogobius vaisiganLs 404 

94. Waitea mystacina 407 

95. Marsstrigilliceps 408 

96. Sicyopterus tause 411 

97. Enneapterygius tusitalae 417 

98. Enneapterygius pardochir 417 

99. Enneapterygius tutuilEE 418 

100. Enneapterygius eerasinus 419 

101. Enneapterygius liudsoni 420 

102. Hj-pleuroclieilus vaillanti 421 

103. Alticus thalassintis 425 

104. Alticus musilae 426 

105. Salarias sindonis 42S 

106. Salarias atkinsoni 428 

107. Salarias garmani 430 

108. Salarias bryani 430 

109. Petroscirtes azureus 432 

110. Petroscirtes xestus 433 

111. .\lticus saliens 439 



THE GOLDEN TROUT OF THE SOUTHERN HIGH SIERRAS 



By BARTON WARREN EVERMANN 

Assistant in Charge of Division of Scientific Inquiry, Bureau of Fisheries 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction : 

Stroams tiiul lakes examined 

Kaweah River 

Middle Fork 

North Fork 

East Fork 

South Fork 

Tule River 

Middle Fork 

Kern Lake 

Little Kern River 

Wet Meadow Creek 

Soda Creek 

Coyote Creek 

Whitney Creek 

Rock Creek 

Volcano Creek 

South Fork of Kern River '. 

Cottonwood Creek 

The fishes of the Kern River region 

Suckers, chubs, etc 

Trout 

Kern River trout 

I i( ildcn tnjut of Soda Creek 

( lolden trout of South Fork of Kern River 

(ioklen trout of Volcano Creek 

Recommendations for protection 

Shasta trout 

Ikitthroat trout ; 

Inlroduction of trout into streams of the southern High Sierras 

Tcni peril tu re conditions in the Kern River region 

'Ilic r. II 111 of the trout of the Kern River region 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 




THE GOLDEN TROUT OF THE SOUTHERN HIGH SIERRAS. 



By barton warren KVERMANN, 
C/iaixe of Division of Scientific Inquiry, Bureau of Fisheries. 



Ill 1893 Dr. David Starr Jordan described from the soutiiern High Sierras a 
species of golden trout which he named Saf/no i/n/l-isg aqmi-honita. The description 
was l)ased on tliree specimens received b_y him from Mr. AV. H. Shoclsley, of San 
Francisco, to whom thej' had been sent by Mr. George T. Mills, tish commissioner of 
Nevada. At the time the description was written it was supposed that the specimens 
came from Volcano (then called Whitney) Creek, but it was suhsciiuciitly learned 
that they really came from Cottonwood Creek, into which it was said ihc --jMcies had 
been transplanted from Volcano Creek. In 1893 Dr. Charles H. (iillxrt \ isited the 
upper Kern River region and secured color notes on examples of golden trout which 
he caught in Volcano Creek, and upon others which he obtained from the South Fork 
of the Kern. 

Although it was apparent from the original description and Dr. Gilbert's notes 
tliat the trout described b}^ Dr. Jordan was a tish of unusual beauty, and that the 
species found in Volcano Creek was even more beautiful, little was added to our 
knowledge of the trout of the Kern River region until recently. From time to 
time reports had come to the Bureau of Fisheries regarding the beauty, uuincnoss, 
and delicious flavor of the golden trout of Volcano Creek, and then the tC.ii hitman 
to be expressed that, owing to its extremely restricted habitat and tlic case witli 
which it may be captured, the species was in danger of extermination. 

Stewart Edward White visited the region in 1903 and, impressed with the ease 
with which the extinction of tlie species could be compassed, called the attention of the 
President to the mattci' anil \\\v I'l-csident in turn hroagiit it to the attention of Hon. 
George M. Bowers, Coniniissioner of Fisheries. Complving witli the request of the 
President, the Commissioner ordered an investigation to be made for the purpose of 
determining (a) the natural geographic distribution of this trout, (b) its abundance, 

(c) its habits as to food and spawning time and its qualities as a food and game fish. 

(d) into what waters, if any, it has been transplanted, (e) into what other streams it 
■ lay be introduced, (f) whether its artificial propagation can be undertaken by the 

, Bureau, and, finally, (g) what measures or regulations, if any, are necessary for the 
adequate protection of the species. An investigating party, under the writer's direc- 
tion," outfitted at Redstone Park, Tulare County, Cal., with saddle horses, pack 
animals, and camping equipment, and on July 13, 1904, started for Volcano Creek. 

a The other members of the party were Prof. Oliver P. Jenkins anrt Pnif. Rufns L. Green, of Stanford University; Prof. 
Chancey Juday. of the University of Colorado: Mr. Chark's B. Hudson, of Detroit, Mich., artist of the expedition, and 
necessary assistants, packers, and cook. 



4 BHLLKTIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

STREAMS AND LAKES EXAMINED. 

That portion of tho southern High Sierras drained l)y the King-.s. Kaweah, and 
Kern and, on its eastern slope, by numerous small streams tributary to Owens Lake, 
is marvelously rich in mountain streams and small mountain lakes. Practically all 
of them are naturally well suited to trout. The waters are usually clear and cold 
and free from injurious contamination. The supply of fish food is ample; entonios- 
traca and other small crustaceans, as well as aquatic insects and insect larvte, abound. 
Yet many of these lakes as well as manj" of the streams in their upper courses are 
entirely without fish of any kind. All the larger streams were originally well 
supplied with trout and, in their lower warmer portions, with suckers and minnows, 
and these fishes, especially the trout, naturally pushed their way up the main streams 
and also into the tributaries until they came to waterfalls which proved impassable 
barriers. Many of these streams have such barriers somewhere in their course. 

In nature, fishes are found only in those streams and lakes which they have been 
able to reach from some other stream or lake. Usually the invasion of any stream 
is from below; and falls that fishes can not surmount prove a final obstruction; 
no fish will be found in that stream or any of its connecting waters above that 
point. Occasionally by eating back into the watershed one stream may steal a portion 
of the lieadwaters of another on the other side of the divide, and fishes sometimes 
enter a water course in that way. This, however, happens but rarely. In the region 
under consideration the streams are typical mountain streams, all more or less turbu- 
lent, containing man}^ rapids, cascades, and waterfalls, and with long, relatively 
quiet reaches where the waters flow through mountain meadows. The larger 
streams flow through deep canyons, often with sheer walls several hundred feet high, 
extending back from the top of which is the relatively level high plateau, traversed 
by many smaller streams. Many, perhaps most, of these tributary streams leave tho 
plateau in a series of cascades and falls, the latter sometimes manj' feet in a sheer 
drop, and all picturesque and beautiful. These falls, in nearly all the streams tribu- 
tary to Kern River above the mouth of the Little Kern and in those in the upper 
courses of the Kaweahs and Kings, have proved impassable barriers, and the streams 
above the falls ai-e wholly without trout or any other fish. Some of these barren 
waters, however, have been stocked by private individuals, fish and game clubs, or 
]>y the state and federal governments. 

KAWEAH RIVER. 

Kings. Kaweah, and Kern are the three great rivers of the southern High Sierras, 
whicii together constitute the headwaters of tho San Joaquin. The Kings and the 
Kern liavi' their principal hcadwutcis among the high mountains north of Mount 
M'hitney, Kings flowing westward and the Kern almost directly south. In the right 
angle between these two rivers and approximately bisecting it is the Kaweah, flowing 
southwest. All of these rivers finally reach that great area of low tule land in the 
upper (southern) end of the San Joaciuin Valley, of which Tulare Lake is the center. 
As a result of various agencies, chief of wliich are the extensive irrigation operations 
now carried on in this portion of the San Joaquin Valley, only a relatively small pro- 
portion of the water which these rivers bring down from the mountains cvei' reaches 



THE GOLDEN TROUT. 5 

Tulare Lake or the tide land about it, and most of the latter is now und(>r cultivation 
and the lake has practically disappeared. 

Midilh Fork of h'liireah Elver. — The Middle Fork of Kaweah River was exam- 
ined at various ]ilaces fi-om the mouth of the South Fork to a point above the power 
house, some 10 mile.s up the stream. In this portion of it.s course the Middle Fork 
is a large, swiftly flowing stream, with an occasional deep, quiet pool, but ordinarilj' 
with a strong current and a depth of 8 to 10 feet or more. The bed rock is of 
granite, which in man,y places is bare. Many large boulders also occur in the stream. 
There are some rapids and an occasional small fall, at the foot of which are deep pools 
in which trout delight to loiter. The water is clear, pure, and fairly cold, the maxi- 
mum temperature in July being about 65^ Fahrenheit. Trout were formerly not 
luicommon in this river, even down to Threerivers and below, but now they are 
rarely seen below the mouth of the East Fork. The Marble Fork of the Kaweah joins 
the ^liddle Fork just .south of the Giant Forest. It was examined in the vicinity 
of the crossing of the road west of the forest, where it is a tine mountain stream 
well suited to trout. (PI. ii, tig. 1.) 

- North Fark of Kaweah Blver. — The North Fork was examined from Broderand 
Hopping's place at Redstone Park to its moutli, a distance of a))out iJ miles. This 
stream is similar to the Middle Fork in every respect except that it is much smaller. 
In tlie North Fork trout are not now found lower down than within lo miles of the 
mouth. 

Ea.'<t Fork <>/ Kairrah liiper. — The East Fork heads at Farewell Gap and joins the 
Middle Fork about 4 miles above Threerivers. This stream was inspected at various 
places between its source and its mouth. It is, in most places, bold and turbulent, 
with granite bed and many cascades and considerable falls. 

South Fork of Kaweah River. — The South Fork was examined at \ aiious places 
between its source and mouth, particularly in that portion 3 to 4 miles above its 
mouth, also at Alle.s's ranch, Sand Meadow, and al)ove the last-named place. The 
South Fork, in its lower course, resembles the North Fork. It is, perhaps, somewhat 
more turbulent and the water rather colder. At and above Alles's ranch it is a ver}" 
rough stream averaging *> feet wide and 1 foot deep, flowing with many falls, cas- 
cades, and rapids over a smooth-worn granite bed. (PI. ir, tig. 2.) The temperature 
of the water at Alles's ranch at .5 p. m. (July 13) was 70.5'"' Fahrenheit, and at 5.45 
a. m. (July 14), 62.35'^. Five or 6 miles above this point it was 62.5"^ at 11 a. m. 
and at noon at Redwood cabin it was 63". At Camp No. 2," about 2 miles below Sand 
Meadow or 7 miles above Ladyl)ug, the South Fork is a mere creek about 10 feet wide, 
1 foot in average depth, and with a slow current. The bed is of clean sand and gravel. 
The water is clear and cool, the temperature varying from 50.25' at 6 a. m. July 15 
(when the air was 31.5 ) to (')0.5- at 7 ji. m. The banks are lined with patches of 
small willows. 

The third camp was made in South Fork Meadows, southeast of Sand Meadow 
and about 7 miles from Camp No. 2. The South Fork at this place is a very small 
stream, 2 to 10 feet wide and a few inches deep, flowing usually with a slow current 
(about 393 gallons per minute) over a bottom of coarse white sand, with here and 
there deeper pools, and at other places considerable riffles over boulders of various 

n The route followed in these investigations, with the camps indicated by numbers, is shown on the accompanying 



b Bm-I.KTIN UV THK BURKAU OK FISHKRIES. 

sizos. (Tl. n. tiji'. H.) rsimllv li.lnw cncli ritilc i> ;i jinol Iruiii a few inches to 2 feet 
dorp, in which the trout aic acnciiilly fdiiriil. In tlii' meadow the overhanging" 
grassy banks afford hiding places tor tiic tnnit. ihcrc arc small willows along the 
banks in some places. There are ically :! sticanis in this region, viz, the one just 
described, which flows approximately north; another flowing westward from Cabin 
Meadow and joining the first at our camp, and a third which heads near Av et Meadow 
and flows westward, joining the' main stream just above Sand Meadow. The.se 
streams are only 3 or 4 miles long and are nuich alike. The temperature of the 
water in the stream at Camp No. 3 varied from 44^ at 7.30 a. m. to 58° at 3.45 p. m. 

Fishes are not abundant in the South Fork of the Kaweah. In the lower 3 or 4 
miles of the river the western sucker (Catosiomus occidentalis), the chub {Itycho- 
cheihif oregonen»U), and the ''lake fish" {Mylopharodon eonocephalus) occur, though 
only in limited numbers. Rutilus si/niiiK-frii-iix also occurs, in some abundance. 
About 3 miles above the mouth trout aic found. They appeared to be fairlj- numerous, 
but are usually small. 

According to Mr. John Bi'oder, of Redstone Park, the present trout in the different 
forks of the Kaweah are descended from trout artificially introduced, the fish having 
been planted near the mouths of the respective forks. Prior to lSti7-68 a few trout 
were found in these streams, but they were proljably all killed by the great ffood of 
that year. Mr. Ira Blossom, who was recentl}^ interviewed b}- Mr. Broder, and who 
settled on the Soutli Fork in iMtit;, says there were speckled trout in that stream 
then. After the flood of 1S()7-K.S no trout were seen until after the streams had been 
restocked. About 1884 Mr. J. W. Pogue had a few trout placed in the Main Fork 
of the Kaweah, and in 1893 the VLsalia Sportsman's Club secured a consignment of 
trout from the state hatchery and planted them in the various branches of the 
Kaweah. It is said that the stock consisted of rainbow trout and eastern brook 
trout, that the rainbow thrived, but that the latter did not do well. Mr. Broder 
says, however, that he has heard of an occasional one being caught. The headwaters 
of the South Fork of the Kaweah were stocked with trout from Soda Creek at 
Quinn's Horse Camp. 

TUI.E HIVKK. 

M!d<llr Fork of Tulr /i'/zw.— The various headwaters of the Tule River originate 
about the soutli edge of the Setjuoia National Park, between those of the South Fork 
of the Kaweah on the north and western afHuents of the Little Kern on the east. 
There are several forks, all coming together after getting out of the foothills, only 
to lose themselves again in the intricate delta of tule land east of Lake Tulare. The 
Middle Fork was the only stream of this system that we examined. While, camped 
at South Fork Meadows (Julj^ 16-17) two members of our party made a side trip to 
this sti'eam, crossing over the divide south of South Fork Meadows. On the summit 
was found a small lake, apparently containing no fish, about 250 j-ards by 150 j'ards. 
draining into the Middle Tule. The latter at the place visited is a small stream 
resembling the headwaters of Soda Creek. (PI. iii, fig. 4.) 

The various lMan<lies of the Tule River are said to have been originally without 
trout, but were stocked se\ eral years ago by the state fish commission. Trout were 
found to be abundant in the Middle Tule. The specimens preserved closely resemble 
the McCloud River trout, and it is probable that the stock came from that stream. 









ilM^ 




THE GOLDEN TROUT. 



KEKN KIVEK. 



Kern River i.s in .some respects one of the most interesting streams in the Sierras. 
Its headwaters are among that group of stupendous mountain peaks from Table 
Mountain (14,000 feet) in the Great Western Divide eastward through Mount 
(ieiieva, Crag Ericsson, Leland Stanford University Peak (14,103 feet). Junction 
Peak (14,000 feet), Moimt Tyndall (14,101 feet), Mount Williamson (14,448 feet). 
Mounts Barnard, Tunnabora, and Wokorope to Mount Whitney (14,522 feet), the 
highest and greatest of them all. (PI. vi, figs. 14 and 1.5.) 

The course of the Kern is remarkable in that it is rectihnear and meridional, it 
being almost exactly due south for a distance of more than 28 miles, without wind- 
ings or curves of importance thi'ough the great Kern River Canyon, which for 
sublimity, as well as })eauty of scenerj-, rivals the Yosemite. The direction of the 
canyon was, according to Professor Lawson, determined originally by a straight rift 
which has controlled subsequent erosion, and the canyon is therefore both a rift 
valley and an erosional trough. The Kern River is a considerable stream, carrying 
a large amount of water. At the ford just above Soda Spring the stream was on 
July 22 about 40 feet wide, with an average depth of 18 inches and a strong current. 
The water was clear and cold. The total length of this river is probably 120 to 150 
miles, and the entire portion lying above the foothills of the Sierras is good trout 
water. 

The tributary streams are many. Those of importance on the west, beginning 
at the north, are Milestone Creek, Kern-Kaweah River, Chagoopa Creek, Funston 
Creek, The Big Arroyo, Rattlesnake Creek, Laurel Creek, Co^-ote Creek, and Little 
Kern River; those on the east, from north to south, are Tyndall Creek, East Fork 
of Kern River, Whitney Creek, Rock Creek, Volcano Creek, Nine Mile Creek, 
Monache Creek, and South Fork of Kern River. The only ones of these examined 
during the present investigations were Little Kern River (and certain of its iiihuta- 
ries), Coyote Creek, Whitney Creek, Rock Creek (and Guyot and Siberian Outpost 
creeks, two of its tributaries), Volcano Creek, and South Fork of Kern River. 

Kern Lake. — Just below Soda Spring and the mouth of Volcano Creek is an 
enlargement or widening in Kern River known as Kern Lake. This lake was 
formed in the spring of 1868 by a landslide or, more properly, bj^ the washing of 
a large amount of debris from a small canyon on the east side and depositing it in 
the canyon of the -Kern across the stream and completely danmiing it. The dam is 
now triangular in shape and extends out from the east wall of the canyon. It is 
aljout an acre in extent, and most of it was not more than 4 or 5 feet above the sur- 
face of the lake at the time of our visit. The dam appears to have raised the water 
at least 10 feet, as shown ))y stumps of trees standing in water 10 feet deep. Most 
of these trees have been broken ofi' at the water Itnel, but si.\(M-al still project 1 to 
10 or 15 feet above it. The lake is about a mile long and half a mile wide. The 
deepest water is at the lower or south end on the east side, where it reaches a maxi- 
numi of 13 feet. Three soundings taken near the lower end gave 8, 8.5, and 10 feet; 
a series of six at the lower end of the lake just west of the outlet gave 10.5, 
lit. 5, 10.5, 10.5, 10.5, 11, and 11.5 feet; and another series just east of the outlet gave 
11, and 12 feet. 



8 BULLETIN OF THE BURKAtT OF FISHERIES. 

Tlio sf mini lius rut i(s way tliroii-h the west ciul of the ilani. The upper cud of 
tlic lake is siltiuy up rapidly, and it is a matter of hut a few years tuitil the lake as 
such will have entirely disappeared. The sand delta is now extending out into the 
lake in a series of fingers, with intervening channels, and the basin is already about 
halfway silted up. Upon this delta at the upper end is a thick growth of young 
cotton woods and willows. The greater pait of this silted-up area is only a few inches 
above the surface of the water, and the water in the channels through it is only 18 
inches £ir less in depth. The depth over a greater part of the lake is 6 to 10 feet, 
and there is a dense growth of aquatic vegetation covering nearly all the lake from 
the sand bars to the dam. This consists mostly of a species of I\jtamogeton, a 
Bdtrachium, and various filamentous algse. The white water crowfoot {B. tricho- 
phyllvm) is the most abundant species and covers the surface where the water is not 
over 5 or 6 feet deep. In the lower end of the lake on the west side a large number 
of logs have accumulated in sluggish water, forming a considerable jam, as well as a 
favorite resort for the numerous suckers that inhabit the lake. The river for about 
three-fourths of a mile lielow the lake is deep and sluggish, the depth being perhaps 
6 to 10 feet. (PI. IV, figs. T and 8, pi. v, figs. 10 and 11.) 

About half a mile below Kern Lake is a smaller similar lake, known as " Little 
Lake " or " Lower Kern Lake," which is said to have had a similar but earlier origin. 
(PI. XIII, fig. 36.) It is al)out half a mile in diameter and is separated from the river 
by a levee of sand and silt on its east side, the river flowing a straight course at the 
base of the east wall of the canyon. The outlet of the lake is a small rivulet, which 
cuts the levee at its southern end. 

LittJe Kern River. — This stream has its rise on the east and south slopes of 
Mount Vandever and Mount Florence at Farewell Gap, flows southeast for about 20 
miles, and joins the main Kern River south of Trout Meadow. The greater portion 
of its course is through a considerable canyon, and the total descent is several thou- 
sand feet. The stream was examined by us from its source down to the crossing of 
the Hockett trail just below the mouth of Wet Meadow- Creek. The stream is made 
up of a succession of falls, cascades, and rapids, with occasional more quiet reaches 
between. The majority of the falls would not seriously interfere with the free move- 
ment of trout, but there are at least two just below the Broder cabin which fish can 
not now ascend. The stream, however, has trout throughout itis entire course and 
doubtless became stocked before the falls wore down to their present proportions. 

Above the crossing of the Hoi'kett trail the Little Kern is a poor trout stream 
until the falls are reached. The bed is of gi'avel and the pools are shallow. The falls 
consist of a series of steep slides and vertical falls, all close together, the total height 
being al)out 100 feet. No fall in this portion of the stream is sheer at high water 
for more than 5 feet. A half mile above these falls are several others w hich individ- 
ually are as high as the fii"st falls, but their combined height is less. Above the 
second falls the pools are larger and deeper and the stream is much better for trout. 
The fall of this creek is about 400 feet to the mile. At Broder's cabin the volume 
was a])Out 15,000 gallons per minute. (PI. iii, figs. .5 and 6.) 

Wet Meado'w Creek is a small western tributary of the Little Kern. It rises 
just south of Mount Vandever and joins the Little Kern near the crossing of the 
Hockett trail. It is for most of its lenath a (luiet stream t)nlv a few vards or feet 



Bull, 


U S 


B. F. li-OS. 








Plate IV. 


1 


1 




Utiii 


\jM 


: 




1 


1 




mam 


mM 




1 


1 




w. 






::J 


IH 



■IG. ^. VIEW UPSTREAM FROM SANDSPIT AT HEAD OF KERN LAKE; SHOWS SLACK WATER IN RIVER. 




"IG. 8. KERN LAKE FR>JM N E .i R ITS HE; 



:)F SUBMERGED TREES. 




FIG. 9. WET MEADOW CREEK. WHITE'S TROUT IS ABUNDANT IN THIS STREAM. 



Bull, 


U. S B. F. 190"^ 






Plate VI 




^ 




^^^^^^m 


^^^^^^^K^BS^^smls^^M 




H^H 






WKKS^^ '^:>s| 




^^^^^E^^^ 






luBBJ^iBKMhL ^-'^^U 




vmii 






mjBMB^^ t- — '''!^| 




j^-^JT^ 






mM^UiAfi^ . :. .■■'■-i^U 












^ 


J^^'^s,/^ 






I^^^^^^^^^^^^^E?- 'j^ttV-'^^KB 


1 


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^^^m^gi 



14. VIEW OF UPPER KER 
ABOVE VOLCANO CREEK. 
IN THE MIDDLE-GROUND, 



vl RIVER CANYON, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 
TOWER ROCK IS SEEN ON THE LEFT, T 
AND KERNBUTS LOWER DOWN. 




3. 15. TOOWA VALLEY, LOOKING EAST FROM SUMMIT OF 
SHOWN IN THIS VIEW, ILLUSTRATING THE AGGRADED VALLEY BOTTOIV 
ACTER OF THE SURROUNDING MOUNTAINS. 




THE OOLDEN TROUT. 9 

wide, nu'iiiuleiiny- through gra.ssy ine:i(low!S, and witli no falls or rapids of any 
importance. It is woU .supplied with trout of <;ood size and brilliant coloration. 

(I'l. IV, tio-. ;••) 

S(„/ii i',\ik is a somewhat larger western tributar}' of the Little Kern. It ri.ses 
on the divide just west of Quinns Hor.se Camp, and flows southeast about 6 miles 
before uniting- with the Little Kern. Near its mouth it receives a small tributary 
from Pecks Canyon. Soda Creek at Quinns Horse Camp is much the same sort of 
a stream as the South Fork of the Kaweah at South Fork Meadows. It is perliaps a 
little more turbulent, but has, however, no impassable falls. Ti'out are abundant. 
The distance from South Fork Meadows to Quinns Horse Camp is about 5 miles. 
The elevation of the summit of the pass between the two is 9,680 feet, as given on a 
United States ^,.>.)l^^■i(■al Survey bench mark. 

Ciijnt, Ci;,k. This i- a cnn-idcraMc stream, having its rise on the Western 
Divide bet\\e(Mi tlie luaiii Kern and the Little Kei'ii. Flowing east and southeast a 
distance of 6 or 8 miles, it enters Kern River just below Soda Spring. Its upper 
course is through some small meadows, where the stream flows with a gentle current, 
but the greater portion is through a rugged canvon, in which the descent is very 
rapid and the -t icam very turliulent. In drops into Kern Canyon in a series of falls 
of consider.ihh' size and much beauty. The first (lowermost) of the.se falls is at the 
edge of Kern Canyon and has a height of 19 feet. The channel of the stream is 
blocked by a huge boulder, around which the water pours, only a small amount 
creeping under the boulder. The second and third falls are about ^50 feet above the 
first. The second is about 50 feet high; the third, or Broder Falls", 63 feet, and the 
distance between them about 50 feet. (PI. vii, figs. 17 and 18.) About one-half 
mile above the thii'd falls is another, the fourth, which has a vertical descent of about 
35 feet. Two hundred feet failher up is a fifth fall, with a drop of about 30 feet. 
(PI. VII, fig. 19, and pi. viii, fig. 20.) 

Among these various falls are excellent ti'out pools, and examples of trout were 
caught from each of them by some of the members of our party. Above the fifth 
falls are many others of smaller size, about and among which are numerous deep, 
relatively quiet pools where trout may be found. As several of these falls now 
constitute barriers wholly effective in preventing the further luscent of fishes, it is 
evident that the trout had become distributed the full length of the stream before 
any of the falls became impassable. 

The trout of Coyote Creek show greater variation than is foiuid among those 
of any other .stream in this region. Those taken from below any one of the impas- 
sable falls can, as a whole, be distinguished from those above the falls, and it may 
well be that the efi'ects of isolation are beginning to show on the trout in the difl'erent 
parts of the stream. 

Whitne;/ Crrck. — This creek has its sources in the snowbanks and tarns on the 
west and southern slopes of Mount AMiitney. whence it flows a trifle .south of west to 
Kern River. The total length is about 8 miles. At Crabtree Meadow a small trib- 
utary joins it from the south. Near the head of Whitney Creek are five considerable 
little lakes or mountain tarns besides a dozen tiny ones. Above Crabtree Meadow 

1 Named for Mr. John Broder, of Redstone Park, Tulare County, Cal., in recognition of the active interest which he has 
taken in stocking with trout the barren waters of Tulare County. 



10 HULLETIN OF THK HI^REAIT OK KISHKRIKS. 

the stream is a very rapid one willi nmny Ixmldcrs, lulls. r;ii)i(l,s. casCiKles. and pools. 
In the meadow it flows with a yood strong- cuncnt. Its width here is ahont I'i to 1") 
feet and the depth 10 to 15 inciies, witli numerous deeper jxhiIs. 'I'lic x-olunic is 
about 7,320 gallons per minute. The hed of tlie stream in tiie meadow is (dean white 
onivel with some black soil and decayed \eoetation in the still places. Both abo\c 
and lielow the meadow the l)ed is chiefly granite or granite gravel and boulders. 
About l.T) miles below the meadow the stream drops about 200 feet in a close series of 
falls which tishes can not ascend. There is a beautiful cascade just below the meadow, 
but it does not form an impassable barrier. From this point the stream descends 
rapidly in a series of piitures(|nc rapids, cascades, and falls. 

Whitney Creek is tlie cleaiiesi. cleaiv-i. and coldest of all the creeks we exam- 
ined, and, although an ideal tiout stream, ii is entirely without fish of any kind. 
The lakes at its head (pi. ix, tigs. 23, 24, and 25) have an abundance of trout food, 
consisting chiefly of entomostraca and insect la^rvse, and the larger ones should be 
stocked with trout. The stream also was found to be well supplied with flsh food, 
particularly in Crabtree Meadow and other quiet reaches. (PI. x, flgs. 26 and 27.) 
Frogs were abundant all along the creek in all suitable places. The temperature of 
the water at Crabtree Meadow at 6 p. m. July 27 was 56^^. Whitney Creek should 
be stocked with trout from Volcano Creek, and the transplanting could be easily 
accomplished. ' 

Rock Creek. — This creek has its various headwaters on the western slopes of 
Mount Le Conte, Old Mount Whitney, and Cirque Peak, and flows west to Kern 
River, which it enters about 5 or 6 miles south of the mouth of Whitney Creek. 
From the north it receives a small tributary called Guyot Creek, and from the 
meadows at Siberian Outpost (pi. vi, fig. 16, and pi. xiv, fig. 38) flows another some- 
what larger creek, which joins Rock Creek a mile above the mouth of Guyot Creek. 
(PI. XI, fig. 29.) All three of these creeks were examined, and no fish were found 
in them. They could be easily stocked either from Volcano Creek or the South 
Fork of the Kern. 

Volcano Creek." — On account of the marvelousl}- beautiful trout inhabiting 
its waters, if for no other reason. Volcano Creek merits a sonunvbat full descrip- 
tion. The course of the stream is peculiar. Its sources are on the slopes of Cirque 
Peak and among the other cirques of the south end of the High Sierras. A numbei- 
of small streams come together in and above a series of broad gi'assy meadows 
south of Cirque Peak, forming Volcailo Creek, which flows slightly west of south 
a distance of about 8 miles and then turns abruptly westward to pursue a more 
winding course for about 8 miles farther before joining Kern River opposite Soda 
Spring. 

The sources arc at an elevation of 10,000 to 13,000 feet. The ujjper course is 
through a succession of small mountain meadows, the larger ones formeidy called 
" Whitney Meadows," but now known as "Volcano Meadows." Except in the more 

"This creek on some maps and elsewhere has been calle'l \VliitiK> Ciei-k. a name applied to it when the mountain 
now called Sheep Mountain, or Old Mount Whitney, was th.nmln im !.,■ tlir real Mount Whitney. When itwasfound 
that this stream does not rise near either Mount Whitney or c il^l Mmhtii Whim, y the name Whitney Creek was transferred 
to the stream described above under that name, and the naim- • \'nl,iin.i Cn-.k" was adopted for this stream. In some 
publications it has been called Golden Trout Creek. The United States Board on Geographio Names hasadopted the name 
Volcano Creek, which therefore becomes Ills) recognized official name. 



Bull. U. S, B, F. W05, 




Bull. U. S. B, F. 1905. 







THK GOLDEN TKOITT. 11 

levt'l meadows, where the watei- Hows gently, this ])(>rtioii of tlie stream is made up 
of a succession of i-apids and small cascades, none, liowcner, constituting- a barrier 
to the ascent of fishes. The total fall from the headwaters to the point where the 
stream turns west is between l,t)00 and '2,000 feet. 

The bend to the westward is made just after the stream enters an east-and-west 
ancient trough or valley which Professor Lawson calls "'Toowa Valley," just below 
the most eastern of the series of small volcanoes or cinder cones which give name to 
the creek, and at a place known as the " tunnel." The elevation of the creelv bed at 
this point is about 8,600 feet. The floor of Kern Canyon at the mouth of Volcano 
Creek is 6,300 feet. The drop made by this portion of the creek is therefore about 
2,300 feet. (PI. x, fig. 28). 

As already stated, the descent made by the creek above the " tunnel" is without 
an}' considerable sheer falls. That portion below the " tunnel " is markedly different. 
Rapids, cascades, and sheer falls of large proportions and exceeding beauty follow 
each other in rapid succession, particularly in the last three or four miles. Only in 
(xroundhog Meadow and one or two other small meadows are any quiet reaches 
found. While there are many rapids and small cascades all along below the tunnel, 
k is only in the last three or four miles that falls of considerable size are found. A 
good general view of this portion of the creek is seen in plate viii, figure 21. 

Volcano Creek above the tunnel has a bed of granite sand and gravel with 
granite boulders of various sizes from small to very large and in great profusion. 
From the tunnel to the mouth thei-e is not so much granite, but nuicli lava, volcanic 
tufa, and tufaceous sand. 

Though the stream foi' most of its course is turbulent and wild, there are 
three meadows of considerable size through which it flows more quietly. Here the 
l)anks are of sod or well covered by willows and other shrubs; the bed is of gi'avel 
of various sizes, fragments of lava, and finer material from the granite, lava, and 
soil. Below these meadows is the series of rapids and important falls already 
mentioned and which are more fully described on page 14. 

To understand Volcano Creek it is necessary to consider it in connection with 
another stream, the South Fork of the Kern. The relations of these two streams are 
peculiar and unusual. According to Professor Lawson, the South Fork of the 
Kern has its rise in the Summit Divide, about 3 miles southeast of Cirque Peak, 
flows southwest a))out 6 miles, and enters Toowa Valley practicality at the same 
point where Volcano Creek enters it. There it niak(\s an acute bend to the 
eastward and flows southeasterly through the eastern part of Toowa Valley. (PI. 
XI, tigs. 30 and 31.) At the point of nearest approach Volcano Creek and Soutii 
Fork of Kern are separated by a low alluvial ridge not over 75 or 80 yards wide at 
the level of the beds of the streams. The top of the ridge at the narrowest point is 
about 50 or 60 feet wide and not to exceed 30 feet above the streams. It is evident 
that these two streams were at one time tributaries of one stream wliich, according 
to Professor Lawsun, Dcciipicd flu' Toowu Valle}', and the separation of the drainage 
into two distinct streams, (nir How in<j wc^t and the other east in the same valley, is 
:in interesting prol)l(Mn wliidi has lis hearing upon the geomorphy of the region and, 
as well, upon the origin and relationships of the trout of the two streams. 



12 BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAI) OE' FISHERIES. 

Volcano Creek originally probably had its outlet to the westward through the 
same valley in which it now flows. As Kern River cut its canyon deeper and deeper. 
Volcano Creek did the same, cutting back from Kern Canj'on, however, only a mili' 
or two, and doubtless forming considerable falls. During this time it is believed 
that the poition ol' South Fork of Kern above the tunnel was a tributaiy of Volcano 
Creek. SulJ-^l■(|ll(•lllly the region through which Volcano Creek flows has been 
materially iiKidilit d l)y flows of lava from several volcanoes which appeared on tlic 
floor of the valley or near it. Professor Lawson identilied six such volcanic cones, 
at least four of which I was able to locate, one being on the left side of the South 
Fork just above the tunnel. These small volcanoes sent streams of lava in various 
directions, particularly down the gorge of Volcano Creek almost to the bottom of 
Kern Canyon. This lava stream filled the gorge of the lower part of Volcano Creek, 
which had been cut down nearly to the present Kern level. Above this gorge the 
stream has been variously obstructed by lava flows, one result of which has been to 
crowd tile stream to the north and northeast sides of the valley. Another and ver}- 
important result was the damming of the stream and causing the formation of a 
broad alluvial plain in the vicinity of the craters. Eventually this plain was carried 
so high as to make the drainage unstable, the stream discharging sometimes by the 
Volcano Creek Valle^y, sometimes by the South Fork Valley, and doubtless being 
sometimes divided between the two. As Volcano Creek partially reopened its 
ancient channel by eroding the lava, the habit of the upper streams was tinally 
changed, so that, instead of adding to the alluvial deposit, the}" began to excavate it; 
and when this change occurred it happened that the main branch of Volcano Creek 
discharged toward the west, while the eastern branch discharged eastward, 
constituting the present upper waters of the South Fork. The ridge between 
the two is merely a remnant of the alluvial deposit and is now only a few yards in 
width. Its narrowness suggested to certain ranchers living in the valley of the 
South Fork the possibility of increasing, for irrigation purposes, the flow of water 
in the South Fork by tunneling the ridge. The level of Volcano Creek is slightly 
higher than that of the South Fork, and when the ditch or tunnel was made a por- 
tion of the water of Volcano Creek flowed into the South Fork. (PI. v, tigs. 1'2 
and 13.) Mr. George W. Stewart, agent of the United States Land Oflice, Visalia, 
Cal., has kindly furnished the following information concerning this tunnel: 

From the records of the board of supervisors of Tulare County, Cal., sitting as a board of water 
coniniissiuiiei-s, I find there was presented to the board in 1883 a petition of Patrick Brady and 30 
others tn l)e allowed to divert from Whitney [Volcano] Creek at a point near a narrow ridge Ijetween 
Whitney [\*oicano] Creek and Ramshaw Creek [South Fork of Kern] 4 miles below Whitney [\'olcano] 
Jleadows and 3 miles above Ramshaw Meadows 10,000 miner's inches of water under a 4-inch pressure, 
the same to be conveyed through a ditch and tunnel, the water to be used for stock, manufacturing, 
and irrigation, in township 26 south, ranges 33, 34, and 35 east. The said records show that imder 
date of September 13, 1883, it was ordered "That prayer of said petitioners be granted and that they 
have out of said Whitney [Volcano] Creek, at said point of diversion, sufficient water to fill their 
ditch — that is, 10,000 inches under 4-inch pressure." 

The tunnel was driven through a hill (ridge) composed mainly of disintegrated granite and, I 
have been informed, soon caved in, and was then transformed into what miners call an "open cut." 
This also caved in .so that it had to be abandoned, and the w-ater was diverted at a higher point on the 
stream, I believe, about IJ miles above. I have been told that the amount of water diverted through 
the tunnel was sufficient to permit the golden trout to escape into Ramshaw Creek. In 1899 when I 




FIG. 26. WHITNEY CREEK 



ENTERS CRABTREE MEADOW. FIG. 27. WHITNE 




FIG. 28. THE MOUTH OF VOLCANO CREEK CANYON AND THE FLOOR OF THE UPPER KERN CANYON^ THE 
CREEK HAD ONCE CUT DOWN NEARLY TO THE LEVEL OF KERN RIVER, AFTER WHICH IT WAS FILLED 
WITH LAVA-THE DARK ROCK IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PICTURE. SINCE THEN A NARROW PRECIPITOUS 
GORGE HAS BEEN CUT, PARTLY IN THE LAVA AND PARTLY BETWEEN IT AND THE GRANITE. 




1. 30. TOOWA VALLEY, LOOKING EAST FROM SUMMIT OF VOLCANO SHOWN IN PLATE VI, FIGURE 
THE BROAD, ANCIENT VALLEY FLOOR HAS BEEN DISSECTED AND SINCE AGGRADED TO THE PRE 
ENT MEADOW LEVEL. 




FIGURE 30. 



THE GOLDEN TROUT. 13 

passed the point of diversion mentioned, above tlie tunnel, aliout one-lialf of tlie volume of the stream 
was flowing into the diteh over a small dam of brush and rock, and there was nothing to prevent the 
escape of the fish. The flow of whaler was abundant for the purpose, and the water in the ditch, as 1 
remember it, was not more than 3 feet below the surface of the water in the creek, and it flowed over 
a broad dam. 

The amount allowed to be diverted [10,000 miner's inches under 4-inch pressure equals 90,000 
gallons per minute] was several times the whole volume of water in the creek during the summer 
months, and at that point I doubt if it exceeded 10,000 inches many days in the year. It is not prob- 
able that 10,000 inches was diverted at any time, as it would be possible only during a freshet. 
Under the order granting the prayer of the petitioners they would have been allowed to divert all the 
water of Volcano Creek during the jieriod of low water. T have never heard that this was done, and 
I do not know that it was not done. 

At the time of mj' visit (July 24) the totiil vohiiuc of Voh-ano Creek at the tun- 
nel was about 4,898 gallons per minute. The tunnel was then entirely closed (as it 
doubtless has been for many years), only a triliing amount of water seeping through 
the gravel. The ditch some distance above the tunnel was also closed and no water 
running in it. Information just received from Mr. Stewart says that no water ran 
in it in llHl.j. It is doubtful whether any has run since 1899, and it is hoped that no 
ofiort will ever be made again to divert the water of Volcano Creek. 

Information given b}^ Mr. John Broder, of Red.stone Park, agrees essentially 
with the above. He states that the tunnel was made about 1883 or 1884, and that it 
gave trouble by frequently caving in; that it was changed to an "open cut" about 
1S91, but, continuing to cave in, was soon abandoned. A ditch diverting the water at 
a point above the tunnel was then dug, about 1892. Mr. Broder says he has seen 
the water running through the tunnel, the "open cut," and also through the ditch; 
that there was nothing to prevent the free passagr of trout from Volcano Creek, and 
that Hsh swimming downstream doubtless t(iiin<l ii easier to pass into the ditch or 
tunnel than to continue down the creek; and .Mi'. Stewart found this condition exist- 
ing in 1899. Mr. A. H. Swain, receiver of the United States Land Office at Vi.salia, 
was there in 1903 and found no water div^erted, the ditch, as well as the tunnel, not 
being in condition to carry water; and that was the condition at the time of my visit 
in 1904. 

I have heard from various sources that the parties who constructed the tunnel 
and ditch had l)een enjoined from diverting the water, but the truth of this statement 
has not been established. The points of diversion are in Tulare County, and Mr. 
Stewart informs me that the records of that eounty do not show that any such 
injunction was issued. 

Professor La wson further says: 

It is evident that the period of eruption of the volcanoes of the Toowa Valley and the upbuilding 
n( their cones is later than that of the formation of the valley, and that they are features imposed 
upon, and independent of, the erosional geomorphy of the valley. The valley had evidently attained 
its present rluiracter, as far as erosion is concerned, l)efore the volcanic eruption began, and has been 
bur little modified since eruptive activity ceased, except by aggradation." 

The bed of Volcano Creek, however, has undergone considerable moditication 
since the lava flow. This has consisted chiefly in the wearing away of the obstructing 
lava and in the formation of a number of considerable falls in the last two or three 

aLawson, op. eit., p. 321. 



14 IHULLETIN OF THE BUKKAU OK KISIIEKIKS. 

miles of the strcuin. This portion is veiT wild (pi. xiv, tig. 3!t), the total descent in 
the last 2 miles lu'liij;- aliout 1,600 feet. Starting at the mouth of the creek, the tirst 
fall of importance is found only a short distance back from the river. This is known 
as Agua-Bonita Falls, and the vertical descent is between 60 and 80 feet. (PI. xii. 
fig. 32.) A few rods farther up is a small but ver}' beautiful fall (pl. xiii, fig. 34) 
with a sheer drop of al)out 10 feet, which I have named "Surby Falls."" About 
300 yards above Agua-Bonita Falls is the second, or Stewart Falls* (pl. xii, fig. 33), 
in a series of sheer drops totaling about 70 feet. The next or third important falls 
(pl. VIII, fig. 22) is several rods farther up sti-eam, and has been named "Shields 
Falls."'' It consists of two sheer falls each of about 25 feet. Several rods above 
these are Twin Falls (pl. xiii, fig. 35), just below the crossing of the trail. These 
are very beautiful, and have a sheer drop of about 18 feet. 

These four falls are each and all barriers that fishes can not possibly surmouut. 
Fishes could, of coui'se, go down over them and they doubtless do so-, but thej^ do not go 
out into Kern River. The trout of Volcano Creek are a small, creek-loving species, 
and evidently avoid the larger sti-eam. The various falls are adequate in keeping 
Kern River trout from ascending Volcano Creek, and these same falls, together with 
the size of the stream, are equally adequate in keeping the creek trout from entering 
Kern River. The trout of Volcano Creek are therefore as completel}' isolated from 
those of Kern River as if a land barrier intervened. 

That Volcano Creek was originally stocked with trout from Kern River may be 
accepted without nuich question. The lava flows already referred to doubtless killed 
ofl' all the trout of the lower portions of the creek, leaving perhaps oti1\' those of the 
headwaters to reinvade the depleted lower portion after the conditions became suit- 
able. At that time it is probable that the trout of South Fork of Kern (which was 
presumably also stocked from Kern River) did not materially difl'er from those of 
Volcano Creek; but th(> period that has elapsed since their segregation, due to the 
formation of the alluvial barrier and the numerous impas.sable falls, has proved quite 
suflicient to permit a difi'erentiation which renders them readily distinguishable and. 
1 believe, specifically distinct. 

About one-half mile above Twin Falls a small stream from the south enters 
Volcano Creek. Near its mouth this stream has cut its way through the volcanic 
tufa and formed a natural bridge (pl. xiv, fig. 37). This bridge is 18 to 20 feet 
wide, 12 to 15 feet high on the lower side, and 8 to 10 feet high on the upper side. 

Masses of this tufa are found in all the more quiet reaches of Volcano Creek 
from the tunnel down, and in the eddies and deeper pools the bed is largely made up 
of this material, either as fragments of various sizes or as sand. The color of the 
tufa is a light lemon-yellow or yellowish white. The tufa seems to dissolve or break 
down readily in the water, the result being that the water is more or less milky. The 
similarit}' in the color of this tufa, and even the general color of the bed of the stream 
in many places, to certain colors found in the trout forces itself on one's attention. 

a Named in memory of Mr. Byrd Surby, of Threerivers, Tulare County, Gal., a member of my party who was killed by 
lightning on Mount Whitney July 26, 1004. 

6Named for Mr. George W. Stewart, of Visalia, Tulare County, Cal., president of the Tulare County Fish and Game 
League and of the Mount Whitney Club, who has done so much toward the stocking of the streams of the southern High 
Sierras with trout. 

cin honor of Mr. George O. Shields, who, as editor of Recreation and later of il.s suc!*essor. Shields' Magazine, has ituii' 
so much for fish and game protection in America. 




'^t&'"'"^\ 



^ii¥ 





EIGHT ABOUT 18 FEET. 



ii^ 




-0 


^^B^^^9|^K^^^^:j|*> 




■'■'^^^^^^^j^tt 



FIG. 36 VIEW DOWN KERN CANYON FROM A KERNBUT BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER KERN LAKES. 
SHOWING LOWER KERN LAKE IN FOREGROUND, GREAT ROCK, SLIDE ON LEFT, A TYPICAL KERN- 
BUT ON THE RIGHT, WITH STEEP WALL BEHIND IT, AND THE PROFILE OF THE TROUT MEAD- 
OWS DEFILE IN THE DISTANCE. 



Plate XIV. 




THE GOLDEN TROUT. 15 

/South F'i'rk of Kirn River. — Thi.s stream has alread}' been inentioned and 
described in part. It ri.ses southeast of Cirque Peak on the east side of a high 
mountain ridge separating it from Volcano Creeii. For the first six or seven miles 
its course is west of south until it enters Toowa Valley near the tunnel; there it 
turns abruptly to the southeast. After flowing through South Fork of Kern Meadows 
it turns southward, which course it follows for several miles, and then, turning west- 
ward, enters the main Kern River a few miles south of Kernville. 

The stream was examined by us only in that portion of its course easily reached 
from the tunnel. At that place it is smaller than Volcano Creek, but below South 
Fork of Kern Meadows it becomes a considerable stream. At the lower end of these 
meadows it receives from the north a tributarj'^ known as "Mulky Ci'eek," a small 
stream of special interest IxTuuse of the fact that the trout with which Cottonwood 
Creek was originally stncknl came from it. 

Cottomriioil (_'/; ,/,-.- A few words should be .said of the waters of the east side of 
the southern High Sierras. Numerous streams of greater or less importance having 
their headwaters on the eastern slopes of this range flow directly into Owens Lake 
or into its most important tributary, Owens River. Lone Pine Creek and Turtle 
Creek have their sources on the east side of IMount Whitney, Mount Le Conte, and 
Sheep Mountain, opposite Whitney and Rock creeks, and, flowing eastward about 
14: miles, enter Owens River at Lone Pine. Cottonwood Creek rises on the eastern 
slopes of Sheep Mountain and Cirque Peak opposite the headwaters of Rock and 
Volcano creeks and flows southeast about 15 or 18 miles to Owens Lake. Well toward 
the head of Cottonwood Creek arc said to be some small lakes. All of these streams, 
so far as known, were originally without trout of any kind. Some of them, however, 
have been stocked. The circum.stances attending the stocking of Cottonwood Creek 
are explained elsewhere in this report (p. 3.3). 

THE FISHES OF THE KERN RIVER REGION. 

There are not many species of fishes in the Kern River region. Two species of 
suckers, three of minnows (Cyprinida?), and two of trout seem to be all that have 
been recorded. But the sti'eams and lakes have not been carefully investigated and 
it is quite probable other species will be found when more thorough collections are 
made. Of the two suckers only one was obtained by us. Specimens of the three 
minnows were secured. As regards the trout, our collections contain more species 
than have hitherto been recorded from the region, there lieing at least six represented. 
They are all save one regarded a.s belonging to the rainbow trout series and are 
as follows: (1) the Kern River trout [Sifli/w gilhertl), occurring only in Kern River; 
(2) Salmo ag7ia-honita, native only to the South Fork of the Kern and its tributa- 
ries, i)ut introduced from it into Cottonwood Creek; (3) the golden trout of Volcano 
Creek, which does not occur in any other stream; (4) the Soda Creek trout, found 
throughout the basin of the Little Kern and in Coj'ote Creek and introduced 
from Soda Creek into the headwaters of the South Fork of the Kaweah; (5) the 
common rainbow trout {Salmo shasta), widely introduced by the state fish commis- 
sion into the waters of the state and found by us in the headwaters of the Middle 
Tule, the lower course of the South Fork of the Kaweah, the Middle Fork of the 



16 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Kaweah, and in Marl)l(" Fork: and («) the common cut-lliroat {Salmo clarHi), inti'o- 
duccd into at loast sonir streams of the region and loiuul by us in Marble Forli of the 
Kaweah. 

The Coyote Creek trout are somewhat anomalous in that some of them show 
considerable red on tlie throat. It may become neccssai-y to separate these i-cd- 
throated trout as a distinct species, but for the present the (piestion of their distinct- 
ness is held in abeyance. 

The following- is a systematic list of the fishes thus far known from tlie Kern 
River region: 

I. Pantosteus araeopus (Jordan). Hdrd-lieiuJ Sm-l-fr. 

The type specimens of this sucker were collected by Prof. 11. W. Henshaw in 
1876 in the South Fork of Kern River. They are No. 312ii8, U. S. National Museum, 
and are 13 and 9 inches long, respectively. Other young examples were obtained 
by Mr. Henshaw in Carson River, Nevada. In 1891 Mr. Vernon Bailey collected a 
specimen in Reese River, Nevada. These are the oidy specimens that iiasc been 
recorded. The species was not seen by us. 

Caloslomun arxopim Jordan, A Synopsis of the Family Catostomidx, in Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., XII, 17:;. 
1878. Jordan & Henshaw, Report- upon the Fishes collected during the years 1875, 187(), :im1 
1877, in California and Nevada, in Annual Report of Chief of Enfiineers, U. S. Anny, for ls7s. 
Appendix N N, p. 1610, pi. in. CilL.Tt, Kept. ..n Fishes of the Death Valley Expe.litioii, in 
North American Fauna, No. 7, p. 22n, .\l:iy :;i. isii;;. 

Pantonleus ar.ropuK. Jerdan & Fvermann. I'islies Moitli and Jliddle .-\.M]erii-a, 172, 1896. 

2. Catostomus occidentalis Ayres. Sacrummto Sncl-er. 

Common in all the larger streams of the region. Several were seen in the 
Middle Fork of the Kaweah near Threerivers and in the North Fork at Redstone 
Park. One of our party caught one with his hands in an irrigating ditch near Red- 
stone Park July 11. Exceedingly abundant in Kern Lake and common in Kern 
River in all suitable places. At the head of the lake is a good deal of gras.sv border 
in water up to IS inches deep. In this the suckers were common and many were 
seined. In the lower part of the lake on the west or right side are many logs l^'ing 
in water 1 to 6 feet deep. Among these logs large suckers were very abundant. 
When not disturbed they lay quietly in one place or swam slowly about at tiie 
surface, nosing around evidently in search of food, sucking off the algae growing on 
the logs. Sometimes they might be seen even lying on top of logs that were entirely 
submerged. As many as twenty or thirty might be seen in one bunch, and there 
must have been more than a thousand all told among these logs. Some of them 
were veiy large, certainly at least 2 feet long. One example, 23 inches long, had the 
scales 10-70-9; dorsal 12; anal 8; upper lip with 2 rows of papillse, the lower with 



3. Mylopharodon conocephalus (Raird & Girard). Kdinul,. Clml,; ^•Lalc Fixh."' 

This lish was found in all the forks of tiie Kaweah immediately above Three- 
rivers, anfl doubtless occurs even nK)re abimdantiy below that place. The largest 
and most numerous examples were seen in the Middle Fork. It will take almost 



THK (JdLDEN TRdTT. 1 ( 

any kind (if lure. Kxaniplcs wi-w. taUon witli wornj, tn.lliny- spcon. ami arlilicial Hy. 
It pos.scHses some gajiic qualities, raiikino- wit.h the Oregon cliiili in tliat respect. 
Both of these species are locally called ''lake tish" or "Make trout." i\ idcntiy from 
tiie fact that thoy were formerly very ahuiidaiit in Tularr Lalvf. from which in 
spring they ascended the streams in great numhcrs. 

4. Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Kicliardsou). 
s,/,>,nrns/,: s,u;;i„n;if., I'ihr: ■-L„k< /Tx/,." 

This large minnow is al.undiint in the lower portions of all the forks of the 
Kaweah. We saw it at all the fords, and specimens were obtained from North Fork 
at Redstone Park and from Middle an.l South forks near Threeri vers. They were 
caught with worms, artificial fly, and trolling- spoon. Though they would rise to 
the fly the}' pi-eferred worms, which the}^ devoured ravenously. One of our party 
took with the spoon several large examples, one 2 feet long, w-eighiiig (j pounds. 
.\notli(>r, taken July 13 by Britten Brothers from the main Kaweah, was 28 inciies 
long and weighed 7.25 pounds. It was a female full of nearly ripe eggs. The 
larger examples of this species are quite game and make a veiy good tight. 

With the preceding this also is locally called "lake tish" or •'lake trout." Tiie 
people of this region, however, seemed to know very little about these hshes. Tiiey 
consider them hoiiy and rarely eat them. 

5. Rutilus symmetricus (Baird & Girard). 

Head:',.s: depth 4.5; eye 4.3; snout 2.7: .scales 12-62-7: D. '.': A. S; teeth 4-.5, 
hooked and with a narrow grinding surface. Three specimens in the collection from 
South Fork of the Kaweah aho\-e Threeri\-ers July 11. where it was common. 
They are 4 to 5.5 inches long ami are cjuite dark in coloi'. The two smaller speci- 
mens have the tip of the lower jaw hardened into a horny sharp edge. The largest 
specimen shows only a remnant of this hardened edge. 

The species is found chiefly in shallow water. It takes tlie hook with a vim and 
will rise to the artihcial fly. hut prefers worms. 

TllF. rUOUT OF THK KKKN Kl\ KK HECIOX. 

The native trout of the Kern HivtM- i-egion represent at least four well-mai-ked 
species or subspecies, all bidongiiig apparently to the rainbow-trout si'rii's. 'I'liey 
are as follows: (1) The Kern Kiver trout (Sul,,,,, ,/ill„ffi), occurring only in Kern 
River and possibly in the lower ijortions of st)nie of its larger tributaries. The type 
locality is Kern River at Soda S))ring. This is the species from which it is believed 
all the other native trout of the Kern basin have descended. (2) The Soda Creek 
trout, nati\ e to Soda Creek, Wet Meadow Creek, Little Kern River. Coyote Creek, 
and possibly other small western tributaries of Kern River, and introduced from 
Soda, Creek into the headwaters of the South Fork of the Kaweah at South Fork 
Meadows, and elsewhere. (3) The South Fork of Kern golden trout (SaliKo ni/na- 
hnii'itii). described originally from Cottonwood Creek, into which it had been 
intro<luced. but native oidy to the South Fork of the Kern and its trd)utaries. 
(4) The golden trout of Volcano Creek. This is the real '-golden trout" and is 
nati\ e only to the one stream — ^^llcano Creek. 

■ B. B. F. I'.iur—:' 



18 lilTLLETIN OF THE lUTRKAlT OF FISHElUEi^. 

Comparin<i- the trout from tlicsc vtirious strciiiiis the followiriu- statonicnfs ap|)rar 
to 1)6 jiistitied; 

(1) Tlie Kciii liivci- trout is piofusc^lv ami closclv spotted o\cr tlif ciitiiv Ixxlx. 
lica.l. and on all the tins, and the Imllv is not ri.-lijv coloivd. 

(L') Thr Soda Civ.. k trout has iiuuicn.us Idark spots on head. hack. an<l rnli'v 
Irno-tli of side hoth ah,,v,. and h.dow lateral line, hut the pectorals, vent rals. and anal 
are without spots, and the heily is rich orauyc in (H>lor. 

(;>) The South Fork of Korti golden trout is sparsely .spotted on caudal [)cdiuicli'. 
along side only above lateral line, and on top of head. There are no spots Ixdow the 
lateral line. The belly is rich orange. 

(4) The golden trout of Volcano Creek is entirely without sj)()ts, except on 
the (-audal peduncle and occasionally a few aboxe the lateral line posterior to the 
dor.sal tin. The belly is a very rich cadmium. 

The different species may be described in detail as follows: 

6. Salmo gilberti (Jordan). K,;rn Rhwv Trout; (i',lh,;rt Trout. 
1 1 'late \v. ) 

Head 4 in length to base of caudal: depth ?,Xk eye :> in head: snout 4.;;: max- 
illary l.tj; mandible 1.;!; preorbital 'iU; scales small, about Hi5 in lateral line; dor- 
sal tin with 14 rays; anal 12. Body stout, moderately compressed, deepest slightly 
in front of dorsal; head long, conic, snout pointed; mouth large, maxillary long and 
narrow, reaching more than an eye/s diameter beyond the eye; mandible slightly 
cur\ed; teeth on lower jaw rather strong, wide-set, in a single series, those on max- 
illary strongest; caudal peduncle stout, its least depth equal to snout and eye. Fins 
all well developed; origin of dorsal midway between tip of snout and tiase of tail, the 
longest raj^ nearh^ two in head, base of fin slighth' greater than height; caudal broad, 
truncate, the lobes e(|ual, exceeding height of dorsal; base of anal equaling height of 
fin, also height of dorsal; origin of ventrals somewhat posterior to that of dorsal and 
much nearer base of caudal than tip of snout, longest ventral ray equal to longest 
dorsal ray: longest pectoral ray exceeding by one-fourth the height of dorsal. 

Color ill life, head, body, and fins everywhere profusely and rather uniformly 
covered with small black spots, thdse on body .stellate, those on fins oblong, those on 
head roundish and more sparse; inner half of ventr-al and pectoral less spotted; 
anterior rays of dorsal scarceh' tipped with lighter; anal iind ventrals with the 
anterior rays white at ti}); adipose dor.sal olivaceous with three or four black sjKjts; 
side })roadly rich rosy red, broadest and brightest near middle, least distinct on 
caudal peduiade: low.'r half of side slightly pink and [)al<- bluish: belly with slight 
irregular wash of okl gold on dirty-white ground color; back and upper ))art of side 
olivaceous with fine y.dlow. orange, or leiiion s])e(d<s; cheek and opercles rich rosy; 
little or no red on throat, no red da^li on ineiiibrane between rami of lower jaw; few 
spots on side of head: top <d' head olive green, w.dl covered with round lila(d< .s^wts. 

The above description and the accompanying colored plate (i)l. \a ) from an 
example (a male) lS.2o inches long and weighing 3.5 ])ouuds caught by me duly ID 
in Kern River about one-half mile above K(>rn Lake. 

Another example, weighing 2 pounds, taken the same da\ at the lower end of 
Kern Lake, was described as follows: Color on back and ui)i)er third of side ver\ 



S. B. F. 1905 




THE OOLDKN TK( >TTT. IS' 

(lark olivacc.nis: middlo of side with a broad pale rosy l)aiul from cheek to eaudai 
tin; lo\v(M- side dirty silvery; l)elly white with dirty wash; back and entire side closely 
(•o\-ered witli small roundish black spots, scarcely less numerous on middle and lower 
pait of side ta level of ventral than on back; spots coverin.o- top of head, 2 rows 
below eye. one spot on opercle. <; on maxillary, and about In on tip of lower jaw; 
cheek and opei-cles rosy; lower part of head faint rosy, with dusky wash; vertical 
lins all thickly spotted; upper half of pectoral and ventral spotted; anal ;nid ventral 
li[iped anteriorl}- with white; dorsal and adipose dorsal sliyhtly white-tipped; throat 
with slight yellowish wash; inside of mouth white. 

Another example (a male is inches lono). caught by one of our party in Kern 
River above the lake, had top of hca<l. backhand entii-e side closely covchmI with 
small roundish black spots, similar spots coverino- vei-tical tins and some on pectorals 
and vcntrals; cheek and op.'icles dark rosy, with a few black s])ots: general color 
dark oliva.'cous: side with modeiately distinct rosy band. 

This species is ;ibiindant in Kern Lake an.l in th(> i-iver for se\cral miles above 
the lake. It is probably coaunon in the river for. some miles below the lake, but of 
this 1 have no personal knowled_t)'e, as we did no ■collecting below the lake. As a 
iiile, the fish taken from the river are more' deeply and brightly colored and 
decidedly more game than those from the lake,' During the spawning season early 
ill the spring the fish are found chiefly in the river, but after the spawning has been 
completed they tend to run down into the lake, where they become less active and less 
highl}' colored. The large examples which w<' took in the lake weic, as a rule, more 
slender than those from the river, [irobably on account of th'3 fact that those from 
the lake were all spent fish. 

This species is said by Jordan and Kvernfanii " to reach a weight of « pounds^ 
but 1 do not recall the authority upon which the statciiienl was based. The largest 
example seen by us was the one upon which the aiiove description is based. It was 
18.-'."> inclie^ h iiig and weighed 3.5 pounds. Several other examples 14 to 19.25 '' inches 
long were caiiglit by us. The largest individual of which I have a definite record 
was caught in 1900 in the river above the lake by ^Ir. K. I ). Cox and weighed by Mr 
n. J. Cruice, both of Bakersfield, Cal. This fish was -JT..") inches long and weighed 5 
pounds 11 ounces. 

The Kern River trout is a beautiful lish. well built and synmietrieal, and very 
rich in coloration when in prime condition. .Vs a game tish it will stand easily among 
the best, but, as already stated, in the ri\cr it greatly' excels those of its kind in the 
lake. It usually takes the fly quite freely, and will, of c.mrse, take all sorts of live or 
(lit bait. Members of our party took these trout with the aitihcial fly, with grass- 
hoppeis (which they greatly preferred), and with pieces of fish or other meat. The 
larg(^ example painted was first ti'ied with a gray hackle, to which he rose once and 
then i)ai(l no more attention to it. A larger, plain hook and a good-sized gi'ass- 
hopper were substituted, with better results. Scarcely had the lure touched the 
water w hen he rose and struck most viciously, only to miss it, tlu'u turn and strike 
again more \'ieiously than befoie. This time the hook caught inside the mouth just 
under the middle of the maxillary, and then began a fight that would delight a better 

n Fishes North and Middle .\mericii. p. 502. 

ft Although the longest fish caught by us, this was a slendtT iudiviflual weighing under 3 poiuuls. 



,LI':TIN III'- TIIK nUKKAI' of KISUKKIES. 



aii-l.T tliuii I. llr lirsl .■in-led al.<Hit in a wide ciirvr. Ilicn jnin|)(M| twice. clrariiiL. 

tlir water heantihlll.V eaeli time: eil-eied a>jain. went t<i llie Ixitt ill water 1(1 feel 

d,M.|,. eaiiie tu the surfa.'e and jumped a-ain. after which ii.i more leaps wore made. 
hut he cuntiniied dasliiiie- alxiiit until linally hroun-ht to net. 

Another e-ood-si/ed <'xani|)le (2 pounds) was taken .Inly li» at the drift in the 
l..wereiid of the lak<'. This Hsh wa^ seen m\ inmiiiie- sh.wl y down tlie hlUc at ad.'pth 
of ahout ;; feet. A i-asf hroiiuht a ri-e at once. Missinj:-. he turned mid wiiue ayain. 
not with a rush, hiit .leliherately, and took the lure. lie pulled and tllfro-od vigoi- 
oiisly. rushed a hit. juiiipiMJ once, shakine- his head sava.evlv. ran inshore then out 
aKiiin. Then I reele.l him in. hut three tim.'s he dashed away before I could use the 
landing- net. This was the earnest lish (-aught in the lake, and was not nmeh inferior 
to tho.se taken in the river. .Another large e.xami)le caught in the lake July -JO l.roke 
water six times hefore coming to net. and was really M-ry game. 

Trout aj.p.-ar to he (|uite ahuii<L-int in Kern l!i\cr. hut it is doubtful whether 
they will long remain so. During the few ilays w<- w,-i-e at Kern Lak.-. six or .seven 
other parties were i-.impeil at or iieai- the lake, each parly consisting (d' from two to 
ten people. One party of two. excellent anglers and true sportsmen, had been there 
f.u- more than two m,.iiths. They lished more or le>s every day. always with the llv. 
aii.l usually tlir<-w ba(-k all they , -aught, especially the smaller oii.-s. Another party 
of two were observed to go out upon the hike every day, tie their tlugout to a snag, 
and devote the entire <lay to j(-rking out the trout. They kept it up day after day, 
and none was too small for their (-reel. On one occasion they wer(> noticed to liaxc 
at least :M> Hsli (J to l:^ inches long. .And most of the othei- parties were doing about 
the same. 

At this rate the troul (-an not long (-ontinue abundant in this stream. All fishing 
in the lake should lie pidhibit(-d. ihe dail\ (-al(-li from the river should !»> limited to 
10 tish per rod, and S iii,-lies should be the minimum legal size. 

This spe(-ies was named for Dr. Charles H. Gilbert, professor of zoology in 
Stanford rniversity, who (-olle(-ted the tyi)e .inly 13, 1S!>3, from Kern River at Soda 
Spring. 

Sabno gaivhnn <,ilhrrll .Terdan, Tliirte.-ntli l!i(-iinial Kc|.ei-t State tieani Fisli ( 'eiiiiiiissieners Califernia 

f,,rlS!):i-m (1S1I4). p. l-i:;, with jilale. 
Sulmo :ri,lrns ,,,ll,rri:. .Tenlaii ,;• Kvcrninnn, 1- ish.-s Nertli aii.l :Mi.l. Amcr., M)2, IWIH. Jordan & Kver- 

niann, AiiMTi(-aii Fe,,,l and ( ciine Fishes, I'Ul, 1!K)L', 

7. Salmo whitei Kvermaim. new species. (ioUh-n Trout of Sod<( Creel: 
(l'lat(- \vi,) 
llea.1 :\.±> in length: depth :;.(iS; eye 4,51 in head: snout ^!.:;:!: maxillary l.Tli: 
maudibh- l,t;(i: interorbital :;.."m: longest dorsal ray i',(is: longest anal ray -J. 17: 
l)e(-toral f.dC; venti-al '2.17; (-audal lobes l.tJl. liody rather stout, moderately (-0111- 
jiressed; head conic; mouth large, obli(|ue, jaws su])e(|ual; maxillary long and sleiuler. 
reac-hiiig nuu-h beyond the eye; teeth on jaws, tongue and jialatines w(dl (h'\(doped; 
(-audal peduiK-le deej). its h-ast depth ab,mt e(|iial to distari(-e from tij) of snout to 
middle of eye. Fins well (lev(-loped: origin of dorsal somewhat nearer tip of snout 
than base of (-audal liii; insei-tion of ventral about under middle of dorsal tin. Scales 
small, but noti(-eably larger than in the Vol.-ano Creek trout. 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 




THE OOLDEN TROUT. 21 

Color ill life, liack and upper part of side light olive; tride ami hack profusely 
eov(>red with small roundish Mack spots, these extending on top of iiead, vertical 
fins, and on sitle helow lateral line: side with 10 large roundish parr-marks and a 
hioadish niediiui hand ui' liolit-liri<k or terracotta red; lower part of side light 
lemon yellow with a number of hluish Idack blotches, chietiy anteriorly, somewhat 
larger than similar ones on back: belly from tip of lower jaw to ai;al tin rich orange- 
red or cadmium, richest between pectoral and ventral lins, this band the full width of 
the belly: no red dash on throat; suborbital pale rosy or purplish; cheek brassy, 
with a large dark blotch; opercle rosy orange, olivaceous above; dorsal tin with 
about hve rows of small round blacdc spots and a black border except aiiteriorl_y. 
wliere the rays are tipped with a light-i'osy border; pectoral light yellowish; ventral 
and anal reddish, with broad white edge; caudal jn-ofusely spotted with black like 
tlu' dorsal Kii. 

In spirits all the bright colors have faded, l)ut the bhudv spots remain distinct. 
These spots are largest on the caudal pedunt'le, over which they are evenly distributed. 
They are also pretty evenly distributed over the entire side and top of head; the 
space along the lateral line, however, has fewer spots. Those below the lateral line 
extend more than halfway' to the belly and are somew hat smaller than those above. 
About fourteen spots show on side of head. 

There is not nnich \ ariation in color, as shown by examination of many examples. 
In all. tht> black spots completely cover the caudal i)eduncle and the entire length of 
side from median line of l)ack to some distance below the lateral line: the top and sides 
of the hea<l are always spotted. The middle line of the side and the b(dly are always 
richly colored, the parr-marks always present, and the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins 
bright-edged. No con.spicuous red dash was observed on the lower jaw in any of the 
specimens from South Fork of Kaweah, Soda Creek, or Wet Meadow Creek. Imt 
among those from Coyote Creek were some showing considerable coloi'. 

.\ cotype was described as follows: Back and top of head light lu-own with numer- 
ous small black spots extending on dorsal and caudal tins and on side distinctly to 
lateral line and below it less plainly, those on caudal peduncle largest and blackest; 
l)Iack spots also on top of head and halfway down sides on opercles and check; 
middle of side with a broad red or orange-red band extending from just behind base 
of |ie<-toral to about middle of anal, broadest in middle portion; a large blotch <>i 
same color on opercle and some on cheek; thirteen distinct parr-marks on side, a 
row of smaller similar spots below; lower part of side Ifght brown; a broad reddish 
or orange band along ventral line from throat to vent, the anterior part yellowish; 
dorsal lin covered with small black spots except anterior u)ipi>r margin, which is light 
pink, w hole distal edge, except the pink, margined with black, not (|uite continuous; 
pectoral olivaceous, with pink tinge, overlaid with dusky; ventrals same color as 
pectorals, but the pink more pronounced and the exterior distal edge white; anal 
same as ventral, bordered with white; caudal spotted like the dorsal, but no pink 
edge; adipose same as back, margin black, oih^ spot on base. 

In alcohol all of the specimens from South Fork Meadows ■ire profusely covered 
with small, round, well-defined black spots on caudal peduncle, side, both above and 
below lateral line, and on top of head. The dorsal, anal, and ventral are light-edged 
in all. These specimens all seem to differ from South Fork of Kern specimens in the 



JZ UriJ.KTTN OF THK Hl'KKAr OK KISHKRIKS. 

oivatcr imiiilH>r of spots, and particuliirly in tlif i)rcs(Mic<' of spots t)Plow the latfial 
line. They diil'i'i- from tiie six .specinu^ns obtained in South Foi-i< of Kaweali near 
Threerivers in having more spots below the lateral line and having the sjjots much 
more nearlv round; besides, those from Threeiivers in life were decidedly dif^eirni 
ill color, as shown by the life-color notes. 

The collection contains 10 .specimens from the South Fork of the Kaweali Hi\ cr 
at South Fork Meadows and 3 from Soda Creek at Quimis Horse Camp, about ."> 
miles distant. Besides these specimens, we examined perhaps '25 others from tho-r 
two plac^es. They range in length from 5.5 to 7.75 inches and are quite uniform in 
size. They show little oi- no more variation in color than is indicated hy the pre- 
ceding descriptions. ' 

The collection also contains live specimens from Wet Meadow Creek, which are 
in some respects the finest that were obtained. They range in length from 7 to 9.75 
inches and show some variation in spotting. The smallest two of these are more 
sparsely spotted than any of the others; nevertheless they show spots the full length 
of the side and some spots below the lateral line. The largest specimen (cotype No. 
53398, U. S. N. M., 9.75 inches long) is rather more completely spotted than tlie 
type. The two other Wet Meadow Creek specimens (cotypes), although laigcr than 
the type, are spotted v^ery much like it. 

A large number of examples were examined from Little Kern, taken ciiietiy in 
the vicinity of Broder's cabin; of these, three were .saved. They agree in all 
respects with those from South Fork Meadows. 

Forty-four excellent specimens were obtained from Coyote Creek. These were 
taken at various places between the headwaters and the mouth of the stream. This 
creek has several falls which doubtless at present are barriei-s to the ascent of iish: 
nevertheless trout are found throughout the entire length of the stream, and are 
abundant immediately below and above each of the falls. Evidently the peopling of 
tiie entire stream was accomplished before the falls were formed or became impass- 
able barriers. An examination of the large series of specimens shows them to l)e a 
\ery perplexing lot; the amount of variation among them is very great, and it is not 
without hesitation that I refer them all provisionally to xS'a/w^rv -wlutel. In general 
they all agree essentially in being well spotted, although occasionally a specimen is 
seen with fewer spots below the lateral line. The spots, however, vary consideralily 
in size; in some they are larger than in the South Fork Meadows tish, in others they 
are smaller; in many the spotting is more complete. In life some examples were 
([uite dark in general coloration, and several .showed red or yellow between the rami 
of the lower jaw. An effort was made to see whether these differences could be cor- 
related in any way with different particular parts of the stream, and there is consider- 
able evidence that such correlation can be made. It is believed that all the specimens 
taken between any two falls agTce better among themselves than they do with those 
from any other portion of the stream, and it seems that we have here a number of 
differentiations now in progress which promise to become of taxononiic value. For 
the present these trout are all considered to l)e conspecific with those from South 
Fork Meadows and Soda Creek. 

As stated elsewhere in this report, {\w headwaters of the South Fork of the 
Kaweah were orio-inallv without trout and were stocked witii Iish from Soda Creek 



THK OdLDEN TROUT. 28 

at Quiiins Horse Cainji, and tliis species may tliei'efoi-e very [)roperly he called the 
Soda Creek trout. It is known to reach a length of aliout Lt) inches, takes the tly 
readily, and is a j^ood tighter. Though less briiliantl}' eoloi'ed than the golden trout 
of Volcano Creek, it is in every respect a beautiful and attractive fish. 

Type, No. 53065, U.S.N.M, a specimen 7.75 inches long, taken in the South 
Fork of Kaweah River in South Fork Meadows, by the writer, July 15, l!)0-t. 
Cotypes: No. 53399, U.S.N.M., 7.25 and 7.5 inches long; No. 1252," Bureau of 
Fisheries, 6.5 inches long; and No. 9254, Stanford University, 6.25 inches long. 

I am pleased to name this beautiful trout for Stewart Edward White, author of 
The Blazed Trail. 

8. Salmo agua-bonita (.lordanl. Goldn Tnntf of S.o,it]i Farh nf K, ru RJnr. 

Head 3.68 in length; depth 3.85; eye 4.4 in head; snout 4.4; maxillary 2.09; 
mandible 2.00; interorbital 3.66; longest dorsal ray 2.09; base of dorsal l.S; longest 
anal ray 1.69, pectoral 1.63; ventral 2.00; caudal lobes 1.46; base of anal 2.1. Body 
stout, moderately elongate; head short, snout blunt; mouth moderate, maxillary 
extending somewhat beyond orbit, relatively broader than in the Kern River trout; 
teeth on jaws, maxillary, palatines, and vomer well developed; tins moderate; caudal 
pedunc^le compressed, its least depth equal to distance from tip of sno\it to posterior 
edge of pupil; scales relatively large. 

Color in life, back and upper part of side light olivac(^ous; entire liody abo\e 
lateral line, including head, sparsely covered with rather large roundish black spots, 
these extending below lateral line on caudal peduncle; spots on side anterior to dorsal 
tin usually few; usually a few spots on median line of back between origin of dorsal 
and head; snout and top of head usually with a few spots; 2 or 3 spots sometimes 
on side of head; middle of side with a somewhat distinct rosy band, plainest at mid- 
dle; parrmarks always present; side below lateral linfl light golden yellow; belh' 
scarlet, brightest from ventral halfwa}^ to isthmus; under side of head, except jaw, 
reddish orange; cheek light golden yellow anteriorly, ros\' or coppery posteriorly; 
dorsal and anal iins profusely spotted, the other fins with no spots, the anal dusky; 
adipose fin with edge black, and 2 small black spots; anterior dorsal rays tipped with 
reddish orange; ventrals and anal red, tipped with orange white; pectoral t»i-onze. 
The aV)()ve description chiefly from a specimen 7.75 inches long. 

Another example S.5 inches long was dark olivaceous above, had few spots in 
front of anal tin. and th()s(> mostlj' posterior to anterior base of dorsal tin; a few 
spots on top of head; caudal peduncle with numerous spots, both above and below 
lateral line; parr-marks large and distinct, 11 in number, a few small detached spots 
similar in color bek)w them, and 1 to 3 such spots on side of head; lateral liand rat licr 
indistinct, of a brick-red color, extending from middle of anal fin to aliout midway 
between front of dorsal and head ; side below lateral band light golden yellow ; belly 
reddish from throat to anterior edge of anal fin, the triangle just behind isthmus 
bounded by whitish; branchiostegal region rich orange; lower jaw grernisli yellow 
(the stipple marks greenish); opercle and preopercle with a coppery tinge: anterior 
portion of cheek light gt)lden yellow; dorsal and caudal fins with numerous black 
spots; adipose dorsal edged with Mack and with W round l)lack spots; other fins 



J4 KrLLETIN OK THK HnilKAI' <IK KISHKKIKS. 

iiniiiiiciilulc: aiitcrini- rays of il.irsal a.i.l anal and ..utrr niv-- n( vmlrals with wliilisli 
..i-anuc til)s: iHH't..nil Lnu,/..': \vnli-aU ivd.lisli; anal -ivcnisl, l,r,,n/c. 

An examination of nnuicrous cxaniplcs sliows some slioht variations in tiic rohn-s. 
The ]iair-inarks arf> soiiictinics less rcHiilai'. and the (wact shade of the briolit lalnal 
hand and the color of the Ixdly \ai\- sDniewhat. These, however, are simi)ly dillVr 
enees in intensitj' rather than in jiattein. The extent of the spotting on the Ixidy is 
the best diagnostic character. Th<' South Fork of Kern trout are almost invarialilv 
well spotted, not only on the caudal peduiude hut also along the sideahove the lateral 
line, at h^ast as far forward as the front of the dorsal tin. There are also usually a 
few spots on the anterior part of side and along median line of ))ack l^etween dorsal 
and head; snout and top of head spotted, and usually a few spots on side of head; hut 
thei-e are tio spots l)elow the lateral line except on the caudal peduncle. 

The type and a eotype of this species, which I ha-ve examined in the National 
Museiuu, consist of two specimens 7 and 8 inches long, respectively. The larger 
si)ecinK>n is in rather bad condition and shows no spots distinctly e-xcept on the 
<aii(lal peduncle. The other and betlei- specimen shows plainly a nundier of spots 
along the side above the lateral line, even to the gill-opening. A colored sketch of 
the specimen which Dr. Jordan took as the type has l)een kindly loaned to me })y 
Dr. C. H. Gilbert. The di'awing is \)y K. L. Ames and is labeled '"Type of Suliiio 
(KjiKi-himlta"' in Dr. Gilbert's writing. This drawing shows a number of spots along 
the side above the lateral line even forward to the gill-opening, and was e\ idently 
made from the smaller and better preserved specimen in the National Museum. 
This specimen is therefore certainly the one which Dr. Jordan took as his type of 
the species and agrees very closely with the majority of the large series (39 exam- 
ples) of specimens in my collection. Of my 31> specimens all l)ut .5 are more or less 
]irofusely spotted above the lateral line along the entire length of the side and on top 
of head and snout. 

In the National Museum are 2 specumens (No. -K5120), collected in Cottonwood 
Creek (into which the species was introduced from South Fork of Kern) September 
I'l. ISitl, by Basil Hicks Dutcher for the Biological Survey. Department of Agricul- 
ture. These specimens are (>..^) and 7 inches long. Tlie smaller one still shows a 
number of dark spots along si(h' above the lateral line at least as far f(U\vard as the 
beginning of the dorsal. In the other the spots have faded and are not distinct 
except on the caudal peduncle. Two other specimens (No. 4G121) are in the National 
.Museum, collected in 1>S!I1 by Mr. F. Stephens, also for the Biological Survey, in 
the South Foi'k of the Kern at al)out »',.5nu feet altitude. They are 4.."') and (!.-J.^ 
inches long, and each is profusely spotted above the lateral line for entire length of 
body aiul on snout and top of head. 

The first record of trout from this portion of the Sierras is that l)y Jordan and 
Henshaw in the Report of the Chief of Engineers of the Army, for ls7S. In thns 
rcjiort a single specimen (No. I7l(i7, V . S. Nat. Mus.) is recorded. It was caught 
in ls75 by Mr., H. W. Henshaw from the South Fork of Kern River. Kern County, 
C!al., and was identified as Siiliim Jriihiis. 

Not until seventeen yeai's later did other .specimens from this locality come into 
the hands of any ichthyologist. In Is!t2 Dr. David S. Jordan received three small 
trout from Mr. W . II. Shoeklev, of San Fi-ancisco, to whom they had been sent by 



)LDEN TR( 


)UT. 




lissioiicr () 
Inyo ( 'oiiii 


f Neva 
tV, ('ill 


da. wh 
. The 



thp: 

Mr. (;«.ri.-e T. Mills, state lish .■..minissioner <.f Nevada, wlm had iveeive.l tli 
from Mr. A. C. Harvey, (if Lone Pine. Inyo ('oiinty. Cal. The nieimiranduni aeeoni- 
panyinu' the specimens wiien they came into Dr. Jordan's possession was to the 
erteet that the tish had heen ■• takiMi l>y Mr. llai'vey, of Lone Pine, Cat., in a stream 
ealli'd liy him ' \\'hitney ('reek" (more rorreelly N'oleano Creek), on the west side of 
tlu^ Sierras neai' .Moimt Whitney." Dr. Jortlan described these specimens as a 
new sul)speeies under the name Sit/z/m mi/J.-iss iKjiui-lioiiiln \\\ the Pro<'(>edin_i>-s of the 
V . S. National Museum for 18ii2', payv 4sl. 

In 1S!»1 membeis of the Death Valley Expedition of the V . S. Biological Survey 
collected a number of trout in this reo-ion. as follows: Mi-. \'ernon Bailey, 2 specimens 
from Volcano Creek in \\'liitney (Volcano) Meadows; Mr. F. Stevens, '1 specimens 
from South Fork of Kern Kiver, and Mr. B. II. Dutcher, -1 specimens from Cotton- 
wood Creek. These were examined l)y Dr. ('has. II. Gilbert, who repoited on them, 
in North American Fauna No. T as Siilnic //////■/.vx (Kjiia-lxiiiitit. 

In the summer of isit;; Dr. (iilbert visited the Kern Biver re,<;iou and 
obtained specimens of trout from Kern Bi\er at Soda Spi-in.u' and fi-oni \'olrano 
Creek. The former were d.'seribed l)y Dr. .lordan in ls!»4' as Salun, ,j,inuln.n 
,j;ih,i-i;.>' 

It has since developed tiiat the specimens siMit t( 
and upon which Dr. .ior.lan based his description of 
not come from Whitney (NOlcano) Creek. l)ut from 
therefore identical with the trout of the South Fork < 
the original stock of Cottonwood Creek. 

Trout seem to be abundant in the South Fork o 
few minutes at the tunnel I caught 8 good examjiles. . 
lection contains a total of 4u specimens from 4 to s 

(pialities of these trout are good. They take the Hy readily, and for their size make 
a good tight. They can apparently be taken at any time of day and with any sort 
of lure. How far down the South Fork of the Kei-n they are found is not known, 
but it is likely they occur well toward the mouth of that stream. They jiroitably do 
not attain a greater weight than one or two pounds in tlu^ South Ftirk. but it is saitl 
they reach a much greater size in the Cottonwood Lakes. I ha\c l)een told that trout 
weighing 5 pounds have been caught in those lakes, but ihi^ in'ciU vcM-itication. 

Professor Ilenshavv gives the following very interesting account of the habits of 

In tlie tril)iit;iri>'s of the Soiitli I>'orli of tlie Kern liiver these trout are found in very i;reat 
abamiance, each pool and rapid numbering its linny denizens V)y tlie score. Tliey may be talcen in 
any sort of weather, at any hour of the day, hy ahnost any kind of liait. During tlie heat of the day 
they frequent almost entirely the deeper pools, lying under overshadowing rocks or in the shade of 
^i'liic convenient log. In early morning or late afternoon they (-ome out and run more into tlie shat- 
liw < and rapids, under which circumstances they bite best and afford the finest sport, bike the 
:i\' Tiiije brook trout, the species rarely attains any considerable size, ranging from 4 to 8 or more 
inches in length. Their colors are usually very hright, and for beauty thi.s species takes rank among 
the foremost of its kind and has been well called the "golden trout." In this respect, however, it is 
Miliject to the usual variation obtaining in the family, the change of color not only accompanying a 
difference in locality, hut being plainly discernible in individuals taken in different parts of the same 



Dr. , 


•lordan 


by M 


r. Sho, 


•kley. 


S.ilii, 


» ,.yj,:. 


:x (liJII 


.i-h,ni;i 


,/. did 


("ott 


on wood 


Crei 


"k: the 


V ai-e 


if the 


Kern. 


from 


which 


'came 


f the 


Kern. 


On , 


lulv -i: 


;, in a 


. to 7. 


5 inche, 


s long. Th 


e col- 


inche 


s in lei 


igth. 


The 


game 



26 BITLLETIN OK THK BlTRKAn OK KISHERIES. 

stream not far distant. In fact, as a s|iecitic character, nil., i- in this faniilv seems to ))e at its h,wa«t 
value. 

The character of the hottoni and water itself has much tu do with this, and I remember to have 
(ished in a small rivulet on one of the suVjalpine meadows not far from Mount Whitney, whose slug- 
gish waters flowed over a bottom of dark mud, in which the color of the trout simulated very closely 
its hue; they had lost nearly all the flashing iridescent tints characterizing the same species ciiijlt 
but a few hours before in another stj-eam, and had become dull and somber-hued. Acci'Ihiimh i ml: 
this change of color was a correspondingly noticeable difference in habits and motions, and the sev. r.i 
dozen trout caught that evening for supper were taken out by the hook with the display at very little 
more gameness than would be noticed in so many horned pout. On the contrary, in the clear, rapi^l 
current of the mountain stream a flash of sunlight is scarcely quicker than the gleam of gold and silver 
seen for a single instant as the whirling waters are cut by one of these trout as he makes a rush from 
his lurking place for some chance morsel which is being borne past him. The western trout are 
rarely as shy as their relatives of eastern waters, and because of their numbers and the consecjuent 
scarcity of food are apt to be less fastidious; yet, even when most abundant, due caution must be used 
if one would be successful, and not every one can catch trout, even in the West. AVith the proper 
care in concealing oneself, a pool may be almost decimated ere the alarm will be taken, and I have- 
seen 15 fair-sized trout taken from a single small pool in quick succession. 

The species was named for Agna-Bonita Falls in Volcano (.'icck. iinder the 
erroneous supposition that the tj'pe came from that creek. 

,SV(/m<> iin/kixs agua-homla Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XV, 1892 (July 24, 189S), 4S1, Cottonwoo.l 

Creek, Inyo County, Cal. (jilbert. North Amer. Fauna, No. 7, 232, May 81, 189:'.. 
Siihiiii h-iileiis a;/ii,i-l,n„ila. Jordan ct Kvermann, Fishes North and .Mid. .\mer., I, .'lOM, Isiiti (()<-t. Mj. 
Siiliiiii iit/ii(i-li(iiiil<i, .lordan A Kvermann, American Food and (iaine Fishes, 201, I!)ll2. 

g. Salmo roosevelti Ev(M-manii, new species. 

(r„/,/rn rrnnf of V.JniHo CW,k.- Boosrrr// Tnnd. 
( Plate I. I 

Head 3.5 in length to base of caudal tin: depth 4; eye .j.ti in head; snuiit 3.4; 
maxillarv 1.8; mandible 1.5; interorbital H.T'J; L). 11; A. 11; lonuest dor.sal ray l.S; 
lunofst anal ray 1.9; pectoral 1.8; ventral 2.1; caudal lobes 1.8; base of dorsal 1.0; 
base of anal 2.(i; least depth of caudal peduncle 2.6. Body stout, moderatel3^ com- 
pressed; head conic, rather long; snout long; jaws subequal, mouth large, somewhat 
oblique; maxillary long and narrow but slightl}^ curved, extending much beyond 
orbit; teeth well developed on mandible, maxillar}-, palatines, front of vomer, and 
on front of tongue, the latter in two rows; caudal peduncle ver}- stout. Fins all 
strong and well developed; origin of dorsal midway between tip of snout and l)ase of 
caudal peduncle; ba.se of veutrals under middle of dorsal; caudal broad, strong, 
little notched when fully spread; anal with its free edge somewhat falcate. Scales 
exceedingly small, smaller than in vm\ other known species of trout, noninibricated. 
and scarcely showing unless dry; there are about 50 in an oblique series from front 
of dorsal downward and backward to lateral line, and 40 from the lateral line down- 
ward and backward to the base of the ventrals; there are about 2(>(i scales in the 
lateral line, 140 to 150 of them having pores. 

Color in life, back, top of head, and upper part of side very light yellowisli 
olive; middle of the side from gill-opening to adipose tin with a broad bright rosy band, 
the greatest width of which is about equal to greatest diameter of orbit; side below 
lateral line bright golden yellow, fading below into j-cUowish white; belly with a 



THK OOLDKN TROITT. "i ( 

l.road cadiiiiuiii or deep oranoc-n.,! hand from throat to anal tin. the- color deepest 
Ix'twecn pi'ctoial and vcnti-al: sonic red on belly between orijj-in of anal and hasc of 
(■au<lal: about \o roundish or vrrticaily o'olono- parr-inarks on iiikldle of side. uji<:n 
which apparently the rosy lateral band is superimposed; 3 of these parr-marks are 
oil the caudal pedunele posterior to the adipose tin, '2 between the adipose and dorsal 
fins, -2 under the dorsal, and 3 anterior to it; between the tirst and second larg-e parr- 
murks and somewhat below them is a small round spot of the same color, and there 
is a similar one between the fifth and sixth spots; cheek and opercles bright rosy, 
edged posteriorly and below with yellowish, an olivaceous blotch on upper part of 
cheek and a small black spot on upper part of opercle; region about eye olivaceous 
yellow, esjjecially bcdow; lowt>r jaw rosy, with some yellowish, membrane between 
rami of lower jaw whitish, without rosy wash, tip of lower jaw olivaceous; mouth 
on sides and below tongue orange, whitish d-icwhci-c; side of caudal peduncle with 
about 30 small roundish black spots, these nio'^t niinierous on posterior half, there 
being only 3 anterior to the adipose doi'-al lin: rest (d' body eiitirel}' without spots; 
dorsal fin with about 6 irregular series of Miiall roundish black spots, those toward 
the distal portion largest and '■laikc'-t: general color of dorsal tin light olivaceous 
yellow, the tips of the anterioi- iay> with a broad iiiargin (d' whitish orange; adipose 
dorsal olivaceous, narrowly bordered with black, and with 2 small round lilacd^; spots; 
caudal tin profusely spotted wilh black, the spots arranged irregularly in about S or 
1(1 vertical i-ows; those at the lia^e blackest and roundest, those on the distal edge 
somewhat linear, those on the outer edges of the lobes extending forward onto the 
dorsal and \ cntial lines of ilic caudal peduncle; general color of caudal lin yidlowish 
and olivaceous, the lower lobe somewhat rosy; pectoral red, somewhat lighter than 
lateral band; ventral reddish, the anterioi- rays edged with white; anal reddish with a 
little orange, the anterioi- half or two-thirds broadly edged with white. 

There is not iiuich variatiini in color, except such as is i)roliably <lue to difference 
in age; the rosy lateral band, the parr-marks, and the broad rich cadniiuiii l)and on 
the belly are characteristic. The \ariation in the black spots is inconsiderable. In 
the 29 specimens which I have examined criticallj' 15 do not show any spots wdiateviM- 
anterior to tlie adipose tin, and only 2 of the remaining 14 show any spots anterior 
to the dorsal tin, and thes(> are obscure and few in number. In one large s])ecinien 
there are but li' to 14 spots on tiie caudal peduncle: in anotlier somewhat smaller 
example there are but t> spots. 'J'he dorsid, anal, and ventral tins are iinariably 
edged with brighter color. The head in the males is longer and more pointed; the 
maxillary is also longer than in the females. When well spread the caudal fin is 
usually slightly lunate or slightly notched, but in some examples it is almost truncate 
or square. In alcohol all of the liright colors soon fade, the parr-marks, black spots, 
and ])ale edges to the dorsal, anal, and ventral tins persisting. The general color of 
the body then becomes a dirty yellow ish white or in some spe(-iniens brownish. In 
some eases the parr-marks almost wholly disappear. 

The type specimen of this species is No. 53064, U. S. Nat. Mus. Cotypes are 
No. 53400, U. S. Nat. Mus.. No. 1251, Bureau of Fisheries, and No. i»255. Stanford 
University. It gives nie great pleasure to nana* this .superb trout for Theodore 
Roosevelt, in nN-ounition of his a(-ti\e interest in tisli and uauie ni-otectioii. 



)i!> BULLKTIN (H'' THE KITRKAir (>K FISHERIES. 

This is the must l.r;i..lilul of all llic tn.iits: thr hrilliiii.cy and riclin(-ss .,f its 
coloration is not (•((uaicd in any otlnr known six'cics: tlic(lciicate golden olive of tiir 
head, back, and upper par( of the side, the clear lioiden yellow along and below ilii> 
lateral line, and the niarvcionsly lieh cadniinni of the under parts fully entitle this 
speeies to l)e known al)Ove all olheis as //,,' oolden trout. Jn form it is no less 
l)eautiful; its lines are perfect, the li^•^ laroe and well proportioned, and the caudal 
])eduncle strono-; all fitting it admirably for life in the tui'bulent waters in which it 
dwells. It is a small lish. howevci'. The largest example collected by us was ill 
inches in total length and the heaviest one weighed 10 ounces. It is probable that it 
never attains ;i greater length than 14 inches or a weight of more than a pound in \'ol- 
cano t'r.M.k. 

The golden trout is native to \'olcano ("reek alone, and oc.a.rs throughout the 
entire length of that stream. \Ve caught speciuK-nsat various places from abo\-e the 
tuimel to below the lowermost of the series of falls near the ni..uth. and it was seen 
in all suitaljle places from the tunnel to the headwaters above Volcano Meadows, 
whei'e the elevation is more than lb, (too feet. Although the iish runs down N'olcano 
('reek even to below the lowest falls, it a])parentl\- does not venture out into Kern 
!\i\er: no e\anii)lcs were seen there. It is a creek fish and ajjpears to keej) within 
the p<'culiar environment of the small stream. Although we obtain.'d a sjjecimen at 
the foot of the lirst falls, it is doiditful whellu rmany individuals venture so far down. 

Trout are al)undant in Volcano Ci-eek: c\i'rv pool at the foot of a fall or bidow 
a cascade or rapid was .-ure to contain a number of them, and othei-s w'cre seen on 
the riffles and under the pi'otecting banks. They were most numerous above the 
tunnel, probably because fewer toui-ists visit that portion of the stream. The tish 
there, iiowever, were usually small. The largest, tiuest (>\amples were seen between 
the natural bridge and the lower falls. 

As a game iish the golden trout is one of the best. It will ris(> to any kind of 
lure, including theartiticial fly. and at any time of day. .V No. 10 fly is large enough, 
lierha])s too large; No. li! or e\-en smaller is much hetter. In the morning and again 
in the evening it would take the fly with a rush and make a good tight, jumping 
fre(|uently when permitted to do so; during the middle of the da\- it rose moi'c 
deliberately and could sometimes, be tempted only with grasshoppei's. It is a lish 
th.at dois not giv.- up soon l)ut continu(>s the light. Its unusual breadth of tins 
and strength of caudal peduncle, together with the turbulent water in which it dwells, 
enable it to make a tight e(|Uiding that otlered by many a larger trout. 

Although now^ abundant the golden trout can not long remain so unless atlorded 
some protection. The attractiveness of the Kern River region because of its scenic 
beauty is sure to appeal m.ire and mor(> to tourists every yeai-. Practically the 
entire length of Volcano (.'reek is easily accessible from the trail from Kern Hiver 
to Mount Whitney, and that poi-tion above the tumiel is covered by the trail from 
tlie east side of the divide. As a matter of fact one can in one day travel the entire 
length of the creek and have time to stop frequently to drop a fl_v into the pools 
which he passes. The trout are r(>ailily found and are easily captured, as they are so 
voracious and rise to the lure so rea<lily. T\\ o years ago the memliers of the Sierra 
Club and others accompanying th"m on their annual outing to ^Nlount Whitney are 



THE (ioI.DKPf TKOITT. 2'.' 

said to have taken COO or 7oo trout from Volcano Creek in one day." During the 
time our party was on Volcano Ci-eek three to five other parties were camping at 
different places along its course. Each of those parties contained two to ten persons, 
and they all depended chiefly on the creek for their meat. How fnany trout were 
taken daily there is no means of knowing, hut the number must have been very largi'. 
One party of three acknowledged that they ate 6.5 one day for supper. 

ItECOMJIENDATlOXS FOU THE l'ROTE(n'H)N OF THE COEDEN THOUT. 

Provision for the protection and preservation of the golden trout should proceed 
along two lines, viz: Through fish-cultural operations and ]>y imposing I'cstrictions 
on its capture. 

^[rtip'<yiil pr<>/i'i,/<it!(iii. — Th(> golden trout is a hardy fish and stands transporta- 
tion well, as shown liy th(> following statement of Mr. Chas. A. Vogelsang, chier 
deputy (if the California fish commission: * 

Some years ai;ii . I. Suli Johnston, of Visalia, Tirouglit dnwn some s])cciiiiens of golden trout, but 
iKit lieiiig thoroughly lauiiliar with the best methods to follow in transporting them he lost about four- 
lillhs of the number. The remainder were placed in our Sisson hatchery, where we kept them for 
[in >l lably eight months, and where we expected to take spawn from them, but an accident to our water 
sii|i|ily cost us these tish. We hope this coming summer to send one of our experienced men into the 
Whitney Creek region to collect as many four-inch to six-inc'h trout as we can, transport them to Sis- 
stin, and place them in our hatchery ponds to be used as breeders. 

In tlii^ spring of 1905 Mr. Earl L. Morris, of Stanford University, visited Cot- 
tonwood Creek and caught with hook an(^ line and seine 50 trout, which he took 
without loss to San Francisco, where they were exhibited for several weeks at the 
Exposition of the Pacific Fish and Game Association. They were then transferred 
without a fatality to the Sisson hatchery, where thej' will be propagated by the 
California fish commission. This is the South P'ork of Kern tiout, but it is i)roljably 
no more hardy than the Volcano Creek species. 

In May, 1!H)6, the United States Bureau of Fisheries attempted to estiiblish a 
temporary station on Volcano Creek for the purpose of taking the eggs of the golden 
trout. It was found that the spawning season was practicalh' over before the station 
could be installed, and the matter was postponed temporarily. A number of fish 
(iiti-t) were captured, however, and carried practicallj' without loss on pack animals 
to Lone Pine, whence they were shipped in care of a special messenger to the Lewis 
and Clark Exposition at Portland. Through a mishap, however, the entire lot was 
lost en route. 

Although the efl'orts thus far made ha\e not proved successful, it is not believed 
that an}' real difficulties exist to prevent the carrying of trout from Volcano Creek 
to one or more of the trout hat(;heries of the Bureau, and it is hoped that another 
ellort may soon be made. If a immber of tish can once lie gotten to one of the 
hatcheries it will l)e easy to propagate the species artificially. 

There are many small moiuitain streams in the Western States where this fish 
would certainly thrive. It should also be tried in certain streams in the East. A 
small, clear stream, with low temperature and fine gravelly bottom, preferably of 



80 BULLETIN OK TH K HURKAH OK FTSHKRIER. 

irnuiite, is reconimeiulcd. It would lie exticiiicly iiitciestiiiji- to try t\w species in 
several streams and iiute the etleetsof the new cnviroiiiiiciit. The possibility of add- 
ing- such an attractive fish to the streams of other states is well worth a serious etfori . 
It is also desirable to establish a temporary hatchery on Volcano Creek where ooy^ 
may be taken and ej'c^d for shipment. 

Another thing that sht)uld be taken up at once, profcralily by tiic Calirornia 
Hsh conuiiission, is the stockinjjf of barren waters in the Kern lli\cr rejjion. As 
stated elsewhere in this report, there ai'C manj' small streams and lakes, of tiic 
southern High Sierras that are entirely without fish of anj^ kind, although certainly 
well suited to trout. Among these may be mentioned Rock Creek, Guyot Creek, 
\\'hitney Creek and the lakes at its head, and many others. To stock these waters 
by transplanting from Volcano Creek would be a very eas}' matter. 

Protection. — As already stated, it is onl}^ a question of time, a very few years at 
most, when the golden trout of Volcano Creek will become practically exterminated 
unless it receives some protection. 

In order that adequate protection be secured, it is reconuueufled tiiat the limits 
of the Mount Whitney Military Reservation be extended so as to include the whole 
of Volcano Creek. Tliis can be done by extending the eastern boundary from the 
present southern boundary along the meridian of 118° 10' to its intersection with 
the parallel of 86^ 20', thence west on that parallel to Kern River, which should be 
made the western boundary. The northern boundary should be extended westward 
to the main fork of Kern Ri\er. This would include all of Volcano Creek, the head- 
waters of Cottonwood Creek, and South Fork of the Kern, as well as all of Rock 
Creek and Whitney Creek. When the boundaries have been thus extended, fi.shing 
within the limits of the reservation should be absolutely prohibited for three years, 
after which it might be permitted undei- certain restrictions. These restrictions 
should provide a minimum size, limit the number that may be caught, and prohibit 
all fishing during the .spawning season. 

With such regulations as these, together with the tish-cultural operations sug- 
gested, it is believed the golden trout will continue an aliundant tisli and remain one 
of the great attractions of this interesting region. 

10. Salmo Shasta .lordaii. Sj„i!<tti Tnmf: H,i'ni}>i,,r Tmnt. 

This is tiie eoniuion rambow trout of tish euitunsts, which has been introduced 
into many ditierent waters in southern California. Specimens of a trout which we 
provisionally identify with this species were obtained at the following places: South 
Fork of Kaweah River 4 miles above Threerner.s, and at Alles's ranch about 4 nules 
farther up; Middle Fork of Tule l»iv<'r in i(s headwaters; Middle Fork of Kaweali 
River just below the new power iiouse. or about 1..5 miles below the mouth of the 
East Fork: and in Marble Fork of Kuweali above the l)ridge on the road to the (Viant 
Forest. 

The following life-color notes w<Te made by Dr. Jenkins on specimens t)btained 
by liini from Marble Fork: 

Sjn'iinien F: Dark olivaceous alK)ve to white on belly: no sign of color band on 
belly; color band on side brick red, narrow, brightest in center of bod^- and indis- 
tinct at the extremities; opercle and preopercle indistinct reddish, also marks on 



THE GOLDEN TROUT. 31 

tiii'oat light ^yellowish, not conspicuous; body covered with many rather large spots 
which extend nearly to belly; dorsal with dark spots irregularly placed; tips of about 
tirst 6 rays yellowish white; caudal spotted irregularly; pectoral dusky, with outer 
portions showing yellow; ventrals pinkisli, with anterior margin white; anal reddish, 
tips of about 5 anterior ra_ys white. 

Specimen (I: Like preceding, exccjit inucii ligiiter in general color; color baud 
very faint; marks on throat almost olisolcic; pectoral pale yellowish; ventrals pinkish 
with wiiite lips; anal dusky, faint pink, with margin of white; spots on dorsal slight, 
show of white on tips. 

Specimen H: Similar to preceding in lightness of color, l)eing light gray; spots 
on body, top, and sides numerous and distinct; color band on side of body and color 
on opcrclcs veiy indistinct; thi-oat mark not distinguishable. 

S]iecimen I: Light gra}' spots numerous, small — few below lateral line; reddish 
band, throat marks, and color on opercles distinct; tins as in the preceding. 

Specimen J: Light gray, passing to white on lower sides and belly; reddish band 
evident, but indistinct in extent; reddish on opercles; throat marks conspicuous, 
reddish orange; no spots on body; spots on dorsal, but few on caudal; pectoral faint 
yellowisli; ventrals pinkish with white tips; anal faintly dusky with white tips. 

Specimen K: Similar to above, but with few spots. 

Six examples taken from the South Fork above Threerivers were in alcohol pro- 
fusely spotted on the caudal peduncle, on side above lateral line, and usually on top 
of liead with small irregular stellate l)lack spots, quite different in shape from those 
found on the trout from South Fork Meadows. The Threerivers trout also seem to 
have a shorter head. Their life color was quite different, being much less brilliant. 

An example cauglit at Alles's ranch showed side with a broad red or rosy band; 
opercle rosy; back and side above lateral line profusely and closely spotted; few 
spots on side below lateral line; nine parr-marks; dorsal with man}^ round black 
spots, the anterior edge of fin rosy; pectoral yellowish; ventral and anal dull red, 
edged with white; no red on throat. Twelve other trout were obtained at this place. 
They ranged in length from .5. .5 to 8 inches and agreed essentially in colors. Most of 
them were somewhat silvery, but all showed the rosy lateral band, the parr-marks, 
and the white or yellowish tips to the dorsal, anal, and ventral fins. 

Examples taken bj- Professor Green in Middle Tule were desciil)ed as follows: 
Back dark olivaceous or bluish; back and side covered with rather large roundish 
black spots, few and small in front of dorsal; spots on side extending to belly on 
nearly all; median line of side with a narrow i)and of light brick-red (not so bright 
nor so wide as in Soda Creek fish) from middle of jx^ctoral to middle of anal, some- 
times farther back; cheek with dusky brassy: opei'cle red above, paler below, with 
dusky wash; l)elly white, som(>tinies dirty white, no orange or red; pectoral yellow- 
ish; x'cntral dusky yellow, edged with white; dorsal same as back, with 3 or 4 rows 
of spots, anterior distal edge creamy white with some orange; margin black; caudal 
with fewer spots than South Fork of Kaweah trout; anal pale, with a few small spots 
on base; white-edged; adipose fin margined with black. 

.\nother example 8.25 inches long was described as follows: Spots on caudal same 
as dorsal; no red on lower jaw; blotches of immature trout plain; anterior half of 
dorsal edged with yellowish white; first ray and tips of 3 or 4 anterior rays of fins 



82 lUTLLKTIN (IK TIIK HIIKKAir OK KISHERIES. 

inai-iiu'fl with white; pectoral yellowish; aiitorior half of veiitial ami anal liiis red- 
(li.sh; adipo.se tin margined with i)lacl<: side not silvery except in small individuals, hnt 
irregular^ blotched with color sinnlarto innnaliirr markings; lateral hand not cdn 
tinuons, but broken In blotches on immature example and not extending to caudal 
or to cheek; color of band light brick red. lighter red on cheeks. 

Ill alcohol these trout closely resend)le those from South Fork Meadows. The 
spots, however, appear to be rather larger and less regular in form. They dillcr 
from the Threerivers trout in being decidedly more spotted Ixdow the lateral line; 
the spots, however, are of the same shape in these two groups. In lii'e these Tule 
trout resembled the South Fork Meadow trout in their bright coloration, liut it was 
noticed then that the black spots were ditferent in shape. The 9 examjiles caught ii; 
Middle Tule ranged from 5.75 to !) inches in total length, and closely resemble those 
taken in Middle Fork of Kaweah above Threeiivers. 

II. Salmo clarkii Kichardson. C,it-thn>.if Tnmt. 

Four specimens obtained from ^Marble Fork, one-half mile above the bridge on 
the road to tlu^ (iiant Forest, are evidently introduced tish and are referred to the 
above species. The following color notes are furnished by Dr. Jenkins: 

Sjiecimen H: Length, 12.25 inches. Body dark, olivaceous dusky; belly dirl\ 
white, with a show of yellow in places; sides dull coppery red, no distinct band: 
lower part of side yellowish; opercle and preopercle dull coppery red; few spots on 
the anterior part of body, thes(> f(>w being confined to top of head, a very few in 
front of dorsal; spots on caudal peiliuule and in the space between the adipose and 
dorsal tins; dorsal with \ or 5 rows of spots with a black outer margin, no white ti])s; 
caudal with about 5 transverse r iws of black spots; pectorals, ventrals. and anal 
dusky; anterior tips of ventrals white: conspicuous coppery orange band on each 
side of throat (cut- throat maik). 

Specimen C: In comparison with above, general color lighter. th(> riMldish color 
of sides indistinct and narrow: sides of head indistinct reddish: bands on throat con- 
spicuous orange; spots on body much more numerous, extending from dorsal to tip 
of snout; a few on the sides; tins like the i)receding. 

Specimen D: Lighter than C, otherwise similar, except that reddish color on sides. 
of head is more noticeable; marks present on throat, but not so consiiicucnis as in ( '. 

Specimen E: Similar to D. marking on throat conspicuous. 

INTRODUCTION OF TROUT INTO STREAMS OF THE SOUTHERN HIGH SIERRAS. 

During the last twenty-ti\e or thirty years commendable interest and activity 
have been .shown by the citizens of Tidare County in conserving, the sui)i)ly of food 
and game fishes of their portion of the state. This activity has numifested itself in 
securing consignments of trout and other .species from the state and federal gov(M-n- 
ments and in transplanting native trout to barren waters. This excellent work has 
been brought about through various agencies. In the first place, a rancher, observing 
that certain streams, apparently well suited to trout, were wholly without fi.shes of any 
kind, would undertake to stock the barren stream by tran.splanting trout from some 
near-by waters. The equipment for the work, though usually quite primitive — prob- 
ably consisting merely of a tin can, a cofleepot, or bucket— was often adeeiiiate. and 



THE GOLDKN TROUT. 33 

the tninsplanting- was suc-cessfiilly iicconiplished. Mr. Joliii Brodcr, of Redstone Park, 
has been very active in stocking- luincn waters of tills reyion, and he informs me that 
to his knowledge the following streams lia\c liccii stuikrd with trout in recent years: 
East Fork of Kaweah throughout its (Mitirc Iciioth and including; several of the 
small tributaries at its headwaters; Cliti' Creek, tributary to Middle Fork of Kaweah, 
just north of Mineral King; Wolverton Creek, tributary to Marble Fork of Kaweah 
at north edge of the Giant Fori^st: liiv Anoyo, tril)utary to Kern River, stocked by 
Edward Hurlhurt from the Litllr Kcin: Uattlrsnakc ( 'reck, tributary to Kern River, 
stocked by Mr. Kroder from the Littlr Kith, the result not known; Shotgun Creek, 
one of the headwaters of the Little Kern; Nine Mile Creek, an eastern tributary of 
Kern River which it joins below Kern Lake, was stocked from Kern River in 1897 
by Mr. Broder near the Hot Springs; South Fork of Kaweah at South Fork 
Meadows south of Sand Meadow with trout from Soda Creek at Quinns Horse Camp. 
The historj^ of the introduction of trout into Cottonwood Creek and the subse- 
quent description of the species is interesting and should be made a matter of record. 
Cottonwood Creek was originally without trout of any kind. Desiring to learn the 
facts concerning tlie introduction of the fish into this stream I interviewed or wrote to 
a number of gentlemen who were supposed to possess information bearing upon the 
tuansaction. In response to my letters several replies were received. Judge A. C. 
Harvey, of Lone Pine, Inyo County, Cal., gave a full account of tiie transplanting. 
He saj's: 

The golden trout were caught in South Fork of Kern River in a little stream in Mulky Meadow, 
just wliere the H(nkett trail enters the meadow. They were caught with hook and line by S. V. 
Stevens, A. C. Stevens, and Thomas George. Thirteen fish were eaught and carried in a coffee pot 
over the Hockett trail and put in Cottonwood Creek about a mile above the Stevens sawmill, at a place 
known as the "Tom Williams bridge." One died in transit. This was, I think, in July, 1876. The 
distance from the jilace in Mulky Meadow where the fish were obtained to the Tom AVilliams bridge 
is about :',\ to 1 miles. There was no possible way for fish from Volcano Creek to get into the waters 
of Miilk\ Meadow at that time. I have heard lately that fish from Volcano Creek had been put in 
CottoiiwM.id ( 'ivrk many years before by a man by the name of Nelson; if so, they did not live, for I 
have (ished in these mountain streams since 1870. In 1879 Mr. Stevens and I took a nice string of fish 
from Cottonwood Crei-I-;, wliieh showed that they did well; they would average about 8 inches long. 
I am positive n. > lisli « ere ever put in from Kings River, as has been claimed by some. In 1890 ( 1891 ) 
.Mr. K. H. Edwards, M. Hand, J. R. Moffet, and a man named Cook turned a little stream of the Cot- 
tonwood Creek and caught perhaps 100 fish and took them about 2J miles up to Cottonwood Lakes.' 
When they arrived at the lakes quite a number of the fish were dead. Perhaps 50 lived and apparently 
have done well. They grow very large in the lakes; some have been taken that weigh over 5 pounds. 
They are beauties and very fat, but our fish law does not quite fit the requirements of the golden trout. 
.V great many fish are taken on the riffles between the lakes in May and June, at the height of the 
spawning season, which should not be done. TIk; altitude of the lakes is about 10,000 feet, which 
makes their season short. They are very prolific. I have taken them in the latter part of August 
with spawn. 

Mr. George W. Stewart, president of the Tulare County Fish and Game League, 
gives the following information under date of October 28, 1904: 

I have been informed and have for several years been under the impression that Mr. E. H. 
Edwards, of Lone Pine, Inyo County, Cal., had planted golden trout in Cottonwood Creek. I recently 
wrote him for full information concerning the matter — the date and places where planted and the 
stream from which the fish planted were procured. I am in receipt of the following from Mr. Edwards: 
"Cottonwood Creek was stocked by Colonel Stevens, Thomas George, and A. C. Stevens in 1876 with 

B. B. F. 1905—3 



34 BULLETIN OF THE HMKEAT OK FISHERIES. 

liuh liniU}.'lil from Mulky Creek, a liraiieh of the South Fork of KeriiRiver, which runs through >Iiilk\ 
Miailows. Tlic two lakes above the falls at the North P'ork of Cottonwood Creek were stocked fou 
teen years ago (in ISi)!) hy M. P. Ihuid, K. II. Kdwanls, Manuel Rilva, Tames Aloffctt, aiul ameml.,-: 
of a government srii'rilifi.- cxpcdilinn " llial was here at that time-. Tlioc lish wcir taken li-om a small 
tributary of Cotton \v<'i»l Creek licli.w the falls." 

These two accounts agree perfectl}' in all essential respects, and it nitiy tiicrel'dic 
be regarded as established that Cottonwood Creek was stocked in isTii by Messrs. 
A. C. Stevens, S. V. Stevens, and Thomas George with trout (<SV/7///w(///(/(7-/>w///V(/) from 
Mulky Creek, a small tributary of the South Fork of the Kern; that the Cotton wo<"l 
lakes were stocked in 1891 by Messrs. M. P. Hand, E. H. Edwards, Maiuiel Siha. 
James Moffett, and B. H. Dutcher with trout from Cottonwood Creek; and that im 
other plants have been made in that creek or its branches. 

Nelson Creek, a small tributary of Middle Fork of Tule River, was stocked in 
1897 -or 1898 by Mr. J. M. Nelson, of Daunt, Tulare County, with trout from Vol- 
cano Creek. Mr. Nelson started with '22 fish, 1 of which died on the way. The 
remaining 18 were successfully jilaiited in Nelson Creek, and trout are said to ))c 
abundant in that stream now. 

■ Unfortunately the data regarding many of these tish-cultunil operations are not 
wholly complete. In a number of cases the date when the plant was made, tin 
names of the parties making it, the exact phice where the fish were planted, and, most 
unfortunately, the name of the stream from which the stock was obtained have not 
been recorded. It is particularly regiettable that the names of the .streams from 
which the trout were obtained and of those in which they were placed were not made 
a matter of careful record. 

Later, rod and gun clul>s were orgtmized in various towns and villages, and llnsi 
were and are instrumental in securing (■onsigniiiciits of fish from the state and 
federal fish commi.ssious. 

Mr. Stewart and Mr. Broder have furnished very full accoiuits uf the planting 
and transplanting that has been done in the region drained by the Kings, Kaweaii, 
and Kern rivers. According to Mr. Stewart: 

Before the work of planting was begun by the people of Tulare County there was not a trout 
between Kings River and the South Fork of the Kaweah River, in the upper altitudes of the Sierra, 
and probably the same wa.s true of the upper waters of Tule River, Deer Creek, and White River. 
These streams are all on the western slope of the range. The first planting of fish of any kind done 
in Tulare County was about twenty-five years ago, when a planting of whitefish and Eastern catfish, 
secured from the U. S. Fish Commission, was made in the waters of Tulare Lake, then a shallow body 
of water 30 miles long and 18 or 20 wide. The waters being somewhat alkaline the whitefish soon 
died, but the catfish thrived and soon populated all the streams then emptying into the lake. This 
lake, from which large quantities of fish, mainly perch, were formerly supplied to the San Francisco 
market, has almost ceased to exist on account of the divrrsioii of the water from the streams once 
feeding it for the purposes of irrigation, and sometimes iu the lallcrpart of summer disappears entirely. 

Perch are still to be found in lower Kings River ami adjacriit sloughs. The large cyprinoid, 
.\f,//„l,l„n;„luu nninnph.ihiK locally called "lake fish" or "lake tr..ut," which f..iniorly asren.lcd tlie 
slrcanjs into I hi' foothills during high water, are still found in small iiiiiiihcrs in i ho ili'cp pcn^ls of the 
Kaweah and Tule rivers. At that time (twenty-five years ago) carp wen- intro.lnrc.l into this c.miitry. 
They were kept in ponds at first, Imt escaped froTii time to timi' into the streams, and are now very 



THE GOLDEN TROUT. 



35 



numerous. They have never been ii poimUir fish here. When caught tliey are usually thrown out on 
I he bank and not carried home, an<l are seldom eaten l)y any but Japanese and Indians. 

The first planting done in the mountains was by a few ])ersons carrying rainbow trout from the 
Big and Little Kern and their tributaries in cans to the streams and lakes on the western slope of the 
mountains. Later, clubs were organized and assisted in the work, and in recent years the State 15sh 
commissioners liave supplied many thousand of small fish for planting in the barren or not well- 
stocked streams, .\mong these ('lubs have been the Visalia Sportsman's Club, the Visalia Game Club, 
tlie Eshom Valley Fish and Rifle Club, a club at Porterville, and latterly the Tulare County Fish and 
( nmie L(':i<:iie, and tile Fish and (iame Protective Association, ■■l w Inch there are liranches at Visalia, 
I'nrterville, Tlircciivers, and near Kings River. 

The first planting in the mountains of which we have any record was done by Mark Lavelle and 
Xick AVren in Mineral King Creek, the trout being brought from the Little Kern in cans on pack ani- 
mals. "Wiley AVatson, Arthur Crowley, and W. A. Ward were also among the first to carry rainbow 
troutfrom "over the divide" to the Mineral King region. They were planted in Mineral KingCreek, 
Redwood Canyon Creek, and in Kagle, Monarch, Crystal, and Lady Franklin lakes. Captains Parker 
and Lockett and Lieutenant Dean nf the Fourth U. 8. Cavalry, and other officers detailed by the acting 
superintendent of the S;(..|ii.iia and (Icncral (Jrant national parks, during several years lent valuable 
assistance in the wnrk ni -[...kinL.' i he ijiciiniain siivaiii,<, ^Ictailing men and pack trains for the purjmsc. 

No plantings havi- 1 n ni.ai. ~im i<>.-liil tliuii iIiom- ,.f grown rainbow trout taken from the Sierra 

streams. They are prolilic and several ol the smaller streams have been stocked by rainbows only, 
placed there a few at a time, and they are good strikers at the fly. 

There are still a number of streams entirely barren. Among these are Wolyerton Creek in the 
Sequoia National Park, Whitney Creek (formerly called Crabtree Creek), running from the base of 
Mount AVhitney to Kern River, and Le Conte Creek, having its source near the base of Mount Le 
Conte and emptying into the Kern. These are all large and ideal trout streams, and should be stocked 
at once. Other streams barren or imperfectly stocked, are Sherman Creek, East Branch of North 
I'ork of the Kaweah near Redwood Meadow, Horse Creek near Hockett Meadow, Mill Flat Creek, 
Sampson Creek (a triliutary of the last named), Ten Mile Creek, in the same region, and others 
unnamed. Several lakrs iKirthcast of the Mount Whitney trail lu-ai Slicfp ^fountain, three lakes at the 
head of Sugar Loaf Cnik iii tew iiship 14 south, range 30 east i Mount liialilo base and meridian) and 
a great number of laki> al.out tin- headwaters of many of thr Mnalkr I. ranches of the Kaweah and 
Kings rivers, .should lie stocked. 

In the following- tabular stat(>in(>nt; tliore iii-(^ JM-oiight tooethor all tlio records 
of plantings in this region of which I have, been able to .secure definite infornuition. 
For tl-P.«e records 1 am indebted almost wholly to Mr. Stewart and to Mr. Broder. 
Doubtless a number of plantings have been made of which we have no complete 
account, and many persons have been helpful in the work whose names have not 
been recorded. There are included, on the authority of Mr. H. S. Blood, of Angels, 
a number of transplantings made in the Sierras west of Lake Tahoe and elsewhere 
north of the region with which this report more particularly deals. 

Table shoimng transplantings of trout and other fishes in waters of the High Sierras of southern Calif oniia. 
Waters .stocked. Date. 



Big Arroyo, tributary 

to Kerii River. I 

Big Meadow Creeic 



Blue Lakes, near head ' ISM Tahoe I 

of MokeliimneRivcr. 
nine Lakes I.s7:! 



Boulder Creek. 



Edward Hurlburt .... 

F. A. Bullard, S. L. N. 
Elli.s, and fiis .sons, 
Leonard, Marshall, 
and Marvin. 

0. S. Boardman. of 



Hard. S, L. ! 
':ill, and .Ma 



36 



BULLKTIN Oi<' THE UUKKAU OK FISHKRIES. 



Tahir shuwi,,;/ Ir 



iif li-nul mill oilier Jhthes in walcrx af l)ic llir/h .SVenvr.s nf 
fonifo— Continued. 



Waters stocked. 


„.... 


Species. 


Waters from which 
obtained. 


Transplanting done 
b.v— 


Results. 




May21. 1894.. 












Young cut-throat 
trout. 

36,000 trout 

(Salmo agua- 
bonita.) 

do 

Part of 2.000 flsh . 
Rainbow trout... 

Part of 2,000 fish . 
20,000 eastern 

brook trout. 
Rainbow trout... 

Part of 2,000 flsh . 


California flsh com- 

^=-^?sL''"a^nS 
Game Club. 

Mulky Creek 

Small tributary of 
Cottonwood Creek 
below the falls. 


Sequoia Park officials, 
assisted by S.L.N. 

J. T. Walker, J. O, 
Thomas, Phil Davis, 
and Lieut. Ruther- 
ford. 

A. C. Stevens, Thos. 
George.and Colonel 

Ei'H^Edwards, M. P. 
Hand, Manuel Sil- 
va, James Moflett, 
andB.H.Dutcher. 


Successful 


National Park. 

Colony Will (via Hal- 
stead Meadows) and 
Clover Creek, all 
streams between. 

Cottonwood Creek 

Cottonwood Lakes.... 
Cross Creek a 


18'.W 

187ti 

1S91 

May 21, 1.894... 


Very successful. 


Crystal Lake 


••Over the divide"... 


Wiley Watson, Arthur 
Crowley, and W.A. 
Ward. 






Mav21,1894... 
Nov. 16, 1904.. 






Hatchery in Siskiyou 

County. 
"Over the divide"... 






Springs. 


Wiley Watson, Arthur 
Crowley, and W.A. 






May 21, 1894... 














.lune 1,1895... 

October, l.S9(; . 
19(M 








Do. 


.site of Hvde's old 

mill. 
Eshom Creek, near 

Hart's mill. 
Evelyn or (Calhoun 


97 rainbow trout . 
About 60 trout... 
Tahoe trout 

do 

do 

"Rainbow trout" 
(doubtless Sal- 
mo white! ). 

About 150 trout . . 

Sacramentoperch 

Part of a consign- 
ment of 20,000 

ParTof'2,000 fish, 

kind notgiven. 

20,000 young trout 

100 black bass.... 

20,000 young trout 
(variety not 
given). 

100 black ba.ss, 3 
to 6 inches long. 

4,000 trout 

Part of consign- 
ment of 20,000 
trout. 

Pnrf of c, nm,.„t. 


Marble Fork of Ka- 
Hock"eU Meadows.... 
Truekee River 


Elam, and S. L. n! 
Ellis. 
R. L. Hill, F. J. Hill, 
and S.L.N. Ellis. 

'T^V.f^^'eT ''"' 
Mr. Pratt, founder of 

Prattsville, Plumas 

County. 
H. S. Blood, Mark 

Mccormick, a n d 

Herman Tvrie. 
H.S. Blood, of Angels. 

and J. C. Curtis, of 

Murphys. 


Failure. 










About 1804.... 

15 or 20 years 
ago. 




Highland Lakes at 
head of .Stanislaus 

Hockett Meadows, 


Wolf Creek, Carson 
Valley. 

Soda Creek 




streams in. Sequoia 
National Park. 


Hockett Meadows.... 
State Fish Commis- 


Jason Barton 6 and 

J. W. Fewel. 
Specimens obtained 

by Dr. Jordan. 
J. S. Johnson and 

J. T. Walker. 




Hoekett Meadows. 
Indian Ditch at Wads- 






worth, Nev. 
Independence Lake . . . 


Sept. 18, 1893.. 

May21,1894... 
Summer, 1902. 
Oct., 1902 




Above the power 

house. 
Near iron bridge, 

18 miles east of 

Visalia. 
At points 25 miles 


State Uatcherv 


J. T.Walker and Jack 
Bahwell. 

J.T.Walker and a rep- 
resentative of State 
Fish Commission. 

M.L. Weaver 

J. T.Walker and Geo. 
Reinheimer. 

J. T. Walker, J. O. 
Thomas.Phil.Davis, 
and Lieut. Ruther- 
ford. 

M. L. Weaver, J. T. 
Walker, and de- 
tachment of sol- 
diers of Fourth U.S. 
Cavalrv. 

M. L. Weaver. P. M. 
Norboe, and sol- 
diers of the Fourth 
Cavalrv. 




from Visalia and 
above. 
At the iron bridge. 

Marble Fork of 


.luly 24,1904 .. 


Sisson hatchery 




which Clover 
Creek is a tribu- 

Ma'rWeFork 

Do 


Sept. IS, 189.3.. 


••Hadn.. lish in 
1891. I'bmie.l 

now plenty." 




1 throat trout. 







'lAU these plantings were made in the level San Joaquin Valle 
'Mr Barton states that he has seen no flsh below the places wli 

above. He is of the opinion that trout move up the streams until stopped 

the streams below the place where they were planted. 



' barriers, and that they 



THE GOLDEN TROUT. 



37 



Table showmrf t raiuphnitinijs of 



nt and other fishes in waters nf the High Sir 
/ornio— Continued. 



Waters stocked. 



Middle Fork, above 

power house 
North Fork... 



North Fork near 
Old Baldy and 

North Fork near 



Sept. 3, 1893 . 
Mar. 2, 1894.. 



Nov. IG, 1904. 
.\Ug. 2.1894.. 



lo.UOO young I 
Part" of 20 



Part of 50,000 
trout, (species 
not given). 



South Fork, 



South Fork, small 
tributary near 
Sand Meadow. 

South Fork, near 



about 5 mile.s 
above the falls. 
South Fork [ Nov. 16, 1904. 



Lady Franklin Lake 
Mineral King Creek. 



Mineral King Creek 

that neighborhood 
along the road. 
Mokelumne River in 
headwaters. 



Part of 50,000 



Rainbow trout. 



Part of 15,000 

small fry. 
Partof 20,000 east- 



Commissioners. 

Volcano ( f onner] v 

Whitney) Creek. 



Hockett Meadows . 



State hatchery. 




"Overthedivide" 



Trout (Sal mo I Little Kern 

whitei). 
" Rainbow trout" "Over the divide" 



M.L.WeaverandJ.T. 

Walker. 
J. O. Thomas, J. T. 

Walker, and W.O. 



T. S. Johnson, J. 
Walker, and mi 
bers of Eshom A 
ley Fish and Rifle 
Club. 

Eshom Valley Fish 
and Rifle Club. 



F. A. BuUard, S. L. N. 
Ellis, and Leonard, 
Marshall, and Mar- 
vin Ellis. 

J. T. Walker and J. O. 
Thomas. 

M. L. Weaver, P. M. 
Norboe, and soldiers 
of the Fourth Cav- 
alry. 

F.A.BuUard.S. L. N. 
Ellis, and Leonard, 
Marshall, and Mar- 
vin Ellis. 



J. O. Thoma,s, P. W. 

Davis, and M. L. 

Weaver. 
P. W.Davis and M.L. 

Weaver. 
J. O. Thomas, .1. T. 

Walker, and W. O. 

Clough. 



J.T.Walker 

F..\.Bullard, S.L.N. 

Ellis, and his sons 

Leonard, Marshall 

and Marvin. 
Wiley Watson, Arthur 

Orowlev, and W. A. 

Ward. " 
Mark Lavelle and 

Nick Wren. 
Wiley Watson, Arthur 

Crowley, and W. A. 

Ward. 
M. L. Weaver and 

Charles G. Wilcox. 



,\bram Ritchie. ofB 
Trees, John Christy, 
of Jenny Lind. 



'Notprolificbut 
grow to a large 
size." 

" Lost track of, 
but fish resem- 
bling hybrids 
taken several 
miles below 
the plant." 



38 HMLLKTIN 

Talile showitu/ Irnnxphmlin;, 



IK HURKAIT 



lU and oilier fishes hi, wiilers of the Jlif/h Sierr(m of soulhern Cali- 
fornia — Continued. 



Wiitcrs stocked. 


Date. 


Species. 


Waters from which 
obtained. 


Transplanting done 


Results. 


Monarch I^ake 


. 


"Rainbow trout" 

18 trout (Salmo 
roosevelti). 

19 fish, about 10 
inches long, 


"Over the divide"... 

Volcano Creek 

Kern River 


WileyWatson, Arthur 
Crowley, and W. A. 
Ward. 


Successful. 




]897orl898 ... 




tributarv of Tule 

,Rncr^- 

k' 1 1 


John Broderanrt Don 
Nelson. 












Mm 1 ^ 1,1 

ot'thi' Mi'<l(il.''F'.'.rk 
ot the Kuwenli. 






1 

1 rtn 




I>oso Creek, Kern 

Cimntv 
KiittleMiuke Creek, 

tiitiiitiir> to Kern 

Huer 


1892 


Part of 10.000 

"Rainbow trout" 

Part of 80,000 
young cut- 
throat trout. 


State hatchery 

Little Kern 

"Over the divide"... 

Wawona, famished 
by State Fish Com- 
missioners. 


J.T.Walker 

JohnBroder 

Wiley Watson, Arthur 
Crowley, and W. A. 
Ward. 

Eshom Valley Fish 
and Rifle Club. 

Andy Ferguson (ex- 
gamewarden of 
Fresno Co.. Cal.)« 

Jason Barton and 

l,\V Frurl 
Ml, \Vr;Ur, W . H. 

i:ii'i'-" 

''assLsted'by S. L.N. 
Ellis. 


caught the., 
since. 

Successful. 


Creek. 






Roaring River, Tulare 
County. 

■^and Meadow ■' small 




grow to a la rKi 




About SO trout 

16 black bass 

Young cut-throat 

Tahoe trout 

do 

13 rainbow trout . 


Hockett meadows 

California F'sh Com- 
mission, through 
Visalia Fish and 
Game Club. 

Walker River, Ne- 
vada. 

Hope Valley, on east 
slope of Sierras. 




lakes wet of. 
Shell Mountain, lake 
on,altitnde9,000teet. 


May2R,lS9.5... 


None seen iher, 
since. 


(juoiaNationa! Park). 




good fishing; 


^ die Fork. 

' iMi'eC.'.unly. 

Ten Mile creek 

Ten Mile Cn-ek below 
Millw.jod Trail. 


18.^9 

May 28, 1895... 






S. L.N.Ellis 

Andy Ferguson 

A.LWeston 


I^S'"'- 




7 small rainbow 

23 rainbow trout . 

Sacramento 

perch. 
Rainbow trout... 
Whiteflsh and 

catfish. 

10,000 trout fry... 

150 black bass 3 to 

6 inches long. 

l.'j.OOO eastern 
brook trout. 

10,000 eastern 
brook trout. 

Part of 10,000 
trout fry. 

Rainbow trotit 

(Salmo whihd). 

About 75 trout... 

12 rainbow trout 

24 rainbow trout 


Kings River 

do 




1894 






State fish commission . 










Tulare Lake 


1880 (about).. 




U.S. Fish Commission. 


Whiteflsh die.l 


Tule River 

At three points 
(Globe Crossing. 
Marksburys, 
McFarlands 

M?d'dfe'- Fork 


State hatchery 

Sisson hatchery 

Hatchery in Siskiyou 

County. 
do 


catfish thri veil 
well. 


.Iuly24,1904... 


F.W.VelieandH.M. 
Hathaway. 




above club house. 


J. T. Walker 

do. . . 










Iril.utiirv). 
Whitman Creek: 


1885 or 1890... 










Hockett Meadows:... 


Jason Barton and 

J. W. Fewel. 

S.L.N.Enis 

E. S. Phillips and 

S. L.N. Ellis, 




Creek. 

Woodarrt Creek 

Do 


May 28,1895 
October, 1895 


Successful. 
Do. 









I Mr. Ferguson made more than 150 plantings of l 



3 and lakes of Fresno County. 



THE OOLDEN TKOT^T. 39 

TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS IN THE KERN RIVER REGION. 
I'.y ((. P. .Iknk-ins. 

The triliiitiiries of the upper portion of the upper Kern River tind their sources 
iiinid ridocs nnd peaks of a high altitu(h> \\ liich tlirough a great part of the year 
are covered with snow. The melting of the snow furnishes the streams with their 
water supply. Even during the summer the supph' of snow is not entirely exhausted, 
and where such is the case the springs whose reservoirs were tilled from the melting- 
snow furnish the sti'eams with a constant supply of cold water, the temperature of 
which the short period of warmth through the middle of the day does not markedly 
ati'ect. Even in midsummer at these altitudes the nights are cold, the temperature 
often falling .several degrees below the freezing point of water. During the day the 
sky is more frequently overcast than is the case in most parts of California, and in 
the highest altitudes light falls of snow ai"e not uncommon. Although these latter 
usual!}- quickly disappear they add their contribution of cold water to the streams. 
These conditions insure a comparatively low tempei'ature for the waters of the 
tributaries of the upper Kern for the whole year. 

The tributaries of the Kern, however, all make great and rapid descent to the 
Kern River. This river also continues to drop rapidly through mountain and foot- 
hill regions until it reaches the plains. Through a comparatively short distance 
waters from melting snows on the summit of Mount Whitney pass by Whitney 
Creek and the Kern River, in summer from the temperature of melting snow to the 
plains below where the temperature reaches a point exceeded by few places in the 
United States. In these lower regions the waters of the river are not reinforced by 
rains or springs and are unprotected by shade of vegetation. Indeed in this region 
in summer the waters of the Kern are tinally lost by absorption and by evaporation 
after breaking up into numerous winding streams. In recent times the distribution 
of these waters is much modified by the great irrigation systems that are developing 
along the Kern. The natural features thus noted bring about conditions of tempera- 
ture which make the upper Kern with its tributaries lying in the mountains ideal for 
trout, while during a great part of the year they render the lower portions of the 
river living among the lower foothills and in the plains impossible for this fish. 

The land animals and plants along the banks of these streams have been studied 
by the members of the Biological Survey. The changes in fauna and flora from the 
.summit of Mount Whitney to the plains about Bakersfield include the extremes to 
be found in the United States. In its descent from Mount Whitney the water passes 
successively' the zones that have been designated Boreal, Transition, Upper Sonoran, 
and Lower Sonoran by the Biological Surve}'. No like stud}' of the water forms of 
animal and plant life of the streams of this region has been made, but from the nature 
of the conditions no such well-marked zones could be looked for among the aquatic 
forms as have been found for the terrestrial species. Nevertheless, a careful study 
throughout could not fail to bring out interesting facts of the distribution of the 
forms belonging to the streams. As it is, we do not at the present know accurately 
the lower range of the trout, the farthest upper range of the tishes peculiar to the 
lower portions of the stream, nor tiie range of any of the other animals that live with 
them. 



40 



BULLETIN OF THE BTTREAU OF FISHERIES. 



In the following' table are given the temperatures of the Kern River m and ahoui 
Kern Lalve, which is but a widened portion of the river caused by a partial choking 
of the stream in the recent past. The temperatures were taken in the latter part ol 
July. As can be seen, they range from .5^.5" to 61° F. Naturally the morning 
temperatures are lower than those of the later parts of the day, as also are those ol 
the lower depths of the water. The records of the maximum and minimum tempera 
tures at our camp near the shore line of the lake show that the air temperature durinL: 
the night was even a little lower than the lowest temperature of the water. wliiU 
during the day it rose far above it, liciiig. indeed, a high summer lieut. 

Table 1. — Water temperatures at Kern Lake. 



57.75 
56.0 
5.5.0 
54.75 
61.0 



52.5 I 



iif outlet; depth, 12 feet. 



The temperature of the air at Kern Lake camp was as follows: July 1!), mininmm, 
50.25"^, iiiii.xiiiium, SS*"^; July 20, minimum, 51.75°, maximum, 86.5'; July 21, mini- 
mum, 5:',.."i . niaxiinam, 81.5°. 

About 2 miles al)ove Kern .Lake, nearlv opposite to one another, there empty 
into the river two tributaries. The smaller one on the west is Coyote Creek, on the 
east is Volcano Creek. Coyote Creek rises mainly in the Coyote meadow, from 
which re<;i()ii it pass, s by ;i rapid descent to the Kern. In table ii the temperatures 
noted shew the low ilcur.'' of 43.5^ taken at the largest spring at its source. From 
this the tcniix raturc rises as the stream descends to about the temperature of the 
Kern near the mouth of the creek. The constant addition of cold water from small 
tributaries and springs prevents a greater rise of temperature. 

Table II. — Coyote Creek temperatures. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Temper- 


Locality. 


July 18 

Do 

Do 

July 21 

July 30 


l&S:::::: 

do 

11.45 a.m... 
■?P-m 


57.0 
57.0 
62.75 
58.0 
54.0 
56.0 
43.5 


']'''■.'• '".,,'!", ' . Miniiieeof smalltrihutiiries. 



In table iii are given the temperatures of Volcano Creek taken from points 
■xtending from one-half mile above the mouth of the creek to the portion which lies 



THE GOLDKN TROUT. 



41 



very near the South Fork of the Kern at the old "tunnel." This latter point i.s 
ahout half the distance from the mouth to the source. No doubt above this point, 
toward its sources, lower temperatures would have been reached. Although the 
stream lies in high altitudes, considerable stretches of it wind through meadows 
where the warmth of the sun lias o])portuMity to raise its temperature. This, how- 
ever, is compensated l)y the cold of tlio iiiglits and the frequent supply of cold water 
from springs. 

Table III. — Volcano Creek- temperatures. 



Date. 1 Hour. 


Temper- 
ature. 


Locality. 


July a.:.;., 7',,. m.'. '.'.';:: 


" F. 
86.25 
6S.0 
.■Jl.O 
55.25 
.50.5 
54.24 
.51.0 


One-half mile above mouth. 
Camp^Xo.B. 

Do. 

At the tunnel. 

" Grasshopper Meadow." 



At our camp near Twin Falls the maximum air temperature, 'Tuly 23, was 75. .3°, 
the minimum, July 24, 49.5'-'. 

The few observations made on the temperature of the South Fork of the Kern 
ill the region of its approximation to Volcano Creek show its waters to be decidedly 
warmer than those of Volcano Creek. 

Table IV. — SotUh Fork Kern River temperatures. 



Date. 


Hour. 


-t^r 


Locality. 


.July 24 .... 

Do 

Do 


1.1.5 p.m.... 
2.50 p.m.... 
2.45 p.m.... 


60.3 
65.0 
62.5 


At point where it comes close to Volcano Creek. 
At upper end of South Fork Meadows. 

Small stream flowing into South Fork of Kern River, at upper 
end of south Fork Meadows. 



Rock Creek is a considerable stream, flowing into the Kern from the east, its 
middle branch or main stream rising from Sheep Mountain, Cirque Peak, and Mount 
Le Conte. We' have but a single record of temperature from it. This is at a point 
where the trail crosses it, and is about one-third the length of the stream above its 
mouth. The temperature here at 3.15 p. m., Julj' 9-^, was 54'-. This observation 
would indicate that its waters are about the temperature of those of Volcano Creek. 

Siberian Outpost is on the upper portion of a branch, the most southern of Rock 
Creek. It is near the base of Cirque Peak. A short distance from our camp small 
patches of snow still were to be seen. Temperature of air at in p. m., July 24, 
52.0'-, at 5.45 a. m., July 25, 44.25°. 

The records of temperature of Whitney Creek were made at Crabtree Meadow 
or in its vicinity. This meadow is at a point about one-fourth of the whole length 
t)f the stream from its mouth. The record shows the temperature of Whitney 
Creek to be noticeably lower than that of Volcano Creek. This is due to its higher 
elevation, its sources in Mount Whitney being longer covered with snow, and the 
fact that even in summer when they are exposed they more frequently receive sup- 
plies from 1;he light snowstorms. 



BULLKTtN 



UK lUTREAU OF FISHERIES. 



yiii/iK'!/ Creek temperatures. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Temper- 


Locality. 


July 25.... 
JU.,^2«.... 


^S;S ;:;;;; 

do 


47.75 
16.0 
54.0 
54.0 
45.0 
46.0 
54.0 
48.0 
48.0 
55.0 
41.0 


Crabtree Meadow. 

Do. 
Near Crabtree Meadow. 
Crabtree Meadow. 
Near Crabtree Meadow. 
Crabtree Meadow. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 


Do::;:; 


.^^.d^o ;;:::; 


Do 

July 27 


6a. m 

do 


Do 

July 28 .... 
July29 .... 
July 25.... 
July 26.... 





On the summit of Mount Whitney during a storm of sleet at 12.30 p. in. July 
•26 the air was 29°; at 9.30 a. m. July 28, when-the sky was clear, it was 39.5'-. 

The largest tributary of_ the Kern River is the Little Kern. This stream 
empties into the Kern far helow the region of our investigations. Its headwateis, 
however, were examined by us and temperatures noted at the points given in tabh^ 
VI. "Its sources lie in deep canyons just west of the Great Western Divide and south 
of Farewell Gap. As seen by the table, these upper sources of the Little Kern in 
temperature correspond closely with the tributaries of the upper Kern (main stream) 
east of the Divide. 

Table \l.—Littli' Kern temperatures. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Temper- 


Locality. 


July 17 .... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

July 18 .... 

Do 


12.30 p.m... 

elop.m::;; 

7P-m 

7.36T.m:::: 


67.0 
51.0 
55.0 
.55.0 
46.0 
47.0 


Below Broder's cabin 2.5 miles. 
Camp No. 4, Broder's cabin. 

Do: 
Do. 
Do. 



At Broder's cabin on Little Kern the air was 51' at 9.15 p. m. July IT and 53 
at 5.30 a. m. July IS. The temperature of the water in Soda Creek. 1 mile below 
Quinns Hor.se Camp, at lo a. m. July 16, was 51°. 

In leaving Threerivers for the Mount AVhitney region our trail lay along the 
South Fork of the Kaweah River from near its mouth to its highest sources. This 
gave opportunity for taking temperatures along almost the whole course of this 
stream. These records, as given in table vii, show that in the middle of July tlie 
temperature ranges from the high point of 70°, near its mouth, to the low temper- 
ature of -13°, taken at Camp No. 3, South Meadow, not far from the sources of the 
river, the temperature falling as the elevation increases. During the latter part of 
the summer the lower portions of the stream no doubt show a still higher degree. 



THE GOLDEN TROUT. 
Table VII. — South Fork of Kaweah tnnperalures. 



43 



Date. 


Hour. 


Temper- 


Locality. 


.lulvlS.... 


5p.m 


° F. 
70.5 


Camp 1, .files' ranch. 




Do 








July 14 .... 


5.45 a.m.... 


62.25 


Do. 




Do 


6a.m 


62.0 


Do. 




Do 


lla.m 


62.5 






Do 










Do 


12.30 p.m... 


63.5 


About 8 miles above Camp 1. 




Do 




54.5 


Small creek some distance above last stiiti(m. 




Do 


7p.m 


60.5 






July 15.... 


6B.m 








Do 


11.50 a.m... 


56.00 


Camp No. 3, on branch South Fork, South Fork M 




Do 


3.45 p.m.... 


.is. 


One-fourth mile below Camp No. 3. 










Camp No. 3, South Fork Meadows. 














Do 


7.30 a.m.... 


44.0 


Do. 




Do 


4.45 p.m.... 


56.0 


Do. 




July 17.... 


7.30 a.m.... 


45.0 


Do. 





The only records of the temperature of the air taken along thi.s stream are those 
of Camp No. 3, South Fork Meadows, near the source of tlie stream. Abundant 
frost occurred at night followed by plea.santly warm day temperature, the temper- 
ature of the air sinking con.siderably below tlitit of the water at night and rising far 
above it in the da\'time. 

Table VIII.— South Fork of Kaweah air temperatures. 



Date. 


Hour. ;-^Sr 


Locality. 


JulvU 

July 15 

Do 

Juivie...... 

Do 

Do 

July 17 

Do 

Do 


Minimum !; 
6.30 a.m.... 
Maximum.. 
Minimum . . 
5.45 p.m.... 
7.30 a.m.... 


° F. 
43.5 
31.5 
39.0 
28.5 
32.5 
71.0 

a 31.0 


Camp No 2. 

Camp No. 3. 

Do! 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Marble Fork is a brancli of the Middle Fork of the Kaweah. It is a stream of 
considerable size. It flows north of the Giant Foi-est, then turns to the south and, 
pa.ssing through Deep Canyon, empties into the Middle Fork of the Kaweah. The 
records of temperature were taken near the bridge on the government road into the 
forest. This point is about 4 miles from Broder <.^ Hopping's camp. August 3, 7 
p. m., 6-5-: Augu.st 4, s a. m., 59 \ 

THE FOOD OF THE TROUT OF THE KERN RIVER REGION. 



The trout investigations that were made in the vicinity of Mount Whitney, 
California, during July, 1904, included a brief study of the food of some of the trout 
found in the waters of that region. This study consisted of a careful examination 
of the stomach contents of 85 trout, these 85 fish belonging to five different .species 
which were obtained from six different streams and one lake.' They were caught 
\\ itii hook and line ;ind were taken at different times of the day, chiefly earlj' in the 



44 BULLETIN OF THE lUIREAU OF FISHERIES. 

forenoon and toward evening. Thus the contents of these stomachs outfht to rt']irc 
sent fairl}' well the natural food of the trout at this season of the j'ear. 

About 40 of the stomachs were examined at the time the trout were cauj>lit. 
while the remainder were preserved and their contents have been examined since 
the time of the expedition. Most of the specimens whose stomachs were exam- 
ined at the time of their capture were measured and a record of the length was made 
along- with the record of contents of the stomach. In some cases also the sex of the 
individual was noted. It was not found practicable to keep a I'ecord of the lengtli 
and sex of all the specimens from which stomachs were taken and preserved, l)ut the 
stomachs of specimens obtained from different localities were kept separate* and a 
record made of the longest and shortest specimens from which they were taken. 

The relative quantity of food in each stomach was estimated — that is, whether 
the amount of food found was a quarter, or a half, etc., of the quantity the stomach 
would hold with ordinary distension. The relative amount of the various food ele- 
ments was then estimated and recorded in percentages. The percentage method was 
used rather than the counting method because the contents of many stomachs con- 
sisted largeh' of fragments so small that it was impossible to place them in the proper 
group or groups of insects. However, the number of individuals making up the 
various percentages was also recorded in cases where it could readily be determined. 
Onlj' a very general classification of the stomach contents was attempted and the fol- 
lowing record will show how the various items were noted: Specimen No. 7, length 
7 inches; stomach about two-thirds full; contents — 1.5 per cent remains of 7 stone- 
fly nymphs, 95 per cent Chironomidaa (761 chironomid larvi^ and 1 pupa), 2 per cent 
1 large fly, 0.5 per cent elytron of a small beetle, 1 per cent ants. The insect frag- 
ments that were too small to be identified accurately were recorded under the head 
of "insect fragments" and the Chironomid^ were noted separately from the other 
Diptera because, in general, they were found to be a more important food element 
than the other Diptera. The other groups are self-explanatory. Tlie following is a 
summarized record of the results: 

Salmo whitei Evermann. 

South Fork of the Kaweah Kivek. — The stomachs of 12 specimens obtained 
from this stream at South Fork Meadows, on July 15, 1904, were studied. The 
specimens varied in length from 5.5 to 8 inches. All the stomachs except 1 were 
estimated to be half full or more. 

Ari>'-/uu'i?i(. — Two per cent of the contents of 1 stomach consisted of spiders. 

_Ejy/ieiiii'ri(7a. — Three stomachs contained Ma^^-fly nymphs, two 5 per cent, and 
the other 3 pev cent. 

Plecoptera. — Forty per cent of the contents of 1 stomach consisted of adult 
stone-flies, and 2 others contained 5 and 1.75 per cent stone-fly nymphs. 

Orthoptei'a. — The remains of a gi-asshopper (locust) constituted 25 per cent of 
the stomach contents of 1 specimen. 

IL'iitlpiera. — One specimen had eaten 1 per cent Hemiptera. 

Ti'ielioptera. — Four stomachs contained 90, 25, 15, and 5 per cent caddis-fly 
larva\ and 8 containe'd 90, 20, and 1 per cent cases of caddis-fly larva\ 

Diptera. — Three specimens had eaten 10, (i, and 2 per cent Diptera. 



THK GOLDEN TROUT. 45 

('Iilr(iiniiiil(hi.- Four stoinaclis coutiiined 95, SO, 3, and I per cent cliiroiioniid 
larviv. 

Coleoptera. — The contents of (! stomachs consisted of 75, tiO, 20, In, 10, and 0.25 
per cent beetles. 

I[j/hi()iopfen(. — Three stomachs contained ants, two -la per cent, and tlie other 1 
per cent. 

Ills,,-! fr<ifjiiii:i}U. — Small fragments of insects constituted from H per cent to (So 
per cent of the entire stomach contents of 9 specimens. 

V,,j,f,il>l, iiiiifter. — Five stomachs contained 40, 30, Id, 7, and 0.5 per cent 
vegetable matter. In one or two instances part of this vegetable matter was prol)- 
ablj' derived from the cases of caddis-fly larva>. 

The following pei'centages show the relative importance of the various elements 
of the stomach contents for all 12 .specimens. These average percentages were 
obtained by adding together all the percentages of each element and dividing this 
sum l)y 12. Arachnida 0.16, Ephemerida (May -fly larvae) 1, Plecoptera (adult stone- 
flics and nymphs) .3.9, Hemiptera 0. OS, trichopter larvse 11.23, cases of trichopter 
larvw 9.2, Diptera 1.5, chirononiid larvae and pupje 15, Coleoptera 15, Hymenoptera 
(ants) 4.23, insect fragments 31.4, vegetable matter 7.3. This shows that trichopter 
larva?, chironomid larva? and pupse, and Coleoptera were the most important food 
elements, as these three together constituted a little over 41 per cent of the stomach 
contents of the 12 trout. 

Soda Crekk. — Six trout of the same species were obtained from this stream at 
Quinns Horse Camp on July 16, 1904. They varied in length from 4.5 to 6.5 inches. 
Five of the stomachs were estimated to be fronx one-half to two-thirds full and the 
sixth about one-fourth full. 

Ephemerida. — One stomach contained 15 per cent May-fly nymphs. 

Plecojifera. — One specimen had eaten 15 per cent adult stone-flies and two had 
each eaten 20 per cent stone-fly nymphs. 

Orthiiptera. — One specimen contained 25 per cent remains of a grasshopper 
(locust). 

Trlchopievn. — Three stomachs contained 60, 20, and 15 per cent caddis-fly larvse 
and another 90 per cent larva? and larval cases together. 

('hironomidse. — The contents of one stomach consisted of 1 per cent chironomid 
larvic. 

Ooleoptei'a. — Twenty per cent of the contents of one stomach and 5 per cent of 
another consisted of remains of beetles. 

IhliiiiiKipt, I'd. — One stomach contained 15 and another 10 percent ants. 

fiisKT fi;i(iiii,iit><. — The contents of all six stomachs consisted of 10 per cent to 
99 pel' cent small fragments of insects. 

Veijetahle matter. — Two specimens had partaken of vegetable matter to the 
extent of 5 and 2 per cent. 

The following are the average percentages for these six specimens: Ephemerida 
(May-fly nymphs) 2.5, Plecoptera (adult stone-flies and nymphs) 9.22, Orthoptera 
4.16, trichopter larva? 30.82, chironomid larva^ 0.16, Coleoptera 4.1t», Hymenoptera 
(ants) 4.16, insect fragments 43.66, vegetable matter 1.16. Trichopter larva?, with 



46 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

an averag-e of 30.82 i)cr cent, foiiiiod the most important clement of the food of 
these specimens, and adult stone-flies and nymphs were second in importance. 

Little Kern River. — The il trout {Saimo inhitei) obtained from this stream 
were cauf^ht in the vicinity of a place called Broder's cabin on July 17, 1904. They 
varied in leiio'th from .5 to JS inches. The stomachs of 84 were estimated to he half 
full or more: the others were less than half full. 

D'oiit iijij. — A trout egg constituted 5 per cent of tiic contents of one stomach. 

flijilniclniidii. — Five stomachs contained hydrachiiids; one contained 1 percent 
and the other four each 0.25 per cent. 

EpIieiiKi'ida. — May-fly nymphs constituted from 1 to 5 per cent of the contents 
of eight stomachs. 

I^U'coptei'K. — Adult stone-flies constituted 1.5 ])er cent of the conti'iits of two 
stomachs, stone-fly nymphs Ut and 5 per cent of two others, and pup;e 1 per cent of 
another. 

Orthoptem. — Two stomachs contained 50 and 3 percent remains of grasshoppers 
(locusts), and fragments which appeared to be parts of a mantis composed 2 per cent 
of the contents of another. 

Tlemiptera. — Thirteen stomachs contained from 1 per cent to 10 per cent 
ITeonljdera. 

Trichdjiti'm. — Six specimens had eaten 0.5 per cent to 30 per cent caddis-fly larvre 
and six others containetl 1 to 8 per cent cases of caddis-fly larvte. 

Lcpidiipt( nt. — Moths constituted 15 per cent of the contents of two stomachs, 3 
and 2 per cent of two others, while 15 per cent of the contents of another consisted 
of a caterpillar. 

Diptera. — One stomach contained 15 per cent Diptera, one 5 per cent, three 2 
per cent, five 1 per cent, and two 0.5 per cent. 

Chh'onoiiiidx. — Chironomid larvte and pupaj were foimd in 24 stomachs and 
constituted from 0.25 to 10 per cent of the contents. 

Coleoptera. — Beetles were found in 38 stomachs. Thej' made up from 10 to 50 
per cent of the contents of 26 stomachs and 1 to 9 per cent of the contents of the 
other 12. 

Hymenoptem. — Forty of these 41 trout had eaten insects belonging to this order. 
Thirty-nine had eaten from 2 to 35 per cent ants; six had eaten 2 to 10 per cent bees; 
and nine, 1 to 8 per cent other Ilymenoptera. 

[nxect fragments. — Small fragments of insects constituted from 10 to 92 percent 
of the contents of 40 stomachs. 

Vegetable matter. — Sixteen stomachs were found to contain from I to 10 per 
cent vegetable matter. 

Sand. — The contents of 8 stomachs consisted of 1 to 8 per cent sand. It ajipeared 
that a large part of this sand had been deri\ed from the larval and pupal cases of 
insects. 

The following are the average percentages for these 41 specimens: Ephemerida 
(May-fly nymphs) 0.7, Plecoptera (adult stone-flies and nymphs) 1.28, Orthoptera 1.4, 
Hemiptera 0. 95, trichopter larvte 1.4, cases of trichopter larvte 0. 7, Lepidoptera (moths) 
1.3, Diptera 0.88, chironomid larviv, and pupa' 1.41, Coleoptera 15, H^Mncnoptera 15, 
insect fragments 57.11, vegetable matter 1.4, sand 1.3. The above percentages show 



THK GOLDEN TROtTT. 47 

that Coleoptcia and 1 lyiiienoiitcra were, the two chief constituents of the stonmeh 
contents of these specimens. The 15 per cent of the latter was made up of 1:^.8 per 
cent ants and )i.'i per cent othei' Hymenoptera. Parasitic thread-worms (Ncmatoda) 
were found in 68 per cent of tliese" trout. Some stomachs contained as many as 10 
of tliese parasites. 

Coyote Crrek. — Only one trout from Coyote ( "reek was studied. The spicimcn 
was a male, 6 inches long, and its stomach was estimated to be one-third f idl. The 
stomach contents consisted of the following: Plecoptora (stone-fly nymphs) 15 per 
cent, Neuroptera (a dobson) 25 per cent, chironomid larva? 2 per cent, and insect 
fragments 58 per cent. 

Salmo gilberti .lordau. 

Upper Kern Lake. —Six trout were obtained from Upper Kern Lake on July 
11» and 21, varying in length from 7 to 19.75 inches. The stomach of the longest 
specimen was emptv and onlv two of the others were estimated to be as much as 
half full. 

Ej>hei)ierid(i. — May-fly nymphs constituted 5 per cent of the contents of one 
stomach. 

ChiriiiKiiiiiihf. -One stomach contained 25 per cent chironomid lar\;e. 

TIi/iiii ii<i/if<rii. — Tiie conttMits of one stomach consisted of ?, per cent ants and 2 
per cent other Hymenoptei'a. 

Inxi'cf /'ri/(/>/u')ifx.~Most of the insect fragments were too small for identirication. 
These small fragments constituted 94 per cent of the contents of one stomach, 93 per 
cent of another, 50 per cent of another, and 10 per cent of each of two others. 

Vegrfahh' iiKitfci: — Ninety per cent of the contents of one stomach consisted of 
pieces of a Jiutrnrhlinii which was growing ai)undantly in the lake; another contained 
90 per cent Jlafnirhiinii and algtv; another 25 percent vegetable matter, and a fourth 
2 per cent Batr<irhnnit. 

Sand. — Sand constituted 1 per cent of tiie contents of one stomacii. 

The average percentages for these Upper Kern Lake specimens are as follows: 
Ephemerida (May-fly n3'uiphs) 1, chironomid larva? 5, Hymenoptera 1, insect frag- 
ments 51.4, vegetable matter -11.4, sand 0.2. The chief characteristic of these aver- 
ages is the high percentage of vegetable matter. 

Kern River. — One specimen, a female 11 inches long, was caught about a mile 
above Upper Kern Lake on July 21. Its stomach contained Plecoptera (stone-fly 
nymphs) 15 per cent, Neuroptera (a dobson) 30 per cent, Coleoptera (beetle remains) 
2 per cent, and insect fragments 36 per cent. 

Salmo roosevelti Everniann. 

Volcano Creek. — Eighteen golden trout were ol)taiued from Volcano Creek on 
July 22 and 23, 1904, all caught in the lower course of the creek only two or three 
luiles above its mouth. The longest and shortest ti'out measured, respectively, 1 1 and 
5 inches. The stomachs of 7 of them were estimated to be half full or more, while 
the others were only a quarter to a third full. 

Ara.chn'ida. — Spiders constituted 5 per cent of the contents of 1 stomach. 

Ei>hemirlda. — Two to 10 per cent of the contents of 7 stomachs consisted of 
adult Maj^ flies and 12 stomachs contained from 1 to 30 jier cent May-fly nymphs. 



48 BULLETIN III-' THK BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

/'A(Y/^'/,/w.— Tlircc stoiiuu'hs coiitiuncd 10, 5, and 'l per cent adult stone tlii's 
and 12 from 3 to 25 per cent stone-Hy nymphs. 

Orthoptem. — The .stomach contents of 4 trout consisted of 50, 6, 5, and 2 po 
cent pieces of grasshoppers (locusts). 

IIeiiii]>tera. — Five stomachs contained 0.25 to 2 per cent Hemiptera. 

Trii}i<ii>fi'r((. — The contents of 5 stomachs consisted of 40, is, 10,5, and 2 jki- 
cent adult caddis flies; 12 contained from 0.25 to 15 per cent caddis-fl}' larvjv. luid 
14 contained larval cases varying in amount from 1 to 25 per cent. 

Lejndop.em. — Eight per cent of the contents of 1 stomach consisted of remains 
of moths. 

Chironoiiiidx. — Eight specimens had eaten from 0.5 to S per cent ciiironomid 
larva?. 

Coleoptera. — Beetles constituted 1 to 3 per cent of the stomach contents of 7 
specimens, and larvse of diving beetles (water tigei's) constituted from 3 to 8 per cent 
of the contents of 7 specimens, 5 of which contained no other Coleoptera. 

Ilijmenoptera. — Ants constituted from 1 to 20 per cent of the stomach contents 
of 13 specimens. 

Inject frmjments. — From 1 to 88 per cent of the contents of all the stomachs con- 
sisted of small fragments of insects. 

Yegetitble matter. — Two stomachs contained 8 per cent vegetable matte)-, one 5 
per cent, two 1 per cent, and one 0.5 per cent. 

Sand. — The stomach contents of 9 individuals consisted of 1 to 60 per cent sand, 
whicli was deriv-ed chiefly from the cases of insect larva3 and pupa?. 

The average percentages for these 18 golden trout are as follows: Arachnida 
0.2'.>, P^i^henierida (May-fly nymphs) 7, Plecoptera (adult stone flies and nymphs) 12.2, 
Ortlioptcra :;..">. Hemiptera 0.27, adult and larval Trichoptera 7.22, cases of larval 
Trichopti'ra 7, Lepidoptera (moths) 0.45, Diptera().9, chironomid larvae 1.5, Coleoptera 
2.67, Hymenoptera (ants) 4.1, insect fragments 41.9, vegetable matter 1.3, sand 9.7. 
These percentages show that the most important elements of the food of the golden 
trout at the time these s])e(unens were caught were May-fly nymphs, adult stone 
flies and nymphs, and adult cadtlis-tlies and larvie. Ants ranked next in importance. 
Only two of these stouuieh> cuutuined threadworms (Nematoda). 

DLSCUSSION OF 1{ESULTS. 

If the foregoing results may be taken as representative of the various streams 
from which these specimens were obtained, the trout in them were dependent almost 
wholly on insect life for their food at the time these investigations were made. 
In fact, judging from the sc^arcitj^ of other animal forms that might serve as food, 
adult insects and the atjuatic larvte of insects must play a very important role in the 
food supply of these trout during the entire year. It is possible, of course, that the 
small trout maj^ be eaten by the larger ones at times, but no such cannibalistic 
tendencies were found among the specimens examined, the only indication of canni- 
balism noted being the single trout egg eaten by one specimen. 

The relative importance of the difi'erent groups of insects was very ditterent in 
the different localities. The specimens from the South Fork of the Kaweah River 



THK (iOLDEN TROUT. 49 

had IVd most al>midaiitly on trichopter larva', eliiroiiomid larva' and pupa', and 
Coloopteru; triclioptcr larva' ranked highei-it with the trout from Soda Creek, with 
adult stoue-tlies and nymphs second in importance; those from the Little Kern River 
had partaken most freely of Coleoptera (beetles) and Hymenoptera (ants); and tlie 
golden trout had fed most freely on May-fly nymphs, adult stone-flies and nymphs, 
and adult and larval Trichoptera. These investigations were not suflicient to deter- 
mine whether those difl'erenccs in diet were due to a choice of food by the trout or 
whether they were the result of differences in the distribution of the different kinds 
of insects resulting from local conditions. The latter was probably a very important 
factor in producing these difl'erences, as it was noted that the aquatic; larvie varied, 
not only in actual numbers but also in I'elative abundance, in the ditt'ercnt localities. 

Vegetable matter formed a comparatively small part of the stomach contents of 
the specimens obtained from streams, and probably much of this was taken by 
accident. Three of the trout from Upper Kern Lake, however, contained considcr- 
al)le quantities of vegetal)le matter, so that part of it. at least, nmst have liecn taken 
piu-posely. 

Li the cases whei-e the sex was noted there was no apparent difference in the 
diet of the male and female. 

CLADOCERA AND COPEPODA OE THE KERN IIIVKI! RE(;i(1N. 

Cladocera. — The C'ladoeera collected in upi>er Kern Laki' on .July 20 represented 
only two forms, Enn/r, r.n.s l,nH,n,if„.-< (.). V. Midler and r/,,/,A</v,.v".vyV/,^/vV».v O. F. 
Miiller, which, howcNcr, wnr aluiiidant. 

The material collected from Hockett Lak(>s on .Inly If, contained tli.' following 
Cladocera, which, with the exception of Dupltn'm and I'nh/ji/i, ums. were abundant: 

D'mphaiiowma luiiehtenheniianiniL Fischer. This form apjiarentiy lieloiigs to 
Lilljel)oig"s \ariety m, i/ulopx. The head is narrow and its ventral margin is concave 
in some speeiiiien>. just as shown in figure 7, plate iv, Cladocera Suecia\ The eye is 
large, about live sixths of the width of the anterior part of the head. 

Daphnia longispina O. F. Midler. 

Scapholeherw inti,oron<(ta O. F. Miiller. 

S!jnnr,j,h„J,i.s.rruJ<ttu.'<0. F. Miiller. 

(_'.rn>,!„j,/nu,i jn,l,-/,.II<t Sars. 

,Str.l,l,,r.r>i. .,,;■;, .nnlatiis Fischer. 

Jiiuu/rercxx hunellatm O. F. Miiller. 

LijiK-i'iix (ijfiiiis Leydig. 

(''h,/,l,,r>ixs/,l,.;r;r„. O. F. Midler. . 

Piih/j>h< III lis ji, ilii-iil IIS Linna'us. 

Cojx'poda. - Dr. C. Dwight Marsh has identilied the following eopepods collected 
in Kern Lake and Hockett Lakes: 

From Kern Lake, Cyclops xcrriihtfus Fischer and Ci/i-lnps nlhldnK ,1 urine. 

From Hockett Lakes, Oijcla/i-s xm-iilittiis luoidan i/.s Brady, Ci/c/oj/x idltldus J urine, 
and Dlaptoinus sUjnicauda Lilljeborg. 

B. ii. F. moo— i 



50 BULLETIN OF THK BPKEAU OF FISHERIES. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Following is a list of the published litenitiu-e concerning the trout of the Kci ii 
River region which has been consulted in connection with this report: 

1878. JoRn.\N, David S., and Henshaw, H. W. Report upon the fishes collected during the yiars 

1875, 1876, and 1877, in California and Nevada. <Reportof the Chief Engineers, U. S. Army, h>r 

1878, Appendix K in Appendix NN, pp. 1609-1622, pis. i-iv. 
On jiafji'S 1616 and 1617, reference is made to specimens of trout from "near Mount Whitm y, 

Inyii County, Gal.," in 1875, and a very interesting account of the "golden trout" is given Iv 

Mr. Henshaw. Mr. Henshaw states that hi.s specimens came from the South Fork of the Kern. 
1893. Gilbert, Charles H. Report on the fishes of the Death Valley expedition, collected in southi rii 

California and Nevada in 1891, with descriptions of new species. <North American Fauna, no. '. 

May 31, 1893, pp. 229-234, 

Short notes on Salmo irideas and .S'. mykls.t (ii/un-hiniltn. 
1893. Jordan, David S. A description of the goldni trout of Kern River, California, Sahiio myki-- 

agua-bonita. <Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv, 1892 (July 24, 1S93), 481-483. 

1896. Jordan, David Starr, and Kvermanx, Barton Warren. The fishes of North and Mid.!!.- 
America, pt. i, pp. 502-504, 1896 (October 3). 

1897. Bkoder, John. Among, the Sierra Nevadas. <The American Angler, vol. w-ii, mo. 2, l->l>- 
ruary, ISit/, pp. .35-40. 

Kcferences to the various fronts of tlie Mount Wliitiiny region (size, numliers, eti-. ), with a 
mention of the golden trout, p. .36. 
1897. Harris, Willia.m C. Planting trout in the Sierras. <The American Angler, vol. \xvii, no. 2, 
February, 1897, pp. 60 and 61. Editorial, in Notes and Queries, giving an account of i)lanti]i'.'> 
of golden trout in the Mount Whitney region by John Broder, of Visalia, Cal. 

1897. . The Kern River and golden trout. <The American Angler, vol. wvii, no. :;, 

March, 1897, p. 91, in Notes and Queries. 
1897. Broder, John. How to reach the Kern Rivers, California. <The American .\ngler, vol. 
xxvii, no. 4, April, 1897, pp. 99-103. 

Description of the country, with nmuei-ous inciilental references to trout tisliing. Reference 
also, p. 102, to tire lakes having l)een stocked with trout. 

1897. . A fish-loving community. <The American Angler, vol. xxvii, no. 4, April, 

1897, pp. 123 and 124. 
Speaks of sportsmen's clulis of the region and their work in planting trout. 

1902. Jordan, David Starr, and Evermann, Bakto.v Warren. American food and .game fishes, 
pp. 201-202, Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, 1902. 

1903. Hittell, Theodore H. On the tip-top of the United States. <Sunsct Magazine, vol. x, 
no. 4, Kehruary, 1903, pp. 294-303. 

Oescriiition of a trip of a party U]! Mount Wliitney. (.General description of tlie country and 
brief description of the golden trout on p. 3o:i. 

1903. . The country of the golden trout. <JIount Whitney Clul) .hmrnal, vol. i, no. 2, 

May, 1903, pp. 41-46. 

Civesa brief description of the golden trout (size, color, Havor, and i;x|ilauation of color, also 
foresees that the numbers will become exhausted). 
1903. NounoE, P. M. Trails into the Mount Whitney and Kern River regions. <Moant Whitney 
Club Journal, vol. i, no. 2, May, 1903, pp. 60-71. 

Mainly a description of the country from a guide's or tourist's point of view, with oc'casionai 
and rather incidental references to fishes and fishing. 

1903. Maddox, Ben M. Itinerary of trip to Mount Whitney. <Mount Whitney Ciub Journal, 
vol. I, no. 2, May, 1903, pp. 75-78. 

Diary account of various camps, with freipient references to fishes and tishing, 

1904. Allen, A. H. With the Sierra Club to Mount Whitney. <Mount Whitney Club Journal, 
vol. I, no. 3, May, 1904, pp. 114-121. 

Descrii>tion of a trip to Mount Whitney, .Inly 9, 11103, with tourist's (lescri|>tion of the region. 
Mentions the capture of 600 or 700 golden trout by the |iarly, p. 11-t. 



THE (JOLDEN TROTTT. 51 

11104. Edwards, K. II. Thf Mmiiit Whitiifv trail. <Mouiit Wliitiiey t'luli Journal, vol, i, no. 3, 
May, 1904, pp. 127-1L'!». 
Mainly a description of tlie country. Keferences to the golden trout, ji. 128. 

1904. Lawson, Andrew C. The geoniorphogeny of the upper Kern Basin. University of Cali- 
fornia Publications. Bulletin of the Department of Geology, vol. 3, no. 1.5, pp. 2itl-37ii, Feljruary, 

1904. Berkeley, The University Press. 

An exhaustive discussion of the geology of the Mount Whitney region. 
1904. White, Stew.\kt Edward. The golden trout. (Chap. XX of a ."ierial, "The Mountains.") 
<The Outlook, vol. 78, no. 2, September 10, 1904, pp. 131 and 132. 

1904. EvERMANN, Barton W. The golden trout of Volcano Creek. < The American Fish Culturist, 
vol. I, no. 10, October, 1904, pp. 5-7. 

An account of a trip to the Mount Whitney region, with oli,>;iTvations concerning.' the nature of 
the country ami kinds of trout of the various streams. 
1905. . The most beautiful of all the fronts. Shield.'-' :\lagazinc, vol. i, no. 4, ,lune, 

1905, pp. 105-109. 

An account of a trip to the :Mount Whitney region, including a description of the rountry. The 
same article was republished under the heading " Volcano Creek Golden Trout," in the Vi.salia 
Daily Times (Visalia, Cal.), vol. .x.xviii, no. 118, July 12, 1905. 

1905. . The golden trout of Volcano Creek. -'Transactions American Fisheries Society 

1905, pp. 148-154. 

1905. Forked Deer. Our quest of the golden trout. Forest antl Stream, vol. l\v, no. 13, Sept. 23, 
1905, pp. 254 and 255. 

An interesting account of a trip to Volcano Creek. 



B-;°. 







or 

ay 



A/ore: /Foc/re or r/f/fi^s^ w 




i 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES AT WOODS HOLE. MASS. 



THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN THE 
DENSITY AND SALINITY OF WATER 



By FRANCIS B. SUMNER, Ph. D. 

Director Fisheries Laboratory, Woods Hole, Mass. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
Introduction 

The dejith or survival of various species after changes in the salinity of the water :>' 

The fatal effect of fresh water upon various salt-water fishes ; 

Effect of distilled water i , 

Symptoms preceding the death of salt-water fishes in fresh water i i 

Effect of surface abrasions i ,j 

Acclimatization ', i , i 

Endurance in water of low salinity ti;', 

Effect of transfer of brackish and fresh water fishes to salt water 06 

Changes in water density at the New York Aquarium 08 

Effect of alternation of fresh and salt water 68 

Age in relation to endurance of change of medium 1)9 

Adaptation to changes in the medium in nature 69 

Changes of weight resulting from changes in water density 70 

Changes of weight in living fishes 70 

Changes of weight in dead fishes ,. 82 

Permeability of the membranes to salts in solution 84 

Determinations of the chlorine passed into the water by the fishes 84 

Determinations of the chlorine in the tissues of fishes 89 

The part played by the gills In osmotic exchanges 97 

Historical review 101 

Summary and conclusions 104 

Supplementary note lOU 

Bibliography 1U7 

54 



CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES AT WOODS HOLE. MASS. 



THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN THE DENSITY 
AND SALINITY OF WATER. 



Bv FRANXIS B. SIJIXKR, Ph. I)., 
Dinr/or /■•is/irrii-s /.ahora/on; iraocla HoU; Mass. 



INTRODUCTION. 

It is !i oommonplace to both tishermaii und zpologist that certain tishes dwell exclu- 
sively ill salt water and otluns oxclu.sively in fresh water, while others yet luay live 
inditferently in either medium. It is well known, also, that death is frequently the 
result of an abrupt and considerable chang'e of den.sity. 

Numerous i^roblems of great physiological importance are here involved. AA'hy 
is an extreme change of density so fatal in some ca.ses and so harmless in others i 
And is it the change of density which is responsible for the harmful effects, after 
all; May not .saltwater be toxic, in a narrower sense, to fresh-water fishes, and 
\ic(> versa? In any cage, what is the immediate cau.se of death? Are the limiting 
membranes of a fish permeable to both water ajtid salts, or ai-e the}' only semiperme- 
able ^ Or, are tliev, perhaps, impermeable 'to both? And are all of the limiting 
membranes alike in this regard? Likewise,' is *heir condition the same for all spe- 
cies and under all circumstances ? The.se are closely related ciuestioiis. They have 
received many and cjuite contradictory answers. It is hoped that the experiments 
discussed in tlie ensuing pages have contributed something toward their solution. 

The first of these experiments were chiefly concerned in determining whether a 
given change in water density was harmful to a given species of fish, records being- 
kept of the I'ate of death. In a second series weight determinations were made with 
a view to ascertaining whether such changes in the density of the surroimding 
medium were accompanied by appreciable osmotic efl'ects upon the fishes. Third, 
it was sought to discover whether the membranes were permeable to water onl}' or 
to salts as well. The passage of salts from tm fish into the surrounding water was 
tested chemically, and likewise the salt content of the tissues of fishes of several 
species under diflerent conditions was determined. Finally, a series of experiments 
was performed with a view to di.scovering whether such osmotic exchanges were 
confined to the oills or whether the o-cneral l)odv integument was likewise concerned. 



56 BULLKTIN OF THK BUREAU OF FISHERIKS. 

Tlu' ('\i)eriments hero (Icsnihcd were ciuricd on ihiriiiu- the .summer.s of 11)04 
iuid lli<»5 at the biological ialKU'atorv of tiic Hiircaii of Fisheries at Woofls Hole, 
Mass., and during the spring of 1!I05 at the New York A(iiiarinni. In the earlier 
portion of this work I was aided by Mr. D. W. Davis, assistant in this labora- 
tory. Tiie work at the New 'Vork A(|uariniii was rendered possible throiigii the 
kindness of tiic director. Mr. (". II. Towiisend, wlio placed at my disposal a room 
e<pnppe(l for research, and pros ided nie with ahundant nialeiial throughout' the 
course of the experiments. 1 must acknowledge, also, the ever-ready help of several 
members of his stati'. My thanks are likewise due to Prof. W. C. Sabine, of the 
department of physics of Harvard University, for valuable ei-iticism. 

THE DEATH OR SURVIV.'^L OF VARIOUS SPECIES AFTER CHANGES IN THE 
SALINITY OF THE WATER. 

TIIK FATAL EFFECT OF FRESH WATER UPON VARIOUS SALT-WATER FTSHES. 

My experiments were originally undertaken from a biometric rather than a 
physiological point of view. It was my object to determine measurable indices of 
fitness and unfitness among the individuals of a species, somewhat as Bunipus had 
done for sparrows and Wcddoii for crabs. Different mod(!s of elimination were 
chosen, chiefly asphyxiation and change from salt to fn^sh water. The individuals 
of the more and the less resistant halves of each lot of lish >o treated were subjected 
to statistical study and differences in type and in \ arialiility were noted. These 
biometric studies are still far from complete and no statement of the results is here 
attempted. My attention has for a time been diverted to the physiological questions 
which form the basis of the present paper. 

The tirst experiments recorded illustrate the fatal effects of transfer to fresh 
water upon our three local species of killitish {J^u».dtdus). These are all small fishes, 
restricted to shallower waters. J^. hidjalis and 7^ hcteruclitux are marine Littoral 
forms, occurring particularly on weedy shores, though both species, and especially 
the latter, pass into the brackish waters. Bean (lt>0;3) says of hcterocUtns that it 
sometimes ascends streams l)eyond tidewater, and regarding imijalis he sees "no rea- 
son to dou}>t its occurrence, even in fresh water," while Eugene Smith (1897) states 
of ](ii, rod i tux thiit it "is often found landlocked in ice or quarry ponds." Dr. H. M. 
Smith informs me that the latter species "is found permanently in the vicinity of 
Washington, in the Potomac and its tributaries, and also in ponds." Mr. Vinal 
Edwards likewise reports a cas(> where this hsh was found in fresh water above a 
milldam. Fivsh water is not, however, tlie more usual habitat of F. hetrroditm. 
F. di(i.j>li(inu:<. on the contrary, is predominantly a brackish and fresh water fish, 
extending from the coast far into th(^ interior, and occurring in lakes and streams as 
far west as the Mississippi River, and northward to MiiuK^sota." These three species 
are readily dislini^ui-hable from one another in form and color. They are very dif- 
ferent in their haliit^and in \arious physiological characters. Accordingly, the .species 
should always be spccilii'd in any work dealing with a member of this genus.* 

"The u. viiiii r. |,r,v,!it,itH c-^ .if llir spcirv imvu huen given the rank iif ii (iistinet viiriety. mcnuiia. 

^Fnr (liMiii.tiMiis ;iii<l illi!>n-:itioiis (»f ilirsi' tislu's llie reader is referred to .Jordan and Everniann's •• Fishes of North 



KKFKCTS UPON FlJ^HKS OF CHANG KS IN SALINITY OF WATER. Oi 

The lirst tlirc' .■xpcrimcnts deal with /•'. i,in},ii;x. 

K.rj,rrhnn,t 1." 

August, \W)± Thivo hundred :nid forty-four tishes put into t:iid< of salt 
water and hitter displaeed l.y fresh. Fifty pei- cent of the lish died (hiring 
lirst -24 hours: only 1 lish liviny- at ."ud of H days. 

August. I!tn4. Twenty-tiye pickcnl specimens phice<l alu-uptly in tank of 
fresh \vater. All hut I dead in is hours; all dead within 24 hours. 
E.qX'llm.nt S. 

September, iy04. Twenty-tive j)icked specimens placed ahruptly in fresh 
water. Fish fed throughout expei-iment. Thirty-six ]ier cent dead at end of 
first day; last fish dead in ti days. 

The li.shes here used had been taken in sea water of full strength, and kept, 
prior to the experiments, in tanks of running salt water of a mean density of 
abt)ut 1.023 (reduced to 4- C.) and a mean temperature i-anging from ^O^* to 
22 C. The change of temperature in the transfer from salt to fresh water 
was yery slight (probably neyer exceeding 3'- l!. ) and can haye play(Hl no j)art, 
here or in later exjierinients, in causing the death of the lishes. 
The next two experiments illustrate the relatiye mortality of /•: nm ),!/;.'< and /-'. 
hrtrrorlltiis, and. in the second cas... of F. ih^/j^/nnn/s. 

July. l'.H)4. Thirty-three /•'. uiiij,ir,x and 71 /'. Intrro.'lif,,.. \mt into tank of 
salt water, this being disjjlaceil by running fresh watei- !,s in ex])erinient 1. 

F. ii,<i},ii:.-<. No <leatlis during first day; 42 per cent dead within 2 days; 
ss per cent dead within 3 days; the last in 4| days. 

/•: h.hroelifns. First death in 3i days; T."> per cent dead within (iA^ days; 
all dead within 7i days. 

July. I!tn4. Twenty-eight ,„uj,il!s^ 32 hrlrrornfua.anA 2-2 <//,ij>/,(iini.^ \\in\' 
put directly into a tank of running fresh water, at 20- C. The /ikiJ, ///'.■< and 
/i(f</'(>r//'fii.'< came directly from sea water of full strength, tiie (Vuiiihuiiiix from 
a tank of brackish water of specific- grayity l.OtH!'' (originally from a brackish 
pond haying water of specilic grayity 1.00.5). 

/-: /,»(;<^/;x died in from less than 12 to 3G hours; ]\ hrtrmrl it ns died in from 
12 hours to 10 days; /•'. ,i;„j'h,nnis died in from h to 14 days. All of i,iaj,ii:x 
had died at a time when only 7 In I. rcrHfux (22 per cent) and when no iliiiplKiNux 
had died; and all of h.fmx-lifHs had died at a time when only 5!> per cent of 

\hi',i;„j.Jnn,ii. had died. 

The or(hM- of death of these three si)ecies witen subjected to asphyxiation in stale 
water was found to be (1) </;,q,h,nHis, (2) „ni}ul!s, (?,) hrtrmrlU us. 
F,;„rnnr,.tG. 

Kighty-seyen per cent of the ilJa/iliinius had died wh(>n only '.\U per cent of 
the w<i},iJ:s had died and when all of tlu> h.f.mrlltus wei-(> still liying. 

Frp,rn,„nt7. 

Results similar to experiment 6. 

<i Tlii-su i-xiuTiiiicnIs iirc! not numbered in i-lironolcigical (ihUt, but iire tlimiiRhiint iimmKed siilely with reference tii 
snhjeet-iuatter. The lirst twelve iire imimM tliose cdnrtneteil -.a VVnniis Hole. I- .See p. (10. 



58 HULLKTrN OK THK BCREAH (»F KISHEKIES. 

Throughout all of these (ixpoiiincnts. licaltliy Hs!u>s were selected unless otlu i 
wise specified. Fishes having the siunc iii-^torv as tiiose used for experiment w i. 
counnonly kept in the res(>rvc tanks an, I served for purposes of control. Spe( ii 
control experiments were likewise carried on from time to time, as will appear. 

In a number of other expei'iments tiie harmfid ettects of transfer to fresh wair 
upon F. h,i,r,><lU>i.< were manifest. 

E.rp.nnn.tS. 

August, ItXH. Of iftj fishes, none died until the lapse of (> days, whn 
they began to succumb. Fifty -eight per cent had died in l(i days, when tin 
experiment was discontinued. 
E.,-p,:rhiient 9. 

August and September. 11)04. The fishes began to die in 3 days, and .'.' 
per cent died during the first Kt days. From tlie thirteenth to the nineteenil 
day, however, no deaths occuned and tlie experiment was discontinued. 
Krj„r!inent 10. 

September, l!t04. Of l'02 fishes used, :5 died during the first day, wiiile ;•: 
per cent died within In days. 
Garrey (li)( );")), speaking of some experiments of his own upon this species of tish 
states: "It was found that if care was taken to select individuals which were ih' 
injured in catching, about SO percent lived in fresh water for 6 weeks, when tin 
expei'iment was discontinued. This is as liigh a percentage as I'an be kept alive ii 
the sea-water aquaria of the laboratory." ( iari'e3-'s statement is suriu-ising in \ iev 
of my own results alreadv cited, and of the confirmatory experiments recorded below 
It is to be remarked that many of my experiments were carried on at about the >ainc 
time as those of (larrey, and that the fresh water employed came from the same w atei 
system as that used at the Marine Biological Laljoratory, where Garrey's work wa 
done. The fishes that I used were generally treated with the utmost care and in man\ 
specified cases were fed throughout the experiment. Fishes from various localitie 
were used. The conditions were likewise varied from time to time so that irrelevan 
factors might be eliminated. 
E.rp.rhiKiil 11. 

.Iidy. li»(>,'i. Thii'ty specimens of F. IntircdituK put into a hatching bli^ 
filled with running fresh water. Another oO specimens taken from the sann 
lot of fish were placed in an adjacent hatching box filled with running sal 
water. Both sets of fishes were fed. although those in the fresh water show et 
little desire for food. The temperature of the salt water was about 3 (' 
higher than that of the f resli. 

In the fresii-water tank 1 fish died within •> days, and the last died withii 
14 (lavs. In the salt-wat(>r tank not a single fish died during this period. 
F.rp.rh..„i 1.1. 

Summer of 190.j. The first fish died after 7 days in fresh water, and a single 

fish remained living at the end of %) days. 

It is to be added that I have given the results for all of the experiments of tlii^ 

nature performed by me, no contradictory figures being suppressed, here or elsewhere 

That the fresh water hci-e used was not contaminated with any actively poison 

ous substance is shown by tiie fact that the addition of even a very small proportioi 



EFFECTS ITPUN FISHES OF OHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 59 

of salt wiitiT entirely prevented the li:iniitiil eticctts. No trace of fmious was to he 
obsei-\i'd and nu surface lesions of any sort were diseoveral)le. Lack of some or all 
of the saline ingredients of sea water seems to have been responsible for the death 
of the iishes. Perliaps the most curious feature in these results is the prolonged 
period of resistance shown by some of the tishes in each experiment. This suoyests 
cei-tain of the I'esults of Bert (see p. 67). 

Some observations made in New Yoriv City during the past winter and spring 
are interesting by way of comparison with the preceding results. In these later 
experiments the tishes came from marshes of bi'ackish water, and were kept for some 
days or weeks prior to the experiments in water of a salinity slighth' over half that 
of water from the open sea. The temperature at the time ranged from 2 to Itl C, 
that at Woods Hole having ranged from 20- to 22 ' C. These experiments were 
complicated by the appearance of fungus {Sai>roJegnia), which invariably devastated 
the tanks within a week or two after F. ht'ti-rcclitas was placed in fresh water. 
Even here, however, it was noted that a certain proportion of tliose which died 
showed no traces of Sitjirahyniii. 
E.rp,rn,i,n1 f,. 

New York, November and December, 1904. Two hundred and eleven F. 
hrfi^fdcl/tiix transferred to fresh water. Thii'teeu died within the first 15 da^ys 
before the disease appeai'ed; 82 per cent of the remainder died during the 
next 16 days, after which the experiment was discontinued. 
A certain proportion of these tishes died without being atiected by the fungus, 
but it is of course impossible to determine what the death rate would have been if 
the Sd.prolegnia had not appeared. It nmst be i-ememl)ered that fishes which are 
already weakened by other causes are more ready victims to the fungus. It was 
found in experiment 41, c, and others that the addition of even a small percentage of 
sea water served as a decided check to the appearance of the parasite. It is my 
belief that this preventive action of the sea salt was due not so much to a toxic etlect 
upon the fungus as to a beneficial physiological effect upon the tislies. resulting in a 
greater power to resist the parasite. 
F.rperhnent H-. 

It was here observed that the fungus, when once it had gained a footiiold upon 

the fishes, continued to thrive after the latter were transferred to water of 

density 1.005, while few traces appeared upon tisiies which were trruisferred 

in a healthy condition to water of this density. 

In some cases (experiment 41, r) water of a nuich lower degree of salinity acted 

as an efl'ective check. 

It is evident from experiment 13 (which was rejjeated with similar results) that, 
under the conditions existing at the time, fresh water proveii nnuii less rapidly fatal 
to Fnididus heterocUtKs than in the Woods Hole experiments, and this in spite of 
the fungus. The factor responsible for this diffei'ence may have been either (1) the 
lower temperature, or (2) the previous history of the fish (life in diluted sea water), 
or perhaps the two combined. It nevertheless seems (juite i)robabie, although no 
definite control experiments were made, that e\ en here the fresh water had a dele- 
terious efi'ect. 



60 Ht'LLETIN (IK THK BITRKAI' OF KISHKRIKS. 

It will l.r vvraWvd that in cxpcriincnt n the /''. -//-//-//^o/'/.v tiiially MK'cuinhcd to 
the ctlccts of tiic fivsii watci-, tiiuiiuli mitlix inj;'. on the average. I.oth of tlie otiier 
.spefics. The death of this species in fi-esh water was very surprising, since tin' 
specimens here used came from a hi'ackish water pond (Tashmoo Pond. Mart li:i- 
Vinevard) having a specific gravity of only 1.005 (corrected), and had been kept in 
the laboratory prior to the experiment in water of about the same specific gravity. 
It is to be rememt)ered, too, that tiiis species occurs in nature in fresh-water lakes 
and streams. The above results, how(>ver. wen- sustained by further experiment. 
Experiment 15. 

Woods Hole, September, 1!H)4. 'Pwenty-tive h(!altli_y specimens of F. diiij>h- 
amix, from a lot which had been kept in tiie laboratory (water I.0i»4 to l.oni;i 
for 11 days, put directly into running freshwater. Fishes fed throughout . 
Two fishes died within -24: hours; 16 (04 per cent) died within 8 days, when tlie 
experiment was discontinued. Meanwhile, in a control tank of brackish water 
containing large numbers of this species, very few died. 
('i/j>/-t/i('(/>>/i I'lirixjiitux, a brackish and salt-water fish belonging to the same 
family as Fund nl us. was chosen as a subject for similar experiment. 
■" F.,/,rr!w,„f in. 

Wo.xls Hole, .\ugust, l'.»n4. Two W(>ll-fed specimens of C r,irn,i,tiiis from 

salt water placed directly in fresh water. Both were dead on the following 

morning. 

The "white perch" {Mannn- (inu ricdiut)^ as is well known, may occur either in 

fresh, salt, or brackish water. It is not certain, however, that in nature the clian^c 

is abruptly nmde. 

F.prriim-nt 17. 

Woods Hole, September. 1H04. Of K) specimens of J/i^wwe from brackish 
water (1.004 to 1.000), which were transferred to fresh, 4 had died and 1 sick- 
ened within 8 days, when the e\i)eriment was discontimiefl. Experiment Mtj 
(p. 67) serves as a good control. 
Experiments with F. diiiphuiius and the white j)ercii during tiie summer of l!»(i."i 
show that tlie capacity of difien-nt individuals to endure transfer either to fresh or to 
salt water vari(>s greatly, depending upon the condition of the fishes. It seems likely 
that a white perch from brackish water may in some cases survive indefinitely after 
transfei- to fresh water, though this is certainly not true of all speciinens. Those 
which surviv(> the initial period of mortality seeiu (pialified to resist the harmful 
effects. 

Of the typically marine tishes few were tested as to their ability to withstand 
abrupt transfer to fresh water, since this is well known to result fatally in the case of 
most species. Soup {Stenotomnx chry-'topst) were found to die in from 1 to 3 hours, the 
fishes being taken from water of a specific gravity 1.023 and temperature about 20- C. 
Two jiufiers (.s)'//'/v//(A.s ///</( ///.^/(/.v) died within 3 hours under the same conditions. 
Some cunners { 'r(iiito<jolid<rnx ndsp, rxiix) were dead at end of 12 hours (perhaps much 
less), and of 2 tautog {Taidixjn miifix) 1 died within 12 and a second within 24 hours. 
Sculpin {Myti.roccplialuii octod, diiisjduusii.^), sea I'aven {Ifcinitripferioi (diiej'icanm). and 
sea bass {d idrapristea xtrudKn) aW died witliin a day (probably nmch less)." The 



KKFECTS Ul'ON FISHP^S OF CHAN(iES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 61 

winter HoundiT (Psiiijhijth'unmcctrK niinfi-'icdiniK) .survived coiisideratjly longer, as 
appears from experiment Jr<S, while the tomcod {Micnitindux iomrnil), or at legist 
some individuals, continued to live indefinitely after the chant^e. It is to \w remem- 
bered, however, that the tomcod is an anadromous fish. 



Loeb (lltUO, p. ?y?A) has stated that - FutuJuhix can he thrown from sea water 
into distilled water without any considerable swelling, or w ithout any visil)le injurious 
etlccts.'' It is possible that Loeb would not regard death as a " visilile injurious 
etlect." In four experiments with F. hiteroci if ux {the, species studinl by Locli) I 
found that death resulted after an interval of from less than a day to ;! days. 
Ten fishes at a time were put into se\eral liters of distilled water. The latter was 
aerated in all cases but one, though this precaution was quite needless, .since even a 
greater numbi^r of fishes may be kept in an eipial quantity of sea water which is 
neither changed nor aerated. The fishes in my experiments came not from fiilb 
strength sea water but from the supply system of the New York Aquarium (at tliis 
time density = 1.015). Whether or not " swelling" was evident before dcatii 1 (bd 
not determine, but the dead fishes were found in one i-ise to ha^e gained more than 
lo per cent in weight. 

SYMPTOMS I'HECKDINU THE DEATH OF SAET-WATEK FISHES IN FKESH WATER. 

FiiikIiiIiix liiti'VocJ'duti^ as stated al)Ove, took little or no food when in fresli water, 
sometimes tasting and then rejecting it, while those in the control tank crowded 
eagerly to get it. Tiiey were ordinarily far more sluggish in their movements than 
the ■ normal fishes, but at times, especially when disturbed, they were subject to 
peculiar parox3sms. A fish so affected would start suddenly' upon an erratic course 
around the tank, swinmiing in a zigzag or circular path and ending in a state of 
tetanus, the body rigid and twitching slighth'. For a period the fish woidd remain 
nearly or quite motionless, commonly somewhat flexed, the mouth open and the gill 
covers widely extended. After a few minutes respiration was resumed and tlie fish 
gradually assumed a normal aspect. Sometimes my approach to the taidc was 
sufficient to provoke these paroxysms in one or more fishes. 

These same phenomena I have likewise observed very plainly in /'. diajihanm^ 
and in one instance in F. inajdlix. Most marine lishes, however, die nuich more 
rapidly than either of these, and (juite different symptoms are manifested. Scup 
{Stenotoinim chrysops), when placed in fresh water, settle at once to the bottom, and 
sooner or later "keel over," though this is generally deferred for some time. Res- 
piration is at first nearly or quite normal, l)oth as to rate" and manner. Later it 
becomes irregular, the normal rhythm being interrupted at intervals by spasmodic 
gulps accompanied by general agitation. The tish from time to time darts violently 
about the tank, as if in an effort to escape, sometimes even leaping from the water. 
Tiiese frantic movements of the body recur at intervals, even after respiration has 
ceased. The rate of respiration does not decline gradually, but the ihytlnnic move- 
UKMits give place rather al)ruptly to convulsive ones, which soon ceas(> altogether. As 
already stated, death occurs in from 1 to 3 hours after transfer to fresh water. 

te ot respiration being determined by means of a stop watch. These individ- 



6'2 HULLKTIN OF THK BUREAI' (iK FISHERIKS. 

PuIIlt.s {S/iln n'lilrs iiuivnhihiH) upon tlie, iipproiicli of dc.iitli wun; found to inllulf 
iind delliito their bodies and to fj-nusli tlieir teetii <iuitc uudilily. The otiiiT symptom^ 
were iiuieh the same as those deseril)ed for the scup. 

These phenoinenii (in those Hshes which die si)eedii.v) undoul)tediy sui;gest (h-atli 
from asphj'xiation, and indeed this explanation has l)eon otiered to account Un- the 
fatal efl'ects of fresh water upon salt-water tishes and vice versa (see p. KU.). A 
careful comparison of the preceding phenomena with those manifested by scup 
wiiich were allowed to die from asphyxiation (the water supply to the tank beint; 
stx)pped) undoubtedly showed points of resemblance. There were in both cases dis 
turbances of respiration, frantic endeavors to escape, and convulsive movements 
ending in death. In both cases, fishes were observed to eject water from the moutli 
while at the surface. There were, however, some characteristic ditlVrences in tlir 
symptoms, indicating difl'erences in the physiological effects. 

Bert (1871) states of the goldfish that when placed in saltwater its respiration 
is at first accelerated and then retarded. No such rule was found to obtain in the 
case of the scup when allowed to die in fresh water, and indeed no constant clnintii 
of rare occurred until shortly l)efore rc^spiration cesised. 

KFKKCT OF si IIFACK ABRASIONS. 

Bert (1883) notes that the I'emovu! of tlir nuicus from a jjortion of the skin of an 
eel (fresh-water specimen) renders it \ ulncrabic to the efiiMts of salt water, which 
maj' otherwise work no harm. 

Garrey (190.5). like Bert, holds that the integrity of the skin is an important 
factor in determining whether oi- not lertaiu changes of iiiimHuiu shall prove fatal. 
Furthermore, he argues that at least one salt-water lisli (/'. li.tvrovlUns) will die in 
its normal medium if the skin be injured extensively: 

A large, number of healtliy speciiiu'iia were selected iiiiii about one-half the body surface demnled 
of scales by gentle scraping with the edge of a scalpel, or the skin was removed o\'er an area of mic 
square centimeter on each side; then they were divided into three lots and placed respectively inle 
fresh, sea water diluted with an equal volume of distilled water, and normal sea water. Of those kept 
in fresh water in every experiment from eighty to ninety jier cent died within twenty-four hours, while 
all died in less than thirty-six hours. In normal sea water the fish suffered a similar fate, although 
death did not intervene so soon. But of those kept in .sea water of one-half its normal concentratien 
only three per cent were dead at a time when all thos;^ in the other two media had died, and .seventy 
per cent were kept alive for four weeks, when the wounds were all healed and the exjieriments 
discontinued. In these experiments, therefore, no deleterious effects (il)tain wlien the internal 
and external media are ajiproximately isotonic. 

In the ca.se of the hypei'tonic or hypotonic .solutions, however, Garrey believed 
chat the damaged integtuneut rendered possible a fatal osmotic action. 

A priori it does not seem probable that every considerable surface abrasion 
^hoidd prove fatal either to a marine or a fresh-water fish in its normal medium. 
Indeed, we have abundant proof that the more hardy species can survive seriou.-. 
nuitilations. Experiments of my own, moreover, .suggested by those of Garrey, givi- 
results entirely contl-adietory to his. 

In exiierinienl .">. live of the l'S s[)ecimens of F. ,niij((liK were deprived of their 
scales throughout an area of about 1 square centimeter on the shoulder region. Of 
the IS tish ((j4 per cent) w liicli ilied during the lirst I'l hours, none were found to be 
the .scraped ones. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGF:S IN SALINITY OF WATER. ()8 

Ao-iiiii, in ('xpe.riiueiit 45 (p. 7-i), specimens of /''. luLnK-lhus^ tai<eii fruiii salt 
water of density l.(t<»7+", were thorougiiiv denuded of their scales througiiout a 
strip alioiit 1 centimeter in width and extending from the head to the dorsal tin. 
The lish were divided into lots of 16 each and put into water of five different 
densities. 

In the fresli-water lot 2 died witliin the iirst -' days and tl witliin the first 7 days, 
wiien the exp(M-inient was gi\en up owing to fungus, which appeared early and thus 
coniplicate<l the i-esult. (Compare with experiment -il, ?>, in which normal Hshes 
were used.) All of Garrey's fresh-water lot died within less than ?)(! hours. 

TIk' next lot were placed in water having a density of about I.noi (sea water - 
l.u^n to l.Oi'S). Only one lish (apparently one otherwise iujurt'd) dietl during ."> days, 
after which the experiment had to he given up owing to fungus. 

The third lot, placed in the salt water of the aipiarium supply (I.n(i7), were all 
well at the end of 5 days, when the experiment was discontinued. 

Tile fV)urth lot were {Kit into a stronger salt water brought from Sandy Hook 
(density l.dl-t. i. i'.. about onediaU' the salinity of normal sea water). They were kept 
in a tub without aeration. One fish died in ."■> days. 

The fifth lot were placed in water of a density 1.0-^.5 (Sandy Hook water, strength- 
ened by the addition of a commercial sea salt, thus raising the density somewluit 
abo\c that of the sea water at Woods Hole). Thi-ec died within the first 4 days, after 
w liich f] (lays more elapsed without a single death. It was found that the injured sur- 
faces had hetiled and that the scales had l)egun to regenerate. All of (iarrey's salt- 
water lot died, though he doe.s not tell us how soon. 

The changes in weight undergone bv these scra))ed fishes aie verv insiructi\'( 
and will be dealt with later. 

The t.'mperature of the fresh water at this time was S t() it C, that of the su!* 
water being- 4 to (i . The fishes had not been fed for more than 1(5 days prior f. 
the experiment. 

During the simnner of I'.tOo a few similar experiments were performed. The 
conditions were, however, necessarily difierent. The salinity of the water from 
which the tishes came was here more than thi'ee times that of the water at the New 
York A(iU!irium. while the temperature was of course verv nmch highei'. 
K.,;„r;u.„t IS. 

Woods Hole, August. I'.MC. Thirty /: //<Yc/Y>r///,/,v denuded of scales over 
one entire side of the body. Divided into lots of 10 each \\ hicli were put into 
salt water, fresh water, and water of density 1.001, respectix ciy. During the 
pei'iod covered by the experiment (14 days) the results were as follows: (a) 
In salt water, 3 dead, 7 alive and apparently well; Q)) in fresh water, all 
dead in from :i to 13 days; (c) in l.ool water, none dead. In the last case (c) 
the water contained 1 part of fresh to at)out 25 parts of sea water. 
E.rp,niund I'J, 

Woods Hole, summer of llt(»5. Seven tishes in fr(>sh water all died within 
24 hours. 

" This being the density of New Y<.rk Bay water at this time of tlie year. See ]). i;k. 



Since ccrh 
(1 i„ frcsl, 


liii of till 
1 watci-. it 


- tisll.'S I, 

was til, 


is,.,l ill tiu> ah. 
.iiylit tiiat tilt' 


■;it(ir\- 1>V 


:i cniiniar; 

u„t Jl. 


itivolv ra 


'I'i'l l>i-"cfss of 



(>4 HULLETIN OF THK HUKKAir OF FISHERIES. 



Tiiis l<,t of Hshcs, ill salt water, likewise showed a hiolier mortality than 
those in expoi-iiiieiit Is. thoueji h.Te other causes prolmblv coiiiplicaled the 
results. 

ACCI.IMATIZATION. 

experiments are, in nature, oiten 
ieiit he accustomed to it in the 
lahorator\ hv a comjiarat iv(>l\ rapid process of ac<dimatization. 

:.rj>rnuu,d Jl. 

Woods Hole, AiiM-ust and Septemhei'. Ilt(i4. Twenty-five s(dected si)ecimen> 
of F. heterocJittis transterivd from salt to fresh water throu.yli hourly steps ol' 
about 0.(101 in sjiecitic e-r:i\ity." First -2, tishes died 6 days after reachinii' fresh 
water; -io per cent (10 tishes) died within first 11 days; oidy 2 more died within 
the following lit days, wIkui the exj)criinent was di.scontinued. 
It is evident that the harmful elfects of the change to fre.sh water have not heen 
prevented, though comparison with jireceding experiments suggests tinit they haxc 
hcic heen diminished. 
Krj,.rh„a,fJJ. 

Woods Hole, August and September, l!)Oi. Twenty-six /•'. LiaoA'dH.'i 

transferred from salt to fresh water through steps of O.oOl per day.* First 

tish died 6 days after reaching fresh water; 1 more dead and another sick on 

the following daj\ when the experiment had to ))e discontinued. 

It is to be noted that no deaths occurred during the 20 days occupii-d by the 

transfer and that all of the tish were healthy at the time of entering fresh water. 

Taken by itself this experiinent would 

others it is significant. 

If complete a.vlimatization t( 
of /: h,f, r,,ri;tHs. it is not surprl: 
Krj.riu.nfJJ. 

Woods Hole. August. 1!»04. 'i'wenty-four large selected /-". i,nij,ii:.s trans- 
ferred to fresli water tlirougli a series of hourly steps of o.OOl in si>ecitic 
gravity. (See footnote tuider experiment -J.-!.) First ^ tishes died within li 
days after reaching fresh watei-; ."i(» [ler cent died within :> days: last one died 
in S days. 
( "omparison with experiments 1 to ."i shows that the period of resistance was 
somewhat prolonged hy e\en this brief period of acclimatization. 'I"he same phe 
nomenoii is even better illustrated bv the next experiment. 

'■:■'■/"'■! f.^',. 

Woods Hole, August and September. IIMJI. Same as last, except that daily 
steps of 0.001 (approxiiiiat<dy) were substituted for hourly ones. Fishes fed 
throughout. First 2 died 4 days after reaching fresh water; last fish lived i» 
days (then disappeared). 

" 'I'lu'sf fislu's remained througli one ni.u'hl. Imw ever, nboul nndwiiy in tlie scale. 

''Tlieiii-tiiHl reiuling of the snliuomeler iit 20" C. was liere used, no eorrection being made tor temperature. Ilcnee llie 
last step was mueli greater than the preeeding ones, being in reality from specific gravity 1.003 to 1, instead of from l.tiul. 



1 11. 


it seem convinc 


ing, but in i 


•on IK 


iH'tion with 


tha 


vater within a sli 
( this proved tri 


lort period f. 
.e of /•: nn,, 


died 


in the case 
as well. 



EFi'ECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 65 

Euuene Smith (1902) says of this species that it "can be ai-custouied to the [fresh 
water] aquarium bj' gradual steps," but he does not state how gradual these steps 
must V>e. 

E.vperiiiunt 2^. 

Woods Hole, August and September, 1904. Three ('i/2>ruio(.lo)i r((rle</iitu!< 

treated as in preceding case. Two died 3 days and one -1 days after reaching 

fresh water. (Compare experiment Ui.) 

Krp,riiiumt '26. 

Woods Hole, August and September, 190-i. Thirteen cunners {Tautvgu- 

Jahrux (uhpermis) treated as were the fishes in the two preceding experiments. 

All died within 12 hours after reaching fresh water though apparently healthy 

till this occurred. 

E.vperiineiit 27. 

AVoods Hole, August and September, 1904. Nine black-fish (Tawtogfao^i/^/.v) 

treated as were fishes in experiments 24, 2.>, and 2(1, except that an additional 

step was interposed just before the change to fresh water, which was thus 

reached somewhat less abruptly. Nearly all of these fish died within 12 hours 

and all died within 24 hours after reaching fresh water. Up to this time they 

aj)[)e:intl to be in perfect health. 
The foregoing experiments prove, if an3-tliing, that fresh water itself is fatal to 
the fishes under consideration, and that the degree of abruptness with which the 
change is made is of secondary importance. There is evidence, nevertheless (experi- 
ments 21 to 25), that a certain modification may result wherebj^ the fatal effect of the 
iinal change is deferred. A partial acclimatization of a somewhat different character 
is reported by Bert (1871), who succeeded in accustoming various fresh-water fishes 
to water of half the density of that of the sea, though abrupt change to this proved 
fatal. De Varigny (1892), likewise accustomed young eels to water containing five- 
tenths per cent sodium chloride, though the additions of salt had to be ver_v gradual. 

ENDIKANCK IX WATEK OF LOW SALIMTY. 

It is plain from certain of the preceding experiments that some fishes which die 
(|uickly in pure fresh water will endure, for short periods at least, water of a very 
low degree of salinity. Special experiments were made with a view to testing thi,> 
point. 

Evprrlmeiit 28. 

Woods Hole, September, 19o4. vSeventy-five specimens of F. JieferocUtu.t, 
from same lot of fishes as those used in experiment 10, were changed from 
salt water (density 1.023)" abruptly to water of density 1.004. No deaths in 
11 days, after which experiment was discontinued. Compare with experi- 
ment 10, for which this serves as a good control. 
Eqx'rhjwnt 29. 

Woods Hole, September, 1904. Twenty-five E. inujaliv subjected to same 
treatment and with same results. 

a Unless otherwise specified the density here given has been corrected for temperature— i. e., the specific gravity at 
4° C. is given. 

B.B.r.l905— 5 



66 



BULLETIN OF THK BOKEAU OF FISHERIES. 



's with tlic preceding- except that tl 



Experiment SO. 

Woods Hole, Septenilier. I'.tOt. Ag-iv 
water density was \SW.\. The results were tlie same. 

Water of dciisitj' 1. 002 was employed, and only 1 tish died, on the loth day. 
after which the experiment was discontinued. 

During the season of 190.5 some individuals of this species were found to survixc 
1.5 daj's (i. e., until the experiment was discontinued) in water having only al)i)ui 
3 per cent of the salinity of the local sea water (experiment 31 bis). In this ca^i . 
however, a large majority of the fishes had died in the meantime, and it would thcK 
fore seem that the physiological limit of dilution had been passed. In a few ca^'^ 
the same symptoms were observed as in the case of F. heteroditus in pure fro^h 
water. (See p. 61.) 

The same result is less strikingly shown in the case of sculi)ins (experiment A*'<]. 
Two of these tishes put into fresh water died within 24 hours (perhaps much les>). 
while of 3 from the same lot which were put into water having a specific gravity nt 
about 1.001" 1 survived 6 days, when death occurred, the remaining 2 for 3 day>. 
when they were put back (living) into salt water. 

The water used in the last two experiments had only 3 to 4 per cent of the saliii 
ity of pure sea water. If the mere change in the osmotic pressure of the surround 
ing medium were responsible for the harmful effects, it would not be expected tiiat 
transfer to water of a very low degree of salinity would result in little or no harm tn 
the fish, when transfer to pure fresh water was so quickly fatal. This salutary influ- 
ence of a very small proportion of salt in the water is later shown to be related to an 
important difi'erence in its effect upon the salt content of the body (pp. 90 et sc(|). 
The latter is shown to undergo a serious diminution in fresh water, while little i>r 
no diminution occurs if the water be even slightly saline. 



EFFECT OF TRAXSFElt OF BRACKISH AND FUESH WATER FISHES TO SALT WATER. 

Experbiien ts 32-35. 

Woods Hole, July, August, September, 1904:. Eundulm (Uapha-nns from a 
brackish pond (density 1.005 to 1.006) transferred directly to sea water. Tiie 
record of deaths in the four cases reads: 



Experiments. 


1 day. 


2 days. 


5 days. 


13 days. 




1 


1 
"20 
34 


2 


IS 


33 (25 fish) 


34 (50 fish ) 


38 
5 


(■■') 


35(25 fish) 





(I Discontinued. 

These differences in the death rate are doubtless due to the condition of the fishes 
at the time of experiment. Those used in experiment 33, for example, had remained 
unfed for about 3 weeks. During the summer of 1905 the experiments were repeated 
with similar results, confirming (1) the harmful effects of this abrupt change of water 
density, and (2) the variability of different lots of fishes in their capacit}' to endure 

the salinity fell to about one-half of this. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 67 

tiie change (in some lots a large majorit_y survived). These experiments show fur- 
thermore that those fishes which survive the first few days after the transfer to salt 
water may continue to liv(> in the latter for an indefinite period (one set observed as 
much as 23 days). It is curious to relate that the survivors in experiment 32 (9 fishes 
at the end of lit days), upon being transferred abruptly to fresh water, continued 
alive for the next 10 days, after which their history was not noted. 

Several experiments with the white perch (Morone americana) indicate that an 
al)rupt change from slightly brackish water to full-strength sea water is generally 
fatal, under laboratory conditions at least. Here again a great deal depends upon 
the condition of the fishes. During the present season, in several lots transferred to 
salt water, the majority of individuals were dead within 24 hours. One experiment 
during the preceding summer, however, gave difi'erent results. 
Experiment 36. 

Ten fishes transferred to salt water survived s days, after whit'h they were 
not observed. 

It must lie noted, however, that the brackish water was more saline in the latter 
experiment, and consequenth' the change in density was not so great. 

Young of the chinook salmon {(hirorJii/ncInix fsr/iinri/fsc/ui), weighing from S 
to 30 grams, which had been reared in fiesh water, were placed aluuptly in watei- of 
density 1.013" without harm, but this is not surprising in view of the life history 
of this species. 

A few species of exclusiveh' fresh-water fishes were likewise expewmented upon, 
but it was not thought necessarj^ to do so with man}', since the commonly fatal efiects 
of salt water upon these fishes are already well known. Three 3'ellow perch {I'erca 
lf((i','sc( iik) and three sunfish {EKjuniiiifix (jiliho.siis) were dead after l-t hours (probaiily 
much less) in the diluted salt-water supply nf the Nt^w York Aquarium (density 1.h1,5 
at the time). One catfish (.1//// /«/'/x luliuhisiis) was found dead after 18 hours in 
water of density 1.014. Several of this sp(>cies in another experiment were nearly 
dead after two days, but in this latter case the density of tiie water was 1.010. Hence 
the harmful efl'i^cts were naturally diminished. Four rudd (Zc/z'/.s, //.v , rijfJimjihfJKd- 
iiuin), put directl}' into water of density 1.010, died some time iMtwiiii .'4 and 4S 
hours after the change. In another case (experiment 50) S of these ti-lie- died within 
24 hours in water of densit}' 1.011. 

Bert (1871, 1873, 1883) has discussed at consideraide length the fatal eflects of 
transferring fresh- water fishes to salt water. He gives a list of species experimented 
upon, with the avei'age time which elapsed before death in each case, ranging from 
eighteen minutes for the "ablette" (a cyprinoid) to a period of from one daj' to a 
month or more in the case of the eel. Bert points out the efiect of higher or lower 
temperature in hastening or retarding the death of fishes under these conditions. 
He likewise describes the sj'mptoms attending the death of a goldfish when it was 
thrown into sea water: violent agitation, followed by quiescence; rise of the fish to 
the surface, due to lower specific gravity; disturbances of respiration (at first accel- 
erated, then retarded); changes in the color of the gills; opacit}' of the cr\-stalline 

"This was the density of tlie salt-water supply of the New York Aquarium at the time. It is likely that they would 
have withstood the transfer to full-strength sea water equally well. 



08 KULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

lens; increased secretion of niucu.s; loss of weight. 'I'lie muscles responded to stiiiuili, 
ai}d the heart continued beating after all external signs of life had disa])peared. 
Bert found that his tishes would endure abrupt transfer to mixtures of fresh and salt 
water, proviiled that not moi-e than one part of sea water to two parts of distilled 
water were used. He states that the fatal etfects commence at the point where the 
water is capable of exercising an exosmotic action on the fish, though he gives nn 
evidence for this view. By a gradual process of acclimatization, however, he accus 
tomed fresh-water tishes to live in water having one-half the salinity of that of the 
sea. The specific gravity of such individuals was thereby raised, for. if icturned to 
fresh water, they were found to sink to the l)ottom. 

Conversely, Bert states that in the case of certain unspecitied sea animals ■•accli 
matization takes place easily up to a diminution of about a third in the salinity ol' 
the sea water, and that be3'ond that death comes very readily." That this latter 
conclusion is unjustitied in the case of the great majority of marine tishes is show u 
in the next section. 

Bert's explanation of the "mechanism of death." in the case of fresh-water tishes 
transferred to salt water, will be discussed later. 

CHANGES IX WATER DENSITY AT THE NEW YORK AQUARIUM." 

The present salt-water supply of this aquarium is derived from New York Bay, 
whicli. as is well known, receives the waters of the Hudson River and a number of 
lesser streams, and contains in consequence a much-diluted sea water. Its specific 
gravity rarely attains and perhaps never exceeds l.Olfi, while during the spring 
months it falls at times to LUUtJ, and occasionally lower. Considering the density of 
water in the open sea as 1.027 (the mean for the North Atlantic), the water supply 
of the New York Aquarium never reaches two-thirds, and occasional!}' falls to one- 
tifth of this. Nevertheless, marine tishes of 173 species*, belonging to 72 different 
families, have been kejjt in this water, some of them surviving for a considerable 
nunilier of years. Except in the case of tishes from the innnediate vicinity, where 
the water is also of low density, the new arrivals undergo an abrupt change from 
full-strength sea water to this much-diluted water of the aquarium. This is true, for 
instance, of more than 50 species of tishes from Bermuda, many of which have been 
kept very successfully under these unnatural conditions, some individuals having sur- 
vived as nmcli as 7 _vears. It must be added, however, that these semitropical tishes 
are received only during the suumier months and that the water containing them is 
warmed during the winter. 

EFFECT OF ALTERNATION OF FRESH AND SALT WATER. 

Expv^'iiiient 37. 

Woods Hole, August and September. 1904. Twentj-tive jp. lu-tt'i'dd'dus. 
from sea water, put into fresh and salt water alteruatel}', one change being 
made daily. During the 13 days of alternating density' only 1 fish died. 
Compare with experiment 9, in which more than half of the fish (taken from 
the same stock but kept in fresh water) had died in this period. 

" Tliese facts are furnished through the courtesy of the director, Jlr. C. H, Townsend. 
'• Based upon an incomplete list. 



EFFECTS UI'ON FISHES OF CHANliES IN SALINITY OF WATER. ()V> 

Erperiinent 38. 

Woods Hole, Septeiiihei', IHO-t. Tweiity-tive 7''. ///r/yV^Z/.v chano-ed daily from 

salt to fresh water, and vice vei'sa. No harmful results during the 8 days 

through which the experiment continued. (Compare with experiments 1 to 5.) 

Expert numU 39 and J^O. 

Woods Hole, August and September. VM)\. F. iliiq'lniiKis was used. In 

each case the elTect of this treatment was the deatii of a larger or smaller 

proportion of the fishes, though perhaps the daily handling had something to 

do with the result. 
In experiments 3~ and 08 it was seen that no harm resulted from the alternation 
of fresh and .salt water within the period of observation. Previous experiments had 
shown, however, that fishes of the same species when left uninterruptedly in fresh 
water sooner or later succumb. Giard (1900) narrates the ca.se of a stickleback which 
lived in this way for many weeks. Rutter (1904) states that young Pacific salmon 
when transferred from fresh water to diluted sea water fared better "when the 
density alternated from low to high and back again."' There is an obvious parallel 
I (('tween such fluctuations of salinity and those which i-esult from the ebb and flow of 
the tide at a river's mouth. 

AOE IN KKI.ATIOX TO EXDl'KANCK OF (•HAN(;E OF MEDITM. 

According to Rutter (1904), the young of the (juiimat salmon could endure pro- 
gressively higher degrees of salinitj" as they grew older, ranging fi-om •J.'') per cent 
sea water at 6 daj's to practically pure .sea water at 2 months. 

Loeb (1894) records a similar correlation between the age of the embryo (jf 
Fimdulus [heterocUtus) and the proportion of NaCl which could ))e added to the sea 
water without arresting developnu ,it. 

Brown (1903) states that "there is a gradual increase in susceptibility to osmotic 
changes and to the electric current as the embryo develops. "" H(> regards the latter 
susceptibility as a function of the former. 

A considerable series of measurements of F. majalix failed to reveal any selec- 
tive mortality in i"elation to size among fishes dying from the effects of fresh water. 
Such a selective mortality was ver3' obvious, on the other hand, in the case of death 
fiom asi)hyxiation, the "eliminated''' set having an average length about 7 per cent 
greater than the "surviving" .set (i. e., those last to die)." 

ADAPTATION TO rHANOKS IN THE MEDIUM IN NATIKE. 

That many species in nature may be found in either medium is well known. 
All of the anadromous fishes of course belong to this class, together with the eel 
(cutadromous). Many other salt-water fishes venture into streams and may even 
b(>come landlocked. Again, fresh-water fishes may be carried down to the sea by 
freshets and survive in waters of consideral)le .salinity. In most cases it is impossi- 
l)le to determine how abruptly the changes are made. The ascent of a large river 
may occupy weeks, and during the earlier stages of the journey a zone of gradually 
decreasing (generally of fluctuating) density is passed through. I am informed by 

"I hope befoFf long to present these results in a form whirh w\\\ meet tbertemiinds of the biometrieul critic. 



70 BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Dr. Exfnnanii. liowcNcr, that in the case of the Pacitic salmon the passage into 
the t'rosli water iiiav Ix' made (|\iite altruptly at the mouths of the smaller streams. 

Mather (ISSl) publishes a list, based mainly upon the authority of J. W. Milner 
and (i. B. Goode, of "■ fishes which can live in both fresh and salt water." This list 
aggregates 33 species, and it would probably be possible to enlarge it very greatly." 
Nothing is said, however, regarding the duration or circumstances of the change of 
medium, and physiologically these are of course highly important. By sufficiently 
slow acclimatiisation almost any change of habitat seems possible, and iiid('(>d such a 
process must have occuri'ed on an enormous scale in the evolution of lishes. 

CHANGES OF WEIGHT RESULTING FROM CHANGES IN WATER DENSITY. 
CIIANCES OF WF.ICIIT IN LIVIXU FISHES. 

Tlius far tlic (lisriiNsi<in has been lontiiied mainl}' to the death or survival of the 
various li-^lics under the conditions of e.Kperimentation, but little analy.sis being 
attempted of the pheiiouieiia iu\ol\e(l. It is evident that such changes of density 
as we ha\e dealt with in\-ol\-e enormous ehaiiges in the osmotic pressure of the 
medium with wliich th(> lish is bathed. In relation to the latter, the limiting mem- 
branes of a given fish might be (1) impermeable both to water and to salts tlicrem 
dissolved; {2) semipermeable, permitting the passage of water, ))ut barring the sulr>: 
(3) permeable to both in greater or lesser degree. If the first condition were real- 
ized, no change in weight ought to occur following the transfer of the fish from one 
"medium to another; if the second condition o))tained, we should expect an increase 
of weight in hypotonic .solutions and a decrea.se in hypertonic ones; while in the thii-d 
case we should expect the same results in a somewhat lesser degi-ee, unless, indeed, 
the membranes were equall}^ or almost equally permeable to water and salts, in which 
case the conditions necessai'y for osmotic action would be wanting. 

It must be remembered, however, that we are dealing with living matter, 
bounded by living membi-anes, and that the conditions may in consequence be much 
more complicated than outlined in tlie foregoing scheme. Various so-called "vital"' 
(i. e., as yet unexplained) factors may intervene. Thus the degree of "perme- 
ability" of a given membrane may not be a constant quantity; it maybe found to be 
in some way under the regulative contrt)l of the organi.sm, and to vary greatly at 
ditfei'ent moments and under different conditions. Again, it may be that chemical 
factors intervene, and that an imbil)ition of water may at times occur which is not 
accounted for by tiie laws of osmotic pressure alone; and indeed we have already 
noted a vast ditlerenee between the physiological eflFectsof fresh water and of slightly 
saline water, a jihenomenon not to be accounted for by their difference of osmotic 
pressure. 

If the \\-eight of a given tisji i-emained constant in a given medium'', it might, 
then, be concluded either (1) that the medium was nearl}- or quite isotonic with the 
body fluids of the fish, or, if not, (2) that the membranes of the fish were for the 
time being impermeable to water, or (3) that they were more or less permeable to 
both salts and water, but to one in nearly the same degree as to the othei-. 

a Dr. Gill has informed me of several examples not incliicied in Mather's list. 
''Always allowing for loss due to waste. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 71 

If the tish lost ill woio-ht. it would he necessary to conclude that the medium was 
h^'pertonic." But the limiting membranes, in order to produce this etiect, might be 
either semipermeable (entirely preventing the passage of salts), or permeable to 
both water and salts, though to the latter in a lesser degree than to the former. 

If a gain of weight occurred, it might be concluded either (1) that the medium was 
hypotonic, in which case the membranes might belong to either of the categories 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph; or (2) that an imbibition of water had taken 
place, due to a chemical union of some sort. It will be shown that in the case of 
dead tishes such an imbibition takes place regardless of the osmotic pressure of the 
medium. 

It nuist be repeated that the behavior of the mem))ranes of a given fish \ aries 
greatly with the conditions, and that seemingly contradictory results may be obtained 
with tishes of the same species. An extensive series of experiments which was 
carried on during the spring of 1905 at the New York Aquarium gave results that 
were almost wholly in harmony with one another, and certain conclusions were 
framed which seemed to be supj)orted by nearly all of the facts then known to me. 
A repetition of some of these experiments during the summer of 1905 gave, in certain 
cases, ([uite different results, and led to a modification of some of my conclusions. 
The only differences in the conditions, so far as I am aware, were the temperature of 
the water and the previous history of the fishes used. The New York experiments, 
since they form a harmonious series, will be descril)ed first, after which the Woods 
Hole experiments will be discussed and an attempt made to harmonize some api)arent 
contradictions. 

The method employed throughout this portion of the work was to weigh the 
fishes carefully befoi-e and after the change in the density of the medium. This 
procedure involves numerous difficulties. In the first place, fishes under such treat- 
ment should not be fed, since the gain or loss of weight through feeding or defecation 
would confuse the results. Fortunateh', most fishes may be kept unfed for da3's or 
weeks without any appreciable detriment to their health. In the second place, it is 
necessary- to determine the normal loss of weight through waste which would occur 
throughout the period of the experiment. This rate of decrease for the fishes used 
was in manj' cases determined before the commencement of the experiment; in other 
cases a conti'ol set was kept ixnder observation. In the third place, and this is all- 
important, the same conditions must Ijc maintained each time the fishes are weighed. 
The difference in the amount of moisture adhering to the body surface may make a 
serious difference in the weight recorded, even 1 or more i)er cent in the case of 
smaller fishes.'' 

In most of uw experiments the aggregate weight of a number of fishes subjected 
to the same treatment was taken. They were commonly laid upon a dry towel for 
one-half minute, then laid upon a soft cloth for one-half minute more, the cloth 
meanwhile being moved in such a way that the fishes should be gently rolled over 
the surface. Where the procedure was varied, care was taken that the same condi- 

11 The question of gain or loss of weight through the taking in or passing o>it of matter from the alimentary canal is 
here left out of account. It will be dealt with later. 

''It was at first thought necessary in each case to clip the tishes into water uf I 
order that the water adhering should be of the same specific gravity, but this was foi 



72 BULLETIN OV THE Bl'REAT' OF FISHERIES. 

tions should obtain thioiii^hout the entire experiment. To meet thr criticisni that 
the removal of mucus from tlie surface introduced an abnormal condition intb the 
experiment, fishes were in some cases weij^-hed after beinjr sinii)ly drained for a 
period upon a towel. ( )f course the weight determinations in these cases were not 
so accurate. 

Experiment li I . 

New York, X\n-\\, 1905. F. /leteroc/itu-i, from salt water of the New York 
Aquarium (densitj- 1.008, temperature 5- C, at commencement of experiment), 
unfed for 4 days, divided into lots of 25 each, and treated as follows: 
(a) Kept in salt water (l.OOS to l.OlO. durinj^' period of experiment). 

Ai.ril s 249. o 

9 247. ti 

10 247.0 

11 245.8 

12 24n.O 

18 244.0 

15 24:^.5 

Loss of weij^'lit 1 per cent during first '2 days, 2.4 per ccMit during first 7 
days. 

This lot of fish .serves as a good control for the others of the series. 
(J) Put into running fresh water (temperature 8" C). 

Grams. 

April 9, :5 p. m - 194. 2 

9, H.06 p. in 194.9 

9, 4.05 p. m 196. 7 

10 198. 5 (all well) 

11 197.3 (all well) 

12 195. 6 (a few boginniug to .siekeu) 

lo 194. 6 (fungus appearing) 

During the next 4 days a number of fishes were removed, .some of these 
having fallen prey to fungus. April 17, 5.30 p. ni., the remaining 14 fishes 
weighed 109.(5 grams. They were then transferred to salt water of densit\ 
1.018. At r).20 p. m. they weighed 108. 6 grams; April 18 (p. m.). loo.f, 
grams. 

Results: An appreciable gain in o minutes after transfer to fresh water: a 
gain of 1.3 per cent in 1 hour; a gain of 2.2 per cent in 1 day, followed by 
loss, as in a above; after change to salt water, a loss of 8.2 per cent in 1 day. 

It is to be noted that the loss of weight after the second change was much 
greater than the gain after the first. 

(h') Boiled (fresh) water used, instead of running watei-, resulting in a gain of 
5 per cent in 1 day, 14 per cent in 2 days. 

In this experiment 4 fi.shes were sick on the second day. while all but 4 
were dead on the third. Here and elsewhere the death of the fish was 
accompiuiied by much more rapid imbibition of water. 



EFFECTS T'VOX FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 73 

((•) Fishes put inrn water averaging- about 1Jm»1 (ranging t'nun a halt' point 
below to a half point aliove this tigure). 

April S. 248. 6 

9 250. 9 

10 24(i. 9 

11 240. 5 

12 244.7 

i:5 24:?. 2 

15 242.9 

17, 5.15 p. lu 241.5 

Fishes then put into 1.0:^5 water. 

.\pril 17. (i.l5 p. Ill 239.6 

l^-l'-i" ---- - 228.5 

Ui 225. 6 

Fish in good condition up to this time. 

Results: In water of density 1.001, a gain of nearly 1 per cent in lirst day; 
a loss of 2.2 per cent in 2 days, of 3.7 per cent in 8 days. After change to 
salt water, a loss of O.tj per cent in 2 days. 

(d) Water of density 1.015 (sea water from Sandy Ho(jk. slightly diluted). 
Loss of 1.3 per cent in 2 days, of 3.1 per cent in 11 days. The tishes remained 
in perfect health throughout. It is not at all prohahle that the decrease 
during the lirst 2 days is significant. 

(') Water of density 1.025 (Sandy Hook water, strengthened by addition of 
commercial .sea .salt). This particular lot of water had, for some reason, a 
harmful effect upon the fishes. It! of them being removed dead or in a dying 
condition during the first 9 days. The results are none the less worth record- 
ing: Loss of 1.3 per cent during first hour; of-t.l per cent during first day; 
of S.3 per cent during first 2 daj's. After this the decrease was far le.ss rapid. 
At the end of 9 da3's the 9 remaining fishes were put into the salt water of 
the aijuarium .supply (now 1.010). The weight remained practically stationary 
(lo.ss of less than 1 per cent) during the next 3 days. 
Comparison of c with i figures is interesting, the gain following transfer to 
this slightly saline water being much less than that in fresh water. It is also to be 
recorded that no deaths occurred in the 9 days during which the fish were in the 
slightly saline water, while 11 fi.shes were in this time removed, either dead or sick, 
from the fresh water. The absence of fungus from the.se fi.shes .seems to be due not 
^o much to the fatal effect of the salts upon the fungus (for the latter will thrive in 
water of much greater salinitj', see p. p9) as to a salutary effect upon the fishes them- 
selves. It is well known that fishes which are in good health are mo.st resistant to 
fungus, while tho.se which are in poor condition most readily succumb to it. 

The loss of weight in i^. Ju'ti-rodltun when changed from diluted sea water (1.013) 
to nearly full strength sea water (1.023) is shown once more in the case of the fishes 
u.sed in experiment 86; but in this case no harmful effects resulted to the tishes. and 
the experiment is therefore of greater significance. The loss of weight here was 2 
per cent during the first day. 



74 HULLKTIN OF THE BUKKAU OF FISHERIES. 

Ill iinother experiment (experiment 81) in which li.shes from (dihited) suit wati r 
(l.olH) were transferred to fresh, there was a j^ain of 2 per cent durino- tiie tii-st (l:i\ . 
followed l)V a loss of more tluin L per cent durinjr the sec(jiul. 
K,-p,rhu,nt J,.'. 

New Yorl>, April, ll»Oo. ^'ine F. lu-ti'i-aditus whieii had been for six dav- 
in fresh water were put back into the salt water of the aejuarium (1.009). A 
loss of nearly S per cent occurred duriiiff the first day, after which the weight 
remained stationar}- for a day." It v.ould thus appear that water of thi~ 
density was hypertonic to fishes which had li\ed in fresh. 
Krp,-r!i)u'nf 4-J. 

In this experiment J\ /" t< r^cmux was tiansferred to fresh water. The fishes 
W(>re throui^'liout weij^'hed indixidually. The results are in au-reement with 
the fori'goinu-. hut the tigures are not given, since the method of procedure 
was not so careful, this being the tirst of my experiments in weighing. 
It seems to me that all of the results thus far tabulated are ii harmony witli the 
following provisional hypothesis: The body fluids of the fishes used had, at the 
conmiencement of the experiments, an osmotic pressure lying .somewhere between 
that of water of densitj' 1.005 and water of density 1.015. Transfer to a medium 
whicii was decidedly hypertonic resulted in loss of weight; transfer to a medium 
which was decidedly hypotonic resulted in a gain in weight. In the former case, the 
osmotic pressure of the fluids of the fishes was raised, in the latter case it was low- 
ered. In neither case, however, was an osmotic equilibrium between the "internal 
and external medium" established. The osmotic pressure of the bodv fluids of 
the fishes fluctuated within a much narrower range than did that of the suri-ounding 
water. Furthermore, the change in weight bore no constant ratio to the change in 
the osmotic pressure of the water, as a comparison between the li and the c figures 
shows. Again, it is evident here and elsewhere that greater changes in weight 
oci-urred in those cases in which tlie fishes were atiected harmfully l)y the new 
medium. 

It is only fair, however, that 1 should mention one experiment with /". h.t, ,■"- 
r//'fus, in which the results are hard to reconcile with the otliers. 
E.i-p<:rlm,nt U. 

New York, April, 1905. Twenty -five fishes changed from water of densit_> 
1.010 to water of density 1.018. Not only was there no loss, but apparently a 
slight gain during the first day, followed by a decrea.se of about liper cent 
on the second. The accidental dropping of a bit of food into the tank might 
liave been responsible for the result, though this can not be assumed as an 
explanation. 
The experiment in which the scales were remo\ ed prior to the change of medium 
has alreadj- been discussed (p|). (I'i-ti-):) in reference to the survival of the fishes. An 
analysis of the changes in weight is here worth while 
Experiment 1)5 . 

New York, April, 1905. For an account of conditions see page 63. 

" It must t)C rcoordetl here that the 9 fishes were all that survived of a lot of 50, the remainder of which had died from 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANOES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 75 

(,i) Fishes ill (dilute) salt water (l.ooT to 1.009). Loss of 1 per cent in 5 
days. Ill experiment 41, </, where normal tishes were used, there was a loss 
of 1 per eent in 2 days, but the tishes had been much more recently fed than 
ill the present experiment (here unfed Ki days), which may account for the 
dirierence. 

{h) In fresh water (running). Gain of 2.s per cent in '1 tlays. 4 per cent in 
4 days, after wliich tlie increitse ceased. Here the iiaiii for the tirst 2 days 
is only slig'htly in excess of the gain in 1 day in the case of the normal tish 
(experiment 41, h). 

(r) In l.uul water (running). Gain of 1.4 per cent in 2 days. (Unfortu- 
nately the gain in 1 day was not determined). In (experiment 41. r. the tishes 
gained 1 per cent during the tirst day, then lost. 

(i!) In l.nl4 water. Loss of 1.2 per cent in 2 days. This loss is not more 
than is aceoimteil for liy waste. 

(() In 1.02.5 water. Loss of 4.3 per cent in 1 day; tj.l per cent in 2 days. 

In experiment 41, e, these losses were 4.1 and 8.3 per cent, respectively, but this 

is liardly a fair comparison, since in the latter case the water was for some 

reason harmful to the fishes. 

It will thus lie seen, by comparing the expei'imeiits ujion sound tishes with those 

in which the tishes were scrai)ed, that the removal of scales throughout a large area 

did not result in increasing the influx or efflux of water resulting from changes in 

the density of the medium. Garrev's contention (p. <i2) thus appears to be disproved. 

Indeed, later experiments seem to indicate that it is through the membranes of the 

gills and not through the general body integument that these osmotic changes mainly 

occur. 

The following experiment shows strikingly the difference between the effect of 
pure fre.sh water aiul watei- which is slightly saline. It also illustrates the alternate 
gain and loss of weight which a tish may ur.dergo in consequence of repeated changes 
of density. 

Expei'lnuitf 1^6. 

New York, April. IKO.'i. Five specimens of the IS-spined sculpiii {^fyo.ro- 
eej>/uiJi/f< octodec'i msjiriiosiix) taken from salt water of density 1.009. 

{i() Two specimens put directly into fresh water. After 24 hours lioth were 
dead. Average increase in weight, 4.3 per cent. 

{h) Three put into 1.001 tank (density ranging from a half point above to a 
half point below that figure). Average increa.se of 2.4 percent during Hrst 
day; 8.8 per cent during 3 days. 

At this tiiu(> two of the fishes (Nos. 1 and 3) were Mck, the other (No. 2) 
appearing quite well. It is to be noted that the gain in weight was (-onsider- 
ably less in the case of this latter fish. The two former fishes w-ere accord- 
ingly put back into the salt-water tank (now of density 1.011), No. 2 being- 
left in the 1.001 tank. No. 2 gained an additional 2 per cent during the fol- 
lowing day and died after 2 days more (6 days after beginning of experiment). 
Nos. 1 and 3 underwent loss of 6.5 per cent during next 4 days (in salt water). 
These last wei'e then put for a second time into l.Ool tank, when thei-e 
resulted a gain of 4.8 per cent in 1 day. 



76 BULLKTIN OK THE BUREATT OK KISHERIES. 

The experiinent was discontinued after 4 days of l.(J()l water. At this tiin' 
1 lish was dead, the other feeble. 
JExperii/iriif.^ 'i7 'IikI ',^. 

New ^'urk. Aj))-!!. VM^U. Six tonicod (MicnHjiuInx tomcdij) and ]n wiiilcr 
floundiM-s (I's, ii(l(jjilriif<ii)i<-/i-K (i/iie/w'ai/ms) were used, respectively. With cadi 
species a ei miparisoii was made between the effects of fresh water and of tin- 
siielitiy saline water. With the former species the gain was slight (a})out I 
per cent in each case, though here slightly less in the fresh water), and e\eii 
the transfer to fresh water seemed to have little or no harmful effect. Mo-i 
of the fishes lived until killed by fungus, from 1 to 4 weeks later. 

In the case of the flounders there was a gain of about 5 per cent in 1 day in 
each sort of water. In fresh water, however, the fishes died in 2 days, in tlir 
slightly saline water in from 4 to 5 daj's. 

Weight determinations were likewise made in the <-ase of certain fresh-water 
fishes transferr(>d to salt Mater. 
Eeperiiinnt ','■>■ 

New York, .\prii. liM)."). Three catfishes {AmAurux ii,luhmi!<)Y>y\\ into salt 
water (1.01U-|-). Average decrease for all. 8.3 per cent in IT liours: a\-eiae'e 
decrease for two, 1.").8 per cent in 48 hours. 

One of the fishes, being put back into the l.ool tank at the end of IT h()ui>. 
regained in -1 days nearly all that it had lost. Those in salt water were \iry 
feeble at the end of the second day. 
Ei-prriment oO. 

New York, April, IHO.l Eight rudd {Lrnr;s,;,>< erijthrophtl,,,! mus) had l..>i 
over 4 per cent at end of first day in water of density l.Ull. All dead. 
It seemed particularly worth while to test the changes of weight in the case nf 
certain fishes which may survive abrupt change from fresh to salt water, and which 
in nature inhabit both. Hence the next six expei'iments. 

EqM'llHrut 01. 

New York, May, 1!»05. Five white perch {21<imne (uncrtcand), taken from a 
fresh-water pond, lost on the average 4.7 per cent during the first day aftei- 
the change to salt water (1.012). During the preceding 2 days the loss from 
waste had been only 2.2 per cent or slightly over 1 per cent per day. The fish 
all appeared perfectly well after the change. 
E.rpei'imetif 52. 

Five other specimens of the white perch (taken from salt water) were trans- 
ferred to fresh. The average weight of these remained almost exactly sta- 
tionary during the following day, after which the}' were not weighed. It 
must be remembei-ed, however, that stationary weight implies a gain sufficient 
to cover the loss thi'ough waste. Nevertheless, such a result was not what I 
had anticipated, and this experiment is one of the two among the entire New 
York .series whose results are not entirely in harmony with the others. 
The case of the chinook salmon {0>iri>/'/i///u'/iiis tscliiiir^/tKcha) is yet more 
instructive. 

Er.periiiient oJ. 

New York. March and April, I'.tu.".. Six specimens which had been reared 
in fresh water at the New York Aiiuarium were chanued abruptly to salt 



KFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. ( i 

water (density duriug; experiment 1.007 to 1.009). Result, a decrea.se of L'.tl 
percent diirino- first day: 3.8 per cent during 2 days; 4.7 per cent durini;- 4 
days; 6.1 per cent during- H days. 
Experiment- -5^. 

New Yorlv. jNIarch and April, 190.3. Performed as control of above. >ix 
fishes of same lot left in fresh water and weighed to determine loss due to 
waste. It was found that there was a decrease of l.H per cent during tii'st 
day; 2.(! per cent during -1 days; -i:.7 percent during 4- days: <> i)erceTit during 
6 days. 
The initial loss is thus seen to be considerably greater in the fishes transferred 
to even this dilute sea water. But the total loss during the first 6 days, and even 
during the first -4 days, is practically the same in each case. This is precisely 
what we should expect if the salt water were hypertonic and the membranes perme- 
able both to water and (in lesser degree) to salts. There would result, first, a loss 
of weight, followed by a relative gain in weight as equilibrium was reestablished. 
This experiment I regard as an extremely important one from the present point of 
view. Accordingly I repeated it, though the density of the salt water was considei- 
ably greater at the time of the second experiment. 
E.cperiment oo. 

New York, May, 1905. (</) Six (Jiu-urliyiirlim put uito sab, water (density 
1.013). Loss 3.1 per cent duriug first day, -±.5 per cent during 4 days. 

(1>) Six fishes left in fresh water. Loss of 1.9 per cent during first day. .5 per 
cent during 4 days. 

(r) Six fishes put into salt water (density i.UL'3) in a hirge can. without aera- 
tion. The fishes, as might have l)een expected, were all dead (prol)al)ly asphyx- 
iated). The loss in 1 day was nearly 12 per cent. 
That water of the density 1.013 should prove hypertonic to these fishes is not 
perhaps surprising. But that water of densit\- 1.007 to 1.009 should have done so 
(experiment 53) was. I confess, a source of astonishment, since such water has 
between one-fourth and one-tliird the salinity of ocean water. 
Erperhnent 56. 

In this experiment the water was of a density 1.007 to L.008, and 4 fishes 
showed an average decrease of 3.ti per cent in 24 hours. These fishes, it is 
true, had had a patch of scales removed on one side, but this does not affect 
the result as determining whether or not the water was hypertonic. All of 
the fishes in this and in the three preceding experiments survived this treat- 
ment and continued to live in health as long as they remained under observation. 
After making due allowance for gain or loss of weight through various acci- 
dental cii'cumstances, in no wa}' related to osmosis, and for the imperfections of the 
method emplo3'ed, it seems to me to l)e proved by the foregoing figures that water 
may enter or leave the body of a fish after immersion in solutions having a different 
osmotic pressure from the latter. It may be questioned, however, to what extent 
this process is a normal one, and to what extent it is pathological. In certain cases, 
without doubt, it is pathological, the death of the fish resulting from, or at least 
being accompanied by, a considerable gain or loss of water. In earlier experiments 
it was found that FnuduJns heferocJIfus sooner or later died from the effects of fresh 



78 BULLETIN Of THE BrREAU OF FISHERIES. 

water. It iimv l)<> ()l)jected, therefore, that any osmotic change occurring in this fi>li 
M'hen pliiccil iti licsh water niu.st be classed as pathological. I do not think that llii- 
conclusion is a necessary one, for the following reason: Both the gain and suhsi 
(juent loss in weight occur long before any ill efi'ects are manifested, and if the tislicv 
are removed in time to their normal medium no harm will have resulted. In utiv 
case such objections do not apply to most of the other e.xperiments with this specir-. 
nor do they apply to any of the experiments with the salmon, nor probabh' to eitlni 
of those with the white perch. 

A few words are likewise necessary in reply to uuotlicr possible criticisui of my 
interpretiitions. It maj' be asked, may not the increase or decrease in weight li" 
due to water being taken in or passed out of the alimentary canal ^^ Have \m' 
necessarily to do with osmotic phenomena at all? While the former possibilitj' has 
not been absolutely excluded, and could not be excluded, save by ligaturing })otli 
ends of the alimentary canal, I have very strong reasons for rejecting it. In tin' 
first place, there is strong a priori improbability that the effects of osmotic action 
should be so closely paralleled in any other way. Why should a tish from salt watn 
swallow fresh or brackish water, and why should a tish from fresh or brackish water 
pass out a part of its intestinal contents when placed in salt water? And \vli\ 
should this latter initial loss be followed by a relative gain, as shown by experiment- 
53 and 5.5 i 

Yet more detiuite evidence on this question is furnished by certain experiment ~ 
described in the next section. It is there shown that salts pass from the l)ody of a 
salt-water fish when placed in fresh water. It is likewise shown that the entiir 
contents of the alimentarj' canal (indeed the entire viscera of the lish) are not 
adequate to furnish as nuich salt as leaves the body in the course of a few honis. 
It seems probable that the water enters or leaves the body along the same path as do 
the salts, that path being through one or more of the bounding membranes. Other 
experiments show that in some fishes, at least, the gills are the organs chietly 
concerned. 

As before stated, the results of certain experiments at Woods Hole failed to 
conform to those previously obtained. This is not true, however, of all these later 
experiments, although as a whole the results are certainly not as clear-cut and 
unvarying as in the New York series. The only really serious difficulties to br 
encountered relate to the behavior of Fundnlus majalis. Description of these 
experiments >vill accordingly be deferred until after the others have been considered. 
Eight experiments with 7^. /ti-tiroc/ifus are includ(>d in this later series. 

Exferhnents 57-6'4. 

Woods Hole, July and August, litOo. Out of 4 experiments in which fishes 

were transferred to fresh water, an average gain of about 1 per cent (in i to 1 

da}') was shown in 3 cases; in the fourth case, however, a loss of 1.5 per cent 

is recorded. 

In 2 experiments in wiiich water of density l.dol was used, a gain of about 

1 per cent in each case was likewise recorded. 

Of 7 lots which were put into water of density 1.009, 3 showed a gain (in 1 

case as high as 2 per cent), and 3 a loss, while 1 remained stationary. These 

'1 This criticism has been made by Bottazzi and Enriques (1901) ol the weight determinationsof ^pIj/siobyQiiinton (I'.i 



EFFECTS ITPON FISHES OF CHANGES IIST SALINITY OF WATER. 79 

Hgures may indicate a relative average gain, since 4 lots of control fishes, kept 
in sea water (1.023), together with 6 lots kept in water of density 1.013, and 1 
in water of density 1.018, all, without exception, showed a loss. It is to be 
noted that the loss in the l.(»13 water was about the same as that in the full 
strength sea water. 
Krperiments 65-68. 

Four sets of experiments with F. <li(ij>lKuiiiK may be brietly sunmiarizetl. 
The fishes came from Taslunoo Pond, which had, at the time, a density of 1.002, 
and were kept at the laboratory in running water of the same specific gravit}\ 

In 1 case, in which tliese fishes were transferred to fresh water, the normal 
loss thi"ough waste is the only change to l)e recorded, but here the diflerence 
in density was of course slight. 

In 3 cases the fishes were transferred to sea water, a decided loss following 
in each case, averaging 9.3 per cent in from 12 to 20 houi's. In one of these 
experiments the fishes, after losing 10 per cent of their weight in 20 hours, 
were found to gain again. Four of the fishes here used were removed in a 
dying condition, but the remainder gained 6 per cent during the following day, 
at the end of which they appeared to be in a perfectly healthy state, and might 
have lived indefinitely. This is the only case in which the changes during the 
second day were followed with this species, but the percentage of increase is 
too great to be accidental. It is, moreover, what would result if two fluids of 
different osmotic; pressure were sepai'ated by an elastic membrane, permeable 
to water and (though in less degree) to the salts in .solution. 

In one of the foregoing experiments the fishes, after 12 hours in salt water, 
were transferred to fresh. There followed a gain of 9 per cent, this being- 
greater than was the initial loss in this case. This experiment is interesting 
in comparison with another one (66, <?), in which fishes that had lived for 8 
days in salt water were ti-ansferred to fresh. No gain whatever resulted. 
The fishes had reached a new equilibrium, and the normal tension of the 
membranes had been restored. It is none the less surpi-ising, in view of 
other experiments, that no endosmotic flow of water here occurred, for, as 
will be shown later, fishes of this species have a considerably greater salt con- 
tent after a sojourn of some days in salt water. It might therefore have been 
expected that they would conduct themselves, in relation to fresh water, just 
as do the other salt-water species employed in the preceding experiments." 

In 2 cases in which the fishes were transferred from the 1.002 water to 
water of density 1.013 there was no significant loss, in a third case there was 
a loss of about 3 per cent in one-half day. 

Transfer from water of the above density to fresh (experiment 60. t) led to 
no increase. On the contrary, a decrease of over 3 per cent is recorded. 
In most of these experiments with F. diaphanus, the changes did not appear 
to result in any harm to the fishes, and can not therefore be regarded as patho- 
logical. Even when the change was made from the faintly brackish water in which 
they lived to full strength sea water no deaths had occurred at the time of the second 

<■ In a repetition of this experiment the fishes showed a gain ol 2.5 per cent in one day, but in this case 2 had died. 



80 BULLETIN OK THK KTTREAU OF FISHEKIES. 

weighing, in y t-iscs out of :;. hulcccl, the lislics in tlu'sc -1 cases all remained in 
perfect health for another i'4 iionrs. after whieh they were returned to tlieii 
normal medium. Thereafter no deaths oceurri'd (with one pos,sil)le exeeption) for 4 
days more, after which the lishes were no longer observed. The tishes used iiad 
been "seasoned" for a long period in the laboratory, and a large majority would 
survive indefinite transfer to sea water (see p. t!7). 
Experhfients 69-7 1. 

Six scup, wei^lied separately, were found to have gained to a scarcely 

appreciable extent if weiuhed imniediately after death. If allowed to remain 

long in the water, liowe\ cr, the gain was much more pronounced. 

In interpreting the foregoing figures it must be borne in mind that these 

experiments were made during the summer months when metabolism in general was 

more active, and when the loss of weight through waste, in these unfed animals, was 

conseijuently more rapid. Owing to this fact, and probably, also, to the discharge 

of mattei's from the reproductive organs, such accurate determinations of gain or 

lo.ss in weight as were previously made were here found to be impossible. It will be 

seen by reference to the above notes that in no case has a gain been recorded where 

it would not have been expected according to h^'pothesis. On the other hand, loss 

or stationary weight is recorded in some cases where a gain might reasonably have 

been expected. The discharge, at any time, of eggs or of ovarian iiuid from one or 

more of the fishes in a given lot might well have produced some of these aberrant 

results. This, of course, was not likely to occur during- the winter and early spring. 

Even such allowances do not seem sufficient, however, in the case of Fuixhihis 

majalif, as the following experiments show: 

Exp,rhin„ix 72-76. 

Of five lots transferred to fr(\sh water two showed a considerable gain, but 
ill both of these cases the Hshes had begun to die, and dead fishes rapidh' 
iml)il)(! water, as has already beciii pointed out. In a third case a slight 
(scarcely significant) gain is to be noted. In a fourth lot there was an initial 
loss of about 1 per cent during the first 1:^ hours, followed bv a gain of 
more than 2 per cent during the next 12 hours. But it is to be noted that 
in this case the control fishes in salt water likewise showed a loss during the 
first half day, followed likewise by a slight gain. In the fifth fresh-water lot 
a loss was recorded at the end of the first day, as well as at the end of the first 
half day, the total loss amounting to about 3 per cent, while that of the control 
lot amounted to onlj' a trifle over 1 per cent. 

Of the five lots put into 1.001 water, three were found to have lost during 
the first half day, and likewise throughout the entire day, the total loss 
amounting in each lot to more than that shown by the control fishes in salt 
water. The other two lots gained during the first half day, but lost during 
the second. 

Of the control fishes, three lots lost, one remained stationary, while one 

first lost and then gained slightly. 

Had I begun my experiments in weighing during the summer and used Fmuhi- 

lus majalk at the outset, it is likely that I should have despaii-ed of discovering any 

significant changes in weight, and, indeed, it may appear to the reader that such rig- 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 81 

iuo;s as have just been recorded maj' well have been due to accident or error. 1 will 
l)roinptly add that I can not myself satisfactorih- explain these differences in my 
results. 

It must be uri;ed at the outset, however, that these aberrant cases in no way 
invalickite the results of m^' earlier experiments. From the earlier series we are 
forced to conclude that certain changes of weight may occur as the result of osmotic 
action. Some of the later experiments show that under different conditions such 
changes ma}' not occur. The only differences in the conditions, so far as I am aware, 
relate (1) to temperature (20'^ to 22^ C. at Woods Hole, 3' to 15^- C. at New York) 
and (2) to the pre\ious history of the Hshes used. Those employed at the New York 
Aquarium had been living in water of density 1.007 to 1.012, those at Woods 
Hole (i. e., the salt-water ones) in sea water of nearly or quite full strength. I can 
not believe, however, that this was a siguiticant factor in the case. 

It is well known that osmotic pressure varies with temperature. In the present 
ease, however, it seems to be a difference in the permeability of the membranes that 
demands explanation. During the summer moiith-s metabolism in general is of 
Lourse more active, and various chemical and physical changes are in progress which 
are dormant during the colder season. It is not unlikelj-, therefore, that the osmotic 
permeability of a ffsh, always dependent upon the physiological condition of the ani- 
mal, should present considerable differences during the summer and winter months. 
This l)eing granted, it remains to be asked just what changes in permeability would 
account for some of these aberrant results. In certain of the foregoing experiments 
with the three species of Fundulus, where a decided gain was to have been expected 
in view of earlier results, a decrease was found to have occurred instead. Assuming 
that this decrease is attributable to normal waste as in the case of fishes left in their 
customary medium (or to some other irrelevant circumstance, see p. 80), how are we 
to account for a stationary weight in a stronglj' hypotonic fluid? As has already 
been stated (p. 70), a stationary weight in a medium which is not approximately 
isotonic may mean either (1) that the membranes are impermeable to water; or (2) 
tliat water and salts maj' pass through with equal freedom, in which case the condi- 
tions for osmosis are wanting. The latter alternative does not necessarily imply a 
freel}' porous state of the memt)ranes, such as obtains in the case of a filter. It is 
quite conceivable that this indiscriminate permeability of the body surface should be 
subject to the controlling influence of the organism, just as we know that the differ- 
ential permeability, which renders osmosis possible, may be so controlled. I have 
thus emphasized this second possibility, inasmuch as I regard the first one as being 
thrown out of consideration in certain cases. Although no unquestionable change in 
weight resulted in either F. majalis or F. diaphmius when transferred from salt to 
fresh water, I shall later show that a decided change occurred in both cases in the 
salt content of the bod}-. It will likewise be shown to be highly improbable that this 
salt passed from the bod}' by way of the alimentary canal or the reproductive organs, 
leaving as the only alternative a diffusion through one or more of the limiting mem- 
branes of the body. 

In some other cases, on the contrary, the facts are best explained by assuming a 
condition of complete impermeability, as in the case of F. //uijali-i when transferred 
from salt to slightly saline water. Here no certain increase in weight occurs, and 

B. B. F. 1905—6 



82 Bl'LLETIN <1F THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

there is apiwrently iio decrease in the salt content of th(> body. (See experiment 

Bert (1871) has noted that a uoldtish dying in salt water lost aliout one-tifteeiith of 
its weight, if the specimen were a small one. The loss was insignificant, on the other 
hand, if the fish weighed several hundred grams. These fishes died, on tiic 
average, in an hour's time, a period not long enough to permit of anj- extensive los>. 
just as no considerable gain was found to occur in the case of the scup dying in 
fresh water (experiments 69-71), above. Loaches and young eels, according to Beit, 
lost one-tenth or even one-sixth of their weight; but both of these fishes have a naked 
skin. In all of Bert's experiments the results of the changes were fatal, and the 
phenomena were hence pathological. 

Fredericq (1904) records that the blood plasma of elasniobranchs increases in 
volume in more dilute sea water, decreasing in less dihite. Of course a gain or l<)s> 
of weight would be entailed thereby. According to Fredericq. however, the con- 
ditions which obtain in sharks relative to osmosis are radically different from those 
which hold for the teleosts. 

Various authors have described weight changes, due to osmosis, in the case of inver- 
tebrates, but these need not be considered here. 

fHANCES OF WEKiHT IN DKAD FISHES. 

It has been noted that many of the tishes used in the foregoing set of experi- 
ments died from the effect of the change of medium, and it likewise appears from 
the records that in those cases in which death occurred the gain or loss was usually 
much greater in a given time than in those cases where no harmful effects were 
apparent. Compare, for example, experiment 81 or -41 h with 41 h' ; also experiment 
41 e with experiment 8C." The catdsh in experiment 49 lost over 8 per cent of their 
weight in 17 hours (probably 10 to 12 per cent in 1 day) and ultimately died, while 
the white perch (experiment 51) lost 4.7 per cent and the salmon (experiment 55 <(] 
only 3.1 per cent in a day in water of somewhat greater density, these two specio> 
not being iiarmfully affected by the change. It is only fair to add, however, that in 
the case of the rudd (experiment 50), which died after transfer to salt water, a loss of 
only 4 per cent is recorded. This ma}' be due, it is true, to a subsequent gain through 
imbibition of water after death (see below). 

I had at first supposed that the determination of a solution which was isotonic 
with the body fluids of a given species of lish could l)e made simply enough by 
immersing dead specimens in water of various degrees of salinity and noting the 
effects upon their weight. A solution in which the weight remained stationary wotild 
be isotonic. As a matter of fact, however, some species were found to increase in 
weight in water of any specific gravity which was employed. 
E.,:iHrhn,:ut 77." 

New York. Ai)ril. l'."05. The chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tschmryhcha).'' 
the suntish {Etqjoinot!i< gihhosun)^ and the carp {Cyprinus carpid) among the 

a See pp. 73-74 for weight changes undergone by fishes used in experiments 81 and 86. They are not recorded in n<nr^ 
for those experiments. 

ftThc snlmon is here counted among the fresh-water species because the earlier months of its life are passed in fresh 
water and those specimens here used were taken from fresh w'ater. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATEK. 83 

fresh-wutPi- species, and Fi,„<hil,i.s h,t, rn,r,1 ,is. tlie tDinooil {Mn-rn,j.i,hix to,„- 
r<i(T). and the sea raven {ll,:iiiifi'ijtf,rns <tiiii /■innni.t) among tlie salt-water ones, 
were used. The more sensitive species were allowed to die out of water, while 
the more resistant ones were killed by vapor of chloroform. Tlie tishrs were 
weighed first before immersion, again after 3 to 5 hours of soaking in the 
solutions, and once more after another interval of about I'l hours. Seven 
sorts of water were employed- fresh water, and salt solutions having the 
densities I.OOl'A. l.on:,. I. old. l.ol."). l.Oi'o. and I.OlTi. These solutions were 
prepared with a coninicnial ""sea >.alt." It was found that the salmon, carp^ 
and Fii/iiliiJiix all increased" from the first in water of all grades. This was 
practically true of the suntish and tomcod likewise, except that during the iirst. 
interval there was no appreciable increase (in one case a slight decrease) in tiie 
three stronger solutions, an increase following, however, during the next 13 
hours. The sea raven alone gave results which conformed in some measni-e 
with what one would expect from osmotic action. Here a loss occurred in the 
three stronger solutions (1.015, i.(t20, and 1.025) during the first 3i hour.s, 
this amounting to 1 per cent in the tirst case and 1.8 per cent in the last. 
YA'i^n with this species. how(»ver, there were irregularities whicii confused the 
results. 
Krj,rrh,...t7S. 

In this additional experiment with ( hir,,rhijii<-}nis. in which fresh water and 
two different strengths of salt water were used ( l.oos ami l.ol4). a gain 
resulted in each case, though in the third ease this was not certain daring the 
tirst day. 
This increase in weight of dead tishes in the foregoing experiments is in striking- 
contrast to those cases (pai'ticularly 41, <^, and 55, (■) in which fishes of the same 
species dying in strong salt water lost weight in considerable measure. The follow- 
ing two experiments likewise illustrate this contrast: 
Erptriment 7 'J. 

Specimens of the tautog, sea raven, and tomcod, which after death were i)ut 
into water of density l.(il-f, were all found to have increased in weight at the 
end of IS hours. 
Exp, r III lent HiJ. 

A living tautog put into a tul) of water of about the same density lost l.S 
per cent during the tirst 20 hours, although death from asphyxiation occurred 
some time during this period. It is true that the dead tish underwent an 
additional decrease of about one-half per cent during the next 2-4 hours, ])ut 
the loss of mucus through wiping the fish perhaps more than accounts for this. 
Tlu! increase in weight of dead fishes in solutions w hicli are undoubtedly hyper- 
tonic as compared with the body fluids maj- be explained in a number of ways. It 
is, of course, possil)le that water enters the alimentary canal at either end; or it is 
possible that after death the limiting memliranes of the body })ecome so completely 
permea))le that no osmotic action is possible, and that a process of imbibition occurs, 
the water cond)ining in some way, perhaps, with the dead proteids of the tissues. 
The latter hypothesis seems to me to be far more probable, since the gain in weight 

n Percentages of increase or decrease are omitted here as being of little importance for the i>resent discnssion. 



84 BULLETIN OK THE Hl'KEAf OF FISHERIES. 

is progressive, lasting-, it iimy lie. for diiys. ;it llic cud of wliioli tiiiu- tlic Hsh lias a 
decidedly water-soaked appeaiuiue. 

Loeb (1900) in experiinouts with pieces of muscle, which he immersed in various 
solutions, found that such pieces might either gain or lose in weioht in solutions 
which were equimolecular. but ditl'ered in respect to the salts employed. Chemical 
action, rather than simple osmotic a(tii)ii. he believed to be responsible for tiie infiwx 
or efflux of water. 

If this explanation be applical)le to the dead fishes used in my experiments, it 
will be seen that the attempt by Fredericq (1904) to ascertain the osmotic pressure of 
the fluids of the tissues of various fishes by similar weight determinations was not 
likely to yield reliable results, and, indeed, he admits that the lig-urtvs thus obtained 
differed widely from those obtained by the cryoscopic method. 

The case of those fishes which died in hypertonic solutions and likewise lost 
weight in those solutions is perhaps to be explained on the ground that the loss of 
weight occurred before and shortly after death, though this explanation does not 
seem to cover all cases (experiment so. second day). 

PERMEABILITY OF THE MEMBRANES TO SALTS IN SOLUTION." 

Some of the preceding ex[)ei-iments seem to prove conclusively that considerable 
amounts of water may enter or leave the liody of a living fish if the latter be tran— 
ferred to water of a density much lower oi- much higher than that to which it has 
])reviously been accustomed. That in all probability this water does not enter or 
leave the body by waj' of the alimentary canal has already been noted, in anticipation 
of results to be discussed later. There is thus left, as tlie most likely alternative, an 
osmotic passage through one or more of the membranes bounding the body. It has 
]»cen shown, likewise, that these changes occur, in many cases, witliout apparent 
harm to the fish. 

The cpiestion next to be discussed is whether or not salts in .solution may likewise 
dill Use through these membranes. If the gain or loss of weight shown in the preced- 
ing experiments be due to osmotic action, it is of course impossible that the pas.sage 
of salts should occur as readily as that of the water. Does it occur at alH 

This i)roblem I have attacked from ))otli si<le.>. In the first place, the passage of 
salts (strictly speaking, of chlorides) into fresh water from fishes taken from salt or 
brackish water was tested chemically. In the second place, the salt content of the 
tissues of variou.s fishes which had li\ed in water of various degrees of .salinity 
was likewise determined. It will be found that the results from these two methods 
l)iesent some striking points of agreement. The former method will be discussed 
first, although the results are as a whole less satisfactory than in the second case. 

DKTKinilNATIONS OF TUK Clll.oltlNK I'ASSED IXTO THE WATEi: BY THE FISHES. 

Fishes of known weight taken from salt or brackish water were transferred to 
khdwn volumes of fresh (in a few cases of distilled) water. The fishes were, in all 
ca-es. given a preliminary rinsing (Id to :!n minutes) in freshwater before being 
plaied in the, water to be tested. This was ol)\ iously necessary in order that all salt 

.■ 1 liiivc spoken tlirougliout ol suUs nulu-r limn ioiie, bcuuuse I ciiu nol si-e ihe lulvantajje, (m- present pnrp..-.'. 
ijor.tiHing Ihe language of the eleetrolyiie dissociation hyimUiesis. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. »i) 

water adhering to the surface should be removed. Thej- were weighed without any 
preiiminar}- drj-ing, such as was necessar\' when very accurate weight determinations 
were required. Except in a few cases, the tishes used liad been kept unfed for 8 or 
more days prior to the experiment. 

The chief difficult}' which beset this method of procedure was the fact that the 
ti>^hes had to be kept in comparatively small volumes of water. Aeration was hi 
many cases effected by the use of tanks of compressed air, but, even thus, many of tlic 
lishes were overcome by asphyxiation before the experiment had pi'oceeded far. In 
such cases we may" feel sure that the osmotic phenomena were not wholly normal. 
These cnniplirations, however, ar(> indicated in the records cited below, where due 
allowanci' i^ made for them. 

My reasons for taking the amount of chlorine as an index of the <(uantily of 
salts passing from the tish are obvious: (1) The test is an extremely simple one; 
('2) the chlorides (sodium chloride and magnesium chloride) together form more than 
s8 per cent of the entire saline ingredients of sea water." The bromine, which 
reacts like chlorine to the silver test, may be omitted as too insignilicant in amount. 
The test employed by me was Mohr's silver nitrate titi'ation method. According to 
this, a given volume of the solution to be tested is lirst tinted j^ellow bj- the addition 
of a few drops of a solution of neutral potassiiuu chromate. Silver nitrate solution 
of a given strengtli is added from a burette until, after all of the chloi'ine lias been 
lonibined as silver chloride, any excess of silver is free to combine with the chromic 
acid. At this point an abrupt change of color results, due to the appearance of the 
red silver chromate. The amount of chlorine present is of course readily coniputt'd 
from the amount of silver employed. 

For the determinations here I'ecorded I do not claim any very high degree of 
accurac}'. Nor was this either necessary or possible under the circumstances. In 
general, the larger the proportions of chlorine the more exact are the tiguies. 
Where the amount was slight, however, the determination was more diflicult. and it 
is probable that my figures in such cases are commonly too high. Again, in those 
cases in which death occurred and decomposition commenced, the presence of \ari(ius 
organic matters in the water obscured the reaction. In such event the solution was 
sometimes evaporated and the residue charred. 

Allowance was made in all cases for the quantity of rhlorinc aln'atly present in 
the fresh water used, this being about 0.003 gram per liter. 
E.qx'ri merit 81. 

New York, May, I'.tOo.'' Ten F. I,,f,rn,-I!_f,is. of aggregate weight llo.;5 
grams, taken from water of density 1.0i;j, were put into fresh water. Per- 
centages of chlorine pas.sed out (i. e., amounts per lOO grams of body weight) 
were 0.008 during the first hour, 0.030 during first day, 0.041 during -2, days. 
At the end of this period the fishes were all in seemingly normal condition. 

In this experiment several facts of interest are to be noted: (1) A quite appreci- 
al)le amount of chlorine passed from the bodies of the fishes during the first hour. 
(2) The amount passing out during .the entire first day is less than four times the 

n Dittmar (1884), in his hypothetical formula for the "proximate composition" of sea salts, gives the percentage oJ 
XaCl as 77.7.58, that of MgCIo as 10.878. In whatever combinations it may actually occur, however, the percentage. of 
chlorine is given by him as 55.292, 

(>This entire series was carried on during May and .June of 1905 at tlie New York .A.iuanum. 



86 BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OE EISHERIES. 

amount (Imiiiy the tirst liouf. iiiid siiuilurly only 37 per cunt more ]1a^^sed out (iuriiii;- 
two diiys than during tln' lirst day alone. Thus the loss of chlorides from the h()(l\ 
occurs at a steadily diminishinu- rate. This conclusion is conlirmed l)y all the -uc 
ccedini'- experiments. 

Fishes with same history as last. Al)Out twice as much chlorine was recorded 
for the tirst hour. An accid(Mit jirevented furtlier determinations. 
Erper!iHri,f S.J. 

F. }i,'frr<H-i;f„s. which had been in water of density l.no.", ( 1.004 to l.uo.;) 
for 5 days, and were taken originally from a salt-water taidc ( l.nl:-i): ().(«(; 
gram per Ino in I day. ().(i.")l gram per ion in 2 days. 
E.vperhn,i,t Sl^. 

Same species, with same histoiy: n.Oii-J gram per lno in 1 day. ().(»:i.") g-ram 
per 100 in 2 days. 
Experimt'nt S-j. 

Hame species from same tank originally, hut in 1.O05 water 10 days: 0.O31: 
gram per 100 in 1 day, O.olr-t gram per 100 in 2 days. 

In each case the tishes were well at the end of the second day of the 
experiment. 
Experiments S3 and 85 agree fairly closely, but experiment 84, for some 
unknown reason, shows a much smaller loss of chlorine. The mean results of these 
three experiments are 0.031 gram per 100 in 1 day; 0.040 gram per 100 in '2 day-. 
In experiment 81 these figures were 0.030 and 0.041, i-espectively — i. e., there is a 
practical identity between the two sets of figures. Where such great variation- 
occur as in the above results the mean of a large number of determinations should of 
course be taken. Provisionally it ma_v be concluded, however, that fishes from 
water of density 1.005 will yield aijoutas much chlorine in fresh water as fishes from 
water of density 1.013. 
Keperlir.ent 86. 

In this case the fishes had been kejat 3 days in water of density 1.023 before 
the commencement of the experiment (originally from l.(il3). Results: 0.01.' 
gram per 100 in 1 hour, 0.042 gram per 100 in 1 day. 

The figures are larger than any of those previously given. 
In order to test the possibility that the chlorides thus found had left the body by 
way of the alimentary canal or reproductive organs, the following control experi- 
ment was performed. 
E.,'perl,i,ent 87. 

Ten fishes having the same history as those used in the preceding experi- 
ment were killed, and from them were taken the entire alimentary canals and 
the gall bladders, testes, and ovaries. These were cut into fine bits; then 
macerated 15 minutes or more in fresh water. This latter was found to vield 
0.005 gram chloi'ine. Thus this lot of fishes, weighing 106 grams, could have 
furnished from the contents of their alimentary canals and reproductive organ- 
not more than five thousandths of a gram of chlorine, and probably much less 
than this. 



EFFECTS t'PON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. »( 

It will ]>e seen by reference to experiment 86 that three times this amount of 
fhk)rine (pel' iOit grams of body weight) was yielded by the living tishes in a single 
hour. A nuiuber of contirmatory experiments are recorded later. 
/{.rj,,, ■/'„>< Ufa 88 and 89. 

Fishes (F. hrf, rorJitxii) were used which had been kept in fresh water for 4 

and .1 days, respectively. The mean yield of chlorine during the first day in 

these two cases was (I.(J16 per 100 grams weight of the fish. 

This figure was surprisingly large, being somewhat over one-half the (juantity 

yielded during the first da}' by the fishes from the 1.013 water, and considerably 

greater than that yielded during the second Any by the latter. The present fisho. it 

will l)e reniembei-ed. liad already spent -i or 5 da3'S in fr^esh water. It is tn he iidtcil. 

however, that in each of tiie present experiments one or moi'e of the rislio had died 

before the chlorine test was made, and that dead fishes yield up their salts more 

readily than living ones. 

Several experiments were made with the tomcod, a fish which will, under favor- 
able conditions, survive the abrupt transfer to fresh water, and live for considerable 
periods in the latter medium. Great difiiculty was found, however, in maintaining 
sufficient aeration. 

Eqx'ruii.-ut DO. 

Here 3 tomcods, weighing 116 grams, were placed, after the preliminary 
rinsing, in 40 times their weight of fresh water. Results: 0.027 gram chlorine 
per 100 in 6 hours, 0.049 gram chlorine per 100 in 1 day. 

The fishes were all well at the end of the first 6 houi's. At the end of a day 
1 fish was found dead (death prolnibly quite recent). 
KriH-nineid Ul. 

This was a control experiment similai- to experiment ST. In this case all of 

the viscera were removed, chopped up and macerated, and the body cavities. 

containing more or less blood, were rinsed out, the water so used being added 

to the rest. Even in this case the quantity of chlorine thus yielded was onh' 

0.010 gram for each 100 grams weight of the fish." 

This is seen to be only a little more than one-third the amount passing from the 

living fishes in the course of 6 hours. It can not be seriously maintained, then, that 

any large part of the salts which were found in the water had left the bodies of the 

fishes by waj^ of the alimentary canal. Tiiat it passed out through the organs of 

excretion might be argued with somewhat greater plausibility. 

In two other experiments in which this species was employed the aeration was 
quite insuflicient and the fishes soon began to die in consequence. 
Erperiiiieiit 9,L 

Two of the fishes had died during the first hour, and the proportion of 
chlorine passed out during this period was 0.021 per loO grams. Here the 
phenomena were of course pathological. 
E.tperiment 9-J. 

Death did not occur so soon, and the figure for the first hour was verv much 



intended here, not the weight o£ the viscera from which the salts 



88 BULLETIN OF THE BUREALT OF FISHERIES. 

Experiments 9Jf, 95, and .%'. 

These experiments, dealing- with sea raven (2 cases) and sea bass, will he 
briefly mentioned, though I attribute far less importance to them, since fresh 
water is soon fatal to both of these species and we are hence not dealini;- witli 
normal phenomena. In the case of one sea raven ti-ansferred to fresh water, 
the loss of chlorine was 0.018 per 100 grams during the first hour and o.ol's 
during first 2 hours. Death probably occurred not long after this. 

Another sea raven was placed in distilled water and death occurred in about 
2 hours. Up to this time 0.039 gram chlorine per 100 had passed out. Here 
and in the preceding case almost the entire epidermis was sloughed ofl'. oven 
before the death of the- fish. 

A sea bass yielded 0.012 gram per 100 during the -to minutes which elapscii 
before death. 
The most instructive cases should be those of fishes which in nature live in 
either medium, and ma_v be transferred with impunit}- from one to the other. The 
chinook salmon is of course such a fish, and experiments were attempted with this 
species, specimens being used which had previously lived 4 days in salt water. It 
was found impossible, however, to keep up sufficient aeration in the limited volumes 
of water employed, and the fishes died quickly. The white perch {Morone aiiu'iu- 
c-ana) is a much more favorable subject for such experiments. It has already been 
noted (p. 60) that perfectly healthy specimens will, in man}' cases at least, survive 
ti'ansfer to fresh water. For example, two of the same lot as used below were put 
into running fresh water and remained in good health for four days, when they 
were removed for other purposes. This alone would not of course be fully conclu- 
sive. 

Experiment 97. 

Two white perch from salt water (density 1.015), unfed for 2 days, after 
preliminary rinsing put into separate jars, each containing fresh water 10 
times the weight of the fish. Mean results for 2 fishes, 0.0.36 gram chlorine 
per 100 in 1 day, 0.0.58 gram chlorine per 100 in 2 days. Both of these 
figures are considerably higher than the ones for E. heteroctitiis. 

The fishes at the end of the first day were in perfect health. By the end of 
the second day aeration had stopped and l)oth fishes were dead. 
Experiment 98. 

The control experiment of extracting the salts from the viscera was per- 
formed once more with fishes having the same history as the preceding. Not 
only were all of the viscera removed and the body cavities rinsed, but the 
former were boiled for 15 to 20 minutes. It was found that the chlorine 
derived from all of these sources was (in proportion to the weight of the fishes 
used) considerably less tlian two-thirds as much as passed from the liody in a 
single day and only al>out one-third as much as passed from the l)ody in l' 
days. 
This does not of course entirely dispose of the objection that tlie salts may leav(^ 
the body in the excretions of the kidneys. 

It remains to be considered whether chloj-inc in appreciable (juantities is given 
oft l)V fresh-water fishes while in their normal medium. It will be remembered that 



EFFKCTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES TN SALINITY OF WATER. 89 

ill experiments 88 and 89 some F. hetei^ocUtm which had been living in fresh water 
foi- some daj's were found to pass out about half as much chlorine in a day as did the 
fishes recently taken from salt water. In qualification of these figures it will be 
recalled (1) that small amounts of chlorine were apt to be overestimated, and (2) that 
in each of these two experiments one or more of the fishes had died. 

Experiment 99. 
A cattish {Ameluruft nehuloifus) was found to pass out during li» hours 

O.OOJ: gram chlorine per 100." This is thus between one-eighth and one 

seventh the first day's output of F. hi-tn-dclifux from salt water. 

E.cpH''ni,<niU 100 and 101. 
These experiments, in which carp were used, are decidedly puzzling. The 

output of chlorine per 100 grams of body weight was in one case 0.009 gram 

in 5 hours, in another it was 0.015 gram in 16 hours. 
Since these fishes had not been fed for 10 and 13 days, res,pectivcly, the salts 
here indicated can not have been pas.sed out in feces. I can only mention, by 
way of possible explanation, that the fishes here used had been living in fresh water 
which received a slight, though undetermined, admixture of salt water. It will })e 
shown below that even very small proportions of sea water have a pronoiinc(>d effect 
upon the salt content of the body. 

It will be better to defer any general discussion of the foregoing results until 
the analyses of tiie bodies of the fishes themselves have been considered. Certain 
doubts which the reader may have formed regarding the significance of the preceding 
(igures will then perhaps be dispelled. 

Experiments in which the fishes died, or in which they were killed and returned 
to fresh water, seem to show (1) that a dead fish will yield a larger proportion of 
its salts than a living one, but that (2) there is no sudden increase in the difl:'usion 
of these after death. These conclusions were not tested very thoroughly by 
experiment, iiowever. and they are hence only offered provisionally. 

DETEKMINATIONS OF THE CHLORINE IX THE TLSSUES OF FISHES. 

Each lot of fishes here used was first rinsed in fresh water for 5 to 10 minutes 
ill order to remove any salt water which might adhere. They were then weighed, 
after which the entire fishes were cut up into fine pieces and placed in a porcelain 
evaporating dish or crucible. Considerable (juantities of a mixture of equal parts of 
sodium (or potassium) nitrate and sodium carbonate were now added in order to 
facilitate combustion, and the whole mass was heated to the point required for igni- 
tion. It was, of course, necessary that all chemicals used should be chlorine-free, 
and it was likewise neccssarj' to avoid any contamination of materials with salt water. 

The soluble salts were extracted from the residue with ])oiling water. The 
resulting solution was first treated with nitric acid to transform any phosphates 
present, and then rendered neutral with calcium carbonate. After filtration the 
solution was titrated with silver nitrate according to the method already described. 
If care had been taken to insure the complete combustion of all organic matters, the 
determination was simple and fairly exact. 

<i This figure is probably ton high (see p. S51. 



EAU OF FISHERIES. 




loss of a rcrtaiu portion 


of the chlorid. 


Iv slight, however. aii<l 


in aiiv case tl 


tliroughout. Icaviiii;- tin 


relative vahi. 



90 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU 

One source of error in this method is th 
through volatilization. This loss is prol>:i 
error was likel^y to l)e a nearly constant on 
unaffected. 

Since it was thought possible that differences in the bodily salt content of the 
tishes used might depend upon differences in the water contained in their alimentary 
canals, certain tests were made with fishes from which the latter had been removed. 
The results of such ex|)erinients were such that this procedure was not thought to 
be worth while. 

Let me add that 1 have presented here the figures for all of the analyses made 
l)y me, no discordant results being suppressed. 
E.r per In lent 102." 

{a) Five F. lietevoditm from a lot which had been kept unfed for some weeks 
in water of density 1.023 were tested together. The alimentary canals, livers, 
and gall bladders were removed, and the fishes were weighed after the remo\ al 
of these parts; thus the percentage of chlorine given represents the proportion 
found in the eviscerated bodies. The percentage was here 0.167. 

(i) Five fishes from same lot were kept in fresh water for 1 da}'. The 
subsequent treatment was the same. Percentage of chlorine 0.129. 

((?) Five fishes (from another lot) were kept in 1.001 water'' for 1 day. 
Alimentar}' canals, etc., removed as above. Percentage of chlorine 0.123. 

{(I) Eight fishes (same lot as last) kept in 1.002 water (see table on p. !h;i 
for 1 day. Percentage of chlorine 0.159. 
It would thus appear that in fresh water about 23 per cent of the total chloride^ 
of the body passed out during a single day. Let it lie recalled that in experiment <s(i, 
in which the fishes used had been kept in water of the same density as those here 
emplo3'ed, it was found that the loss of chlorine was O.OiS gram per 100 grams of 
body weight. Assuming the original percentage of chlorine to have been the same 
as in the present experiment (0.167), the fishes in experiment 86 lost about 25 per 
cent of their chlorine. Thus the results reached by these two methods are found to 
be in striking agreement. It would ))e rash, however, tt) expect such a close 
correspondence in every case. 

The effect of the 1.001 water was practically the same as that of fresh water, the 
difference of 0.006 per cent in the anah^ses probably having no significance. On the 
other hand it is a fact of the highest interest that fishes in the 1.002 water lost little 
if any of their chlorides. It would thus appear that the degree of dilution which 
may be endured with impunity by this fish lies somewhere between these two limits. 

E.rp.rn,„l,tl(ii. 

Fiiiiilii] IIS iiiiijiiUs was here used^ two fishes being taken for each analysis. 
The digestive tracts, etc., were not removed. 

(a) Fishes from .salt water (1.023). Percentage of chlorine 0.179. 

(J)) This lot, originally from salt water, had spent 2 days in water of density 
1.001 (approximately). Percentage of chlorine 0.178. 

" All of this series were done at Woods Hole during August, 1905. 
'' The water here used gave a salmometer reading (corrected) of about 1.001. 
tills reading, however, showed that it contained only 3 per cent as much chlorine a 



EFi'ECTS UPON FISHES (IB^ CHANC4ES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 91 

(c) Had spent 1 day in fresh water. Percentage of chlorine 0.12tj. 

(d) Fresh water 2 days. Percentage of chlorine 0.129. 

It will be noted, first, that the lot from salt water showed a percentage of chlorine 
not very different from that of J^. heterocUhis (preceding experiment). Second, the 
percentage was practically the same in the fishes from water of density 1.001 as in 
those from pure sea water; while third, fishes which had spent one day in fresh water 
showed a loss of 30 per cent of their chlorine. Fourth, there was pi-actically no 
difference in this regard between those wliich had been in fresh water 1 day and 
tl)ose which had been there for 2 days. 

The second of the results just enumerated is x'ather surprising, in view of the 
fact that F. heteroclitus was found to 3'ield up a considerable fraction of its chlorine 
in water of approximately the same densit}' (1.001d=). though retaining it in water 
of densit}^ 1.002. Whether this difference of results is due to an}^ real physiological 
difference between these two species may be doubted. Where the water is so near 
to what may be called the critical degree of salinit}', a slight difference in one direction 
or tlic othei- niigiit suffice to produce a very considerable difference of results. It 
was previously found (experiments 31, 31 h)is) that water of density 1.001 was slowly 
fatal to F. laajalln, while water of density 1.002 effected little or no harm. 

Despite minor discrepancies, the last two experiments agree in showing a great 
difference between the effects upon the chlorine content of the body of pure fresh 
water and water having a cei-tain small percentage of salt. This difference is 
extremely significant in view of the difference, already discussed, in their effects 
upon the life of the fishes. 

In another series of experiments (lol- 107) F. <J)iii>hiiniix was used. These fishes 
had been taken in Tashmoo Pond, in water of density 1.0u2, and kept in the labora- 
tory unfed for a number of days prior to the experiment in water of the same 
density. Analysis of this water showed that it contained 7 pei- cent as much chlorine 
as the local sea water. The entire fishes were used for analysis, the alimentary canals, 
etc., not being removed. The specimens were first rinsed thoroughly, here as alwavs. 
Erj.rfwrnt 10\. 

Fi\ e diffcri'nt analyses were made with fishes taken directly fi-om the 
brackish water (l.(»(»2). In each case 1 fishes were treated together. These 
analyses gave the following percentages of chlorine: a, 0.175; A. 0.13(5; c\ 0.128; 
d, 0.139; e, 0.132. The mean of these figures is 0.U2. 
.It will be seen that with the exception of a these figures do not present a wide 
variation. I regard the first result as probably due to an error, both on account of 
the exceptionally large amount of chlorine indicated and because the test was not a 
ver}' satisfactory one. Strict fairness compels its msertion here, however. The 
mean of the other four figui'es is 0.134, and this figure, being in my mind the more 
proliable one, will be used in subsequent conjparisons. The reader is at any time 
free to substitute the other figure. 
E.rperiiii<'nt 105. 

Here the fishes were kept in fresh water for a \arying perifnl prior to the 
analysis. 

(a) Iday (4 fishes) 0.112 

(6) 3 days (4 fishes) 0. lOS 

(c) 11 days (8 fishes) 0.085 



92 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

In 1 (lav the fishes lost over 16 per cent of their chlorides; in 11 ilays nearly '■',' 
per cent. As I have pi'eviously pointed out in discussing the analysrs of clilniinc in 
the water, the loss of salts from tlie Ixxly takes phi.-c at a diininisiiing rate. In the 
present case nearly as niurh passed out dniMni;- the first day as during the ncxi in 
days. 

Erp.rnu.ut inc. 

Fishes kept ill salt water. 

(«) 1 (lay (4 fishes 0. 181 \ ^^^^.^^^ ^ ^^^ 

(((') 1 day (4 fishes 0. 196* ""'• " ^ 

ih) .T clays (2 fishes) ■. (i. U:; 

(/■) 10 (lays (3 fishes) , e. i:.! 

For the rather anomalous fact that in two diiierent tests the 1-day tishes oa\ ( 
niucli higher percentages of chlorine than the 5 or the 10 day ones, I will oti'ei' tin 
following explanation: (1) As shown above (experiments G.5-(W). the immediate result 
of the immersion of these fishes in salt water is a loss of water amounting in 1 day 
to about lit per cent of their weight. This would of course result in a higher con- 
i-entration of the soluticnis in the body. It was found, however, that part at least of 
this loss of water is made up later. (2) A certain (often a large) proportion of these 
tishes succumb within a few days after transfer to .salt water. It is quite jjossible. 
therefore, that the lots analj-zed included individuals which would soon have died 
and thus had undergone greater changes than normal tishes would have done. 
Those, on the contrary, which had survived :> or more days in .salt water were proba- 
lily individuals that had not been harmed by the change and would probably have 
lived indefinitely." 

Omitting the figures for the fishes which had passed 1 da\- in salt water, it will 
be seen that those for the other tests fall into a very suggestive series. 

I 11 days 0.085 

Fresli water ] ?, days 0. 108 

I I day 0. 1 1 2 

Brackish water (1.002) 0. 1.34 [or 0. 142] 

Sait water! 5<l7« - «• '-^^ 

UO days 0.151 

It will be seen that the last of these figures is aliout 7s per cent greater than tlie 
first. It will be seen likewise that whichever figure be regarded as the more cor- 
rect one for the brackish-water fishes, the latter agree much more closelv with the 
salt-water than with the f re.sh-water individuals (the comi)arison being of course with 
the extreme members of the series). 
Experiment 107. 

Eight fishes kept in water of density 1.018 for 7 days. The percentage of 

chlorine for this lot was 0.134, i. e., the same as for tlios(> kept in lirackish 

water. 

It was thought desirable to test .some species which in nature inhabits fresh. 

bi'ackish, and salt water equally well, using individuals from each of the.sc sources. The 

white perch (2£orone americana) seemed likely to be. a favorable object for such 

<t .\nother explanation of this apparent anomaly was suggested to me by Prof. W. C. Sabine. It is quite possible that 
after the first shock of change, resulting in considerable osmotic disturbances in the body of the fish, an effort would be 
made by the latter to reduce its salt content to the original (normal) level, the excess or. part of it being eliminated by 
way of the organs 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 93 

studies. The following experiments, however, show a lii<ili range of varial)ilit\- in 
till' individuals used — much higher than in JF". (lid/i/ininii^." Hence the results an- 
somewhat less decisive. Owing to a scarcity of material, it was found necessar\- to 
use Hshes of very ditlerent sizes, hut this fact certainly does not account Un- the 
variations in the proportion of chlorine. 
E.eperiinent 108. 

Marone from Tashmoo Pond (1.0U2) kept for some days (unfed) in water of 
same density in laVjoratory before ))eing used for experiment. One small speci- 
men used for each test, {a) Percentage of chlorine, O.llH; (/-) percentage of 
chlorine, 0.135; (c) percentage of chlorine, 0.151; mean, 0.131. 
This mean figure, it will be recalled, is identical with that for the /'. i]iaji/iJi,iii.< 
from this same water. In view of the great range of variation iiere. howe\er. su<-li 
pi-ecis(> agreement is doubtless due to chance. 
Erpcrinient 109. 

MiifiDii' from Lagoon Pond (head of Vineyard Haven). A wattT saniplr 
taken near shore gave a reading of I.ok;. but it is likely tiiat the water in 
which the tisiies lived was considerably more saline. The fishes were kept in 
the salt water of the laboratorj' (1.023) 1 and 2 days, respectively, before the 
analysis. One fish was used in each experiment. («) Percentage of chlorine. 
0.136; (J>) percentage of chlorine, 0.142; mean, 0.139. 
The difference of this figure from that of the brackish-water specinuns is per- 
haps not great enough to be significant. Strict candor compels me to record the 
analysis of another fish from this source, which appeared to contain only o.lOl per 
cent of chlorine. This figure falls so far below all others obtained from this species, 
however, that I can not but regard it as due to an error. If this analysis were 
included with the foregoing, the average woidd become 0.l2(i. 
Experiment 110. 

Fishes from a fresh-water pond (landlocked). The water of tiiis pond, 
though fresh to the taste, was found to contain 0.051 gram <'hloriiie per liter, 
or about IS times the proportion in the fresh -water supply of New York City. 
One fish was used in each test. («) Percentage of chlorine, o.ll2: (li) per- 
centage of chlorine, 0.130; mean, 0.121. 
Were there no other facts upon which to base conclusions, it might be objected 
that the differences in salt content of these fishes from various sources might be due 
to differences in their food and not to anj- osmotic relations between the animals and 
the surrounding water. Such an objection is of course inapplicable to the fore- 
going experiments with the various species of Fundulus. It is likewise out of ques- 
tion as regards the next two experiments with Morvne. Here fishes coming originally 
from brackish water were analyzed after a stay of some days (unted) in salt or fresh 
water in the laboratory. 
Experiment 111. 

Fishes from Tasiuuoo Pond were kept (> days in water of density 1.0:^3 
before the analysis. In the second of the two specimens used the alimentary 
canal was removed. («) Percentage of chlorine, 0.136; {}>) i>ercentage of chlo- 
rine, 0.162; mean, 0.14:9. 



:)f the latterspeciesanuinbcr of .spt 



94 BULLETIN OF THE KUREAU OK FISHERIES. 

This figure is somewhat greater than that for the fishes taken from a somewliat 
(liluted sea water (experiment lOit). It will be noted that the second fish gave a very 
much higher percentage of chlorine, in spite of tiip rcmoviil of the ;ilimont:irv 
canal. The contents of the latter, therefore, played no part in deterininiiii;- tiie 
amount of chlorine present. 
K.'prniHvnt Ihi. 

Fisiies from Tasluuoo Pond, kept 5 days in the fresh water of the lahoia- 

tory pri(jr to analysis. In the first case. 1 fish was used, in the second -1. 

In />, the alimentary canals were removed, {n) Percentage of chlorine, ti.li^o; 

(J>) percentage of chlorine, 0.109; mean, 0.114. 

This figure will be seen to be somewhat lower than that for the fisiies from tiie 

fresh-water pond (experiment 110), but in view of such large variations it would lie 

absui'd to draw any conclusions from this fact. 

If, on the one hand, the mean figure for the Monme from the fresh-water pond 
is averaged with that for those kept in the laboratory fresh-water for 5 days: and if. 
on the other hand, the figure for the Vineyard Haven fishes is averaged with that for 
those kept in the laboratory salt water, the figures thus obtained, together with thai 
for the brackish-water fishes, may be arranged in the following series: 

( (J ) Fresti-water specimens 0.117 

(6) Brackish-water siieeimens I). i:!4 

(<•) Salt-water siieciiiieiis 0. 144 [nr 0. KiT] 

The figure for the "fresh water" fishes is thus 1!> per cent [or 15 per centj l(>ss 
than that for the "salt water" ones. It was found in experiment 97 (also with Mororu) 
that O.OI)*') gram chlorine per 100 grams body weight was given out in the course of a 
single da}'. Assuming the percentage of chlorine originally present to have l)een (i. 1 W 
it would appear that 25 per cent of the chlorine of the l)ody was lost in a single day. 
Here, then, the figures obtained by the two methods are not in full accord. 

It may be regarded as abundantly proved by the preceding experiments that 
some species of fishes, at least, undergo considerable changes in the salt content of 
their bodies in consequence of changes in the salinity of the surrounding water. 
These changes are fairly rapid, resulting, at times, in difierences of 25 per cent or 
more in a single day. Moreover, they do not necessarily result in any harm to the 
animal. It is plain, however, that these changes in the bodily salt content are in no 
way proportional to the changes in the salinity of the medium. Indeed, very great 
alterations in the latter may sometimes be made without any apparent effect upon the 
former. (Experiments 103, i, and lo7.) The exact extent of the correlation between 
the two might be determined Ijy a sutticient number of analyses, but it is quite 
unlikely that it could be expressed by any single mathematical fornuda. This is 
because fishes do not conduct themselves as simple dialyzers. 

Whether or not all of the tissues are e(pially affected b}- these changes in the 
bodily salt content I can not say. The bod\' as a whole loses or gains in its propor- 
tion of salts (chlorides), and these leave or enter it by some path other than the 
alimentary canal. The occurrence of the weight changes described in the preceding 
section seems to show the existence of membranes which are permeable in some 
measure to water, at least. In the absence of any other plausible hypothesis it ma}' 
t)e assuuied that the salts enter or leave the body through these same membranes. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 95 

Which of the luuitiiiy niemhraiies of the liody ure thus concerned will l)e considered 
later. 

Fredericq (1885) states that the blood of salt-water fishes tastes scarcely more 
salt than that of fresh-water ones. Surely this is hardly an exact quantitative test. 
H(^ repeats (Isitl) that it is "not much more salt." Fredericq likewise states (1885) 
tliat it has long- been known that the muscles and glands of a salt-water tish are not 
moll' salt than tiiosc of a fresh-water one. 1 can not lind upon whose authority this 
statement is l)aseil. (triffiths (189^) makes the equally nnsupi)orted assertion that 
••the blood of a sole, a haddock, and a weever does not contain more soluble salts 
than the 1)lood of fresh-water fishes" (p. 14u). 

Atwatcr (is'.tl) gives the percentage of chlorine in the fiesh of two salt-water 
-["■lies analyzed by him as follows: Black-fish {Tautoga oiiitis) (i.2:-'>, mackerel 
(.Sro,i,li,r sr,,iiihni.-<) 0.24; mean, 0.235. 

Three fresh-water fishes" gave the following percentages: Salmon (Penobscot 
River— spent) 0.18; salmon (landlocked --spent) 0.20; shad (Connecticut River) o.22; 
mean, o.2o. 

It thus appeal's from the figures of Atwatcr that the flesh of the fresh-water 
fishes analyzed by him had about 15 per cent less chlorine than that of the salt-svater 
ones. In comparing his percentages just quoted with mine it must be remembered 
that Atwatcr used the flesh alone while I used the entire fish, including the skeleton. 
The proportion of chlorides in the latter we should expect to be smaller than in the 
flesh. 

The figures given by Almen (cited by Atwater) show such enormous difierences 
in the amounts of chlorine in different fishes (his maximum figure being nearly 15 
times as great as his minimum) that they are certainly to be regarded with suspicion. 
It may be noted, however, that the average figure for salt-water species is much 
higher than that for the fresh-water ones (0.122 and 0.076, respectively, provided 
that \vc count the salmon and eel among the fresh-water ones). 

Katz (!--;••■,) gives the mean percentage of chlorine in the dorsal muscles of 2 
large ccK (apiiarently from freshwater) analyzed by him as 0.034-18; the mean figure 
for 2 pike was 0.03191; that for 2 haddock ('' Schelltisch") was 0.24093. Such 
results certainly demand confirmation. It may be noted that Almen's figures for the 
eel and pike were 0.013 and 0.186, respectively. 

Church (1903) states that he found 0.2 per cent of "common salt" in a ■"mack- 
erel in good condition." This would place the percentage of chlorine at about 0.121. 
Atwater's figure was almost exactly twice as great. 

As regards the salinity of the blood, the determinations of Quinton (litol, pp. 
439—140) give the mean percentage of chlorine'' in the blood of 8 species of marine 
teleosts as 0.651, that for 3 fresh-water species as 0.411. From these figures it 
would appear (1) that the salinity (at least the proportion of chlorine) of the blood 
is several times that of the body as a whole, and (2) that the salinity is over 50 per 
cent greater for salt-water than for fresh-water species. Mosso (1890) likewise 
states that sea fish have moi'e salt in their blood than fresh-water ones, though he 
offers no figures in support. 

<i The shad and the Atlantic salmon are of course anatlromous, but the present specimens appear to liave been taJjen 
in Iresh water. 

frQuinton's original figures are given in terms ot Nat'l, but I have reduced them to corresponding values ni clilorine. 



yt5 BrLLETIN OF THE BrREAT' OF FISHERIES. 

Numerous aulliors have detcriiiinc<l the i.crccnta.uvs of ■•ash" in the flesh i.| 
fishes, thouu'h luiiif, so tar as I know. ha\c had in \ irw a lonipai-ison hctwccnihi 
fre.sh and the .salt water spceies. 

The average percentage of ash in 7 fr(>sh-water" s])c(ies analyzed Ity Atuati r 
was 1.30; for 11 salt-water species. 1.11. 

From the determination-; of Payen and Kostjtscheff (cited liy Atwater) it. mav 
likewis- be gathered that the averages for the .salt-v/ater tislies are suhstantiallv 
greater than those for the fresh- water ones. 

The figures of Balland (189S) and of Milone (cited by Lichtenfeid. l'.to4) al^) 
give average percentages of ash which are considerably greater for >alt-\vater than 
for fresh-water species. According to Balland, the hgure for eels from fresh water 
is 0.76, that for salt-water .specimens being 0.S7. 

An exhaustive search of the literature of this subject would perhaj)s reveal Hl:- 
ures which would not harmonize with the general trend indicated above. But. -o 
far as I have ))een able to learn, one important conclusion may l>e drawn from the 
records as a whole, despite great inconsistencies — namely, that both the prop<)rti<in I't 
ash in general, and the proportion of chlorides in partieidar. are, on tlie axcraL^i . 
greater in salt-water fishes than in fresh-water ones. The ratio Ijetween the two can 
not, of course, be stated with any exactness. For such a ratio to have any value it 
would be necessity that each of the mean percentages should be based upon a veiy 
large number of exact determinations. Leaving out of account the figures of Katz. 
however, the mean percentage (either of chloi-ine or of ash) for the salt-water fishe-- 
is in everj^ case less than twice that for the fresh-water ones. In most cases it is 
nuich le.ss. On the other hand, the ratio between the amount of chlorine found in 
sea water and that in ordinary fresh water is as several thousand to one. The fol- 
lowing table gives the percentages of chlorine found in several of the grades of 
water used by me in the experiments: 

New York City (Croton) water 0.0003 

Woods Hole { Fahnouth) water 0011- 

Daggetts Pond ( Marthas Vineyard )>' 00.51 

Water giving salinoineter reading about 1.001 0.")S4 

Water giving salinometer reading about 1.002 ll'.52 

Local sea water (1.023^ l.sl.so 

It is thus seen that the water of specific gravity l.oo:.' (e(iui\alent to that of 
Ta.shmoo Pond during the present summer) contains a percentage of chlorine not 
very far ditferent from that of the fishes (7^ di((pfii(nu.'< iuid the white perch, experi- 
ments 104 and 108) living in it and, indeed, of the same order of magnitude as that 
of anv of the teleosts analyzed by me. That such water can not e\en he approx- 
imately isotonic with the body fluids of these fishes seems evident from the cryoscopie 
determinations of other investigators.'' Nevertheless the approximate eciuality 
between the percentage of chlorides in this slightly brackish water and in the tissues 

« I liave counted the sliad and salnnwi mnoni,' tiu- fre.sh-water fishes, the smelt among the salt-water ones. 
^From which cume the « liiie p--n!i n^rd m i-xpirinient 110. 

cThe figures obtained by inc d.i n..t <.i . .mr-r indi.-ate the proportions of i-hlorine in the fluids, but rather those for 
the body as a whole. It is likewis.- ii. !..■ niiunilrird thnt the osmotic pressure of the body fluids is in part determined 



EFFECTS rPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. \> i 

of t(>le()st tislies is prot'ouiully iiitcrcstinu- in v'u-w of the great physiological impor- 
tance to certain species of ev(>n sucii a small iimportion of salt in the water. It is 
interesting to recall in this connection that the •• l.Oni" water did not appear to lie 
quite .saline enough to support the life of /•'. ///<'/.///.v indetiniteh-. (Experiment 
31 bis.) 

The records of other investigators (to be discussed later) show that the osmotic 
pressure of the blood of salt-water teleosts is somewhat higher than that of fresh- 
water ones, though this fact has been almost lost sight of in the zeal to prove that 
the internal medium is not isotonic with the external and that its osmotic pressure is 
relatively constant. 

It may be objected once more at this point that all this discussion of the relative 
salt content of fishes inhabiting fresh and salt water, together with the resulting 
difl'erences in osmotic pressure, is quite irrelevant, since the difterences found may 
depend upon the degree of salinity of the food eaten, and not directly upon the 
salinity of the water which bathes the body. This objection can only be met b}' 
reference to the changes which certain species were found to undergo in the course 
of a single day. no food being taken. It is theoretically possible, even in these 
cases, on the one hand that salt water was swallowed and the salts absorbed, on the 
the other that salts should have left the l)ody l)y way of excretion. The former 
possibility I regard as sufficii^ntly met by the analyses of the contents of the alimen- 
tary canals (indeed, of the entire viscera) described at)ove. The second possibility 
is not entirely excluded, though it seems unlikely a priori that the decrease in 
salinity which occurs in fresh ^^•nter should lie due to a cause quite distinct from that 
resiwnsililc for the increase in salt water. 

THE PART PLAYED BY THE GILLS IN OSMOTIC EXCHANGES. 

The thin membranes eovering the gill tilanumts are especially adapted to facilittiting 
exchange between the gases conbiined in the water and those contained in tiie blood. 
It would therefore be natural to look here for one jiath of diflusion for water and 
salts as well. The greater part of the body .surface, on the contrary, is in most tele- 
osts covered with a layer of scales, which would seem to present a barrier to any 
great amount of osmotic exchange between the tissues and the water which bathes 
the body. The lining of the alimentary canal is of cour.se readily permeable to f.uids 
and to various substances in solution, but this, it is needless to >ay, is not freely 
exposed to the surrounding medium. Water or .salts, in order to be thus absorbed, 
must either be swallowed or force their waj' in through the anus. Such an entry of 
fluids would not. however, be consistent with the decrease in the weight of a fish 
which fre(jaently follows its transfer to a stronger salt solution. Yet it seems to be 
proved by some of the foregoing experiments that salts are in some way taken into 
the l)ody after such a transfer. 

The part played l)y the gills in this process I have demonstrated by a series of coni- 
parati\ely simple experiments. A piec-e of apparatus was devised, by the aid of 
which it was possible to pass .salt water through the gills, while the remainder of the 
body w as 1)athed in fresh water, or vice versa. A wooden frame was made (fig. 1), 
consisting of a rectangular piece of planed board, near one end of which a shelf was 



98 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



fastened, containing an apei'ture large e.iougb to admit the head of a fish. The body 
of the animal was loosely bandaged, the cloth being tacked to the vertical piece of 
wood in order to restrain movement (fig. 2). A piece of sheet rubber was then per- 
forated and drawn over the head in such a way that it fitted snugly around the l)ody, 
just behind the gill covers. The mai-gin of the rubber being tacked to the wooden 
frame, a nearly water-tight partition resulted, which served to bound ofi' the head 
from the trunk region. The frame, bearing the fish, was now immersed in a rectan- 
gular jar of water, the head being uppermost, except in two specified cases. Fresh 
(or salt) water was supplied to the jar through a rubber tube, while another tube 
carried salt (or fresh) water into the mouth, allowing it to pass out through the gills. 
A second bandage held the head in position, while the pectoral fins were securely 
bound to staples. 




f^ 




rr^zi 



periment lo determii 



, playefl by the gills 



The following six experiments were made with the carp. The fishes were 
weighed before and after the treatment, the same precautions being taken as have 
already been described for earlier experiments. 
Experiment 113. 

New York, May, 1905." One carp (fed 2-i hours previously), weight Sti.l 
grams. Salt water (1.014) through gills, fresh on body. After 5 hours alive, 
though feeble; weight 80. i) grams. The fish thus lost 6 per cent. 
E.V periment IH.. 

One carp (fed 24 hours previously), weight 63.6 grams. Fresh water 
through gills, salt on body. After 5i hours fish well; weight 63.8 grams. 
Weight thus practically unchanged. 

« Date and place the same lor all of this series. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 99 

Experiment 115. 

One carp (unfed for 22 days), weight 353.5 grams. Salt water through 
gills, fresh on body. After 15 hours tish dead; weight 338. 7 grams. Loss of 
about 4 per cent. 
Experiment 116. 

One carp (unfed for 22 days), weight 3-1-.2 grams. Fresh water through 
gills, salt on body. After 14^ hours lish in good health; weight 34.5 grams. 
Weight practicalh' unchanged. 
Experiment 117. 

One carp (same specimen as used in llti), weight 33. »! grams. Salt water 
through gills, fresh on body. After IBA^ hours tish dead; weight 31.1 grams. 
Loss of 7.4 per cent. 
Experiment 118. 

One carp (fed preceding day), weight 476.7 grams. Fresh water through 

gills, salt on body. After 7 hours weight 476.8 grams. \\'oight practically 

unchanged. 

It will be noted that a considerable loss of weight occurred in all of those cases 

in which salt water passed through the gills and fresh water over the body, while the 

weight remained practically stationary in those cases in which the conditions were 

rev^ersed. Under such harsh treatment the death of any of these fishes would not 

have occasioned surprise. As a matter of fact, however, the three whose gills were 

bathed by fresh water all remained well till the end of the experiments, while of those 

whose gills were bathed by salt water, two died and one sickened. 

The part played by the gills in the death of fresh-water fishes in salt water has 
been discussed by Bert (1871, see p. 101). Bert states that "a tench suspended in a 
vessel full of sea water, the head remaining outside, lives for a long time, if care be 
taken to bathe the gills with fresh water.'' No weight determinations are recorded. 
In the case of (practically) naked-skinned fishes, such as the eel and loach, Bert held 
tliat the general integument made possible the extraction of water from the tissues 
when the fishes were transferred to salt water. 

Two scaleless species were tested by me according to the method described above. 
The results were here far less satisfactory than those for the carp. 
Experiment 119. 

Sea raven (unfed for 8 days), weight 334.8 grams. Salt water through 
gills, fresh on body. After 6 hours tish dead (for some time); weight 332 
grams. Loss of about 0.8 per cent. 
Experiment 120. 

Sea raven (unfed for 7 days), weight 456.3 grams. Fresh water through 

gills, salt on body. After 19^^ hours lish dead (how long?); weight 462.5 

grams. Gain of 1.4 per cent. 

The loss in the former experiment is scarcely significant, being perhaps fully 

accounted for by the removal of nmcus in drying the fish for weighing. The gain in 

the second experiment is what would be expected on hypothesis, though the fact that 

the fish had been dead for an indefinite period lessens greatl}' the force of this 

evidence. 



lUO Bl'LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Experiment 12 1. 

Catfish {Aine'mrnx n,'hulosns) (mitVd IT (l;iys), weight li'l.tl gninis. Suh 
water through g-ilLs, fresh on body. After -I'l hours Hsh dead; weiglit 115.1 
grams. Loss of 5.8 per cent. 
Evperinvrnt 122. 

Catfi.sh (unfed 17 days), weight 159.8 grains. Fresh water through gills, 
salt on body. After 2.3^ hours fish dead; weight 167.. 3 grains. (Tainof4.7 
per eent. 
This gain is pr<>l)ahly due to the absorption of water after deatii. as disi-u--.(M| 
earlier. It may be due, howe\er, to the aniiuars ha\ing swallowed water. 

So far none of these experiments have given results actually eontradictory to 
my \ iew regarding the part played by the gills. The following pair of experiments, 
however, are not in harmony with the others: 
K.rj>,;-u,ient 123. 

Catfish (fed 24 hours previously), weight 15(J.9 grams. Salt water through 
gills, fresh on body (fish inverted). After 1-t Jiours fish still stirring; aftei 
22 hours fish dead; weight 157.1 grams. Weight practically nnchanged. 
Experiment 12Jt-. 

("atfish (fed 2-1 hours previously), weight 227 grams. Fi-esh water through 

gills, salt on body (fish inverted). After U hours fish dead: weight 22n..-. 

grams. Loss of nearly 3 per cent. 

Occasional inconsistencies in the results such as these might natui-ally be expected 

under the conditions of experiment. The swallowing of water at any time would 

result in an increa.se in weight, the discharge of feces in a decrease. In this con 

nection it will be noted that the fishes used in the last two experiments had been fed 

2-4 hours 1)efore. 

It is possible, however, that naked-skinned fishes react somewhat difiV^rently from 
scaly ones, as was sup[)osed by H(>rt. Experiments with such fishes should of course 
be repeated. . 

If water or .salts Ije taken in or pa.ssed out of the body through the membrane- 
of the gills, it seems to follow that the blood must be the medium of such exchanges. 
Such difierences in salinity as were indicated for the fishes used in the analyses above 
could not, however, have d(>pended entirely upon differences in the salinity of the 
blood, since the volume of the latter is not sufficient to account for them. Indirectly, 
then, some or all of the other tissues of the body mu.st have been affected. VVhei-e. 
in the preceding pages, I have referred to the "bod}' ffuids," I have meant to incluilr. 
not merely blood and lymph, but the liquid content of the ti.ssues in general. 

It has been assumed by Fredericcj (1885) that in certain invertebrates the osmotic 
ecjuilibrium which is maintained between the body fluids and the surrounding water 
is due to the permeability of the gills. Concerning fishes, however, he declares " the 
gills, so permeable to the gaseous exchanges of respiration, seem on the contrary to 
con.stitute an almost impassable barrier to the salts dissolved in sea water." 

aOf course living fishos only iiit- liore intended. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANOES IN SALINITY OF WATER. lUl 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

The work of Bert (1S71, is73, issH) has been more than once referred to in the 
])reeeding- pages. Bert's exphmation of the ''mechanism of death" in the case of 
tl)e fishes studied by him deserves some attention. This writer explained the fatal 
etlects of salt water upon fresh-water fishes by assuming an osmotic action upon the 
gills. Tiie eapilluries of the latter became contracted, and the blood cells, distorted 
by the action of the salt water, soon plugged them up and thus arrested the branchial 
circulation. The immediate cause of death was thus believed to be asphyxiation. 
In the case of scaly fishes, this occurred, he Vielieved, before any considerable amount 
of water was abstracted from the body osmotically and before the blood in the larger 
vessels was altered to any appreciable extent. With naked-skinned fishes, on the 
other hand, osmotic action occurred throughout the entire surface of the body, and 
the consequent loss of water from the tissues was one factor in causing death. 
Bert is not entirely consistent in his views, however, for he likewise tells us that 
"death is definitely due to the chlorides, "" and '"inversely [referring to the death of 
salt-water fishes in fresh waterj it is the suppression of the sodium chloride which 
causes death." This salt he found could not be replaced by any other substance 
which he tried. Thus, the importance of chemical factors is recognized by him, 
though he denies that the salts in sea water act as poisons to fresh-water fishes. 
The differences in the reactions of different species of fishes are "due to differences 
in the chemical composition of the branchial epithelium and in the exosmotic prop- 
erties of this epithelium." 

Mosso (1890) also held (for sharks, at least) that the death of the fishes, when 
placed in fresh water, was the result of asphyxiation due to the blocking of the gill 
capillaries l\y disintegi'ated blood cells. In such a fish he found it impos.sible to 
force salt solution through the branchial capillaries, though this could be done 
readily in the normal animal. Mosso likewise records differences in the resistance 
of the bloo.d cells of various fishes to the liamiolytic action of dilute salt solutions, 
implying that such differences may be accountable for the relative power of these 
animals to withstand changes in the density of the medium. In the case of certain 
migratory fishes, which inhabit either medium {Aripi-nscr, Salmo, Anguilla, Petro- 
iiiyzoi)) he found the corpuscles to be particularly resistant, being able to remain 
many hours in a salt solution as dilute as 0.3 to 0.4 per cent without giving up their 
hicmoglobin. Sea fishes as a rule he found to have less resistant corpuscles than 
fresh-water ones. Other investigators (Hamburger, 1887; Bottazzi and Ducceschi, 
1896, and Rodier, 1899) have performed similar experiments upon the erythrocj^tes 
of various fishes, likewise finding great differences in their resisting powers, though 
not in all respects agreeing with the determinations of Mosso. 

Of course any such effect of the surrounding medium upon the cells of the blood 
presupposes some way by which it ma}' reach them. Bert believed that in fishes (at 
least the scaly ones) death occurred before any considerable portion of the blood was 
affected, the osmotic effects being restricted to the gills. 

In any discussion of the effects of changes in water density upon a(iuatic organ- 
isms, the osmotic factor must play a leading part. Much light has in recent years 
been thrown upon the osmotic relations maintained between the '"internal and 



102 BULLETIN OF THK BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

external media." The now rather celebrated utterance of Claude Bernard (186."i. 
p. 110) is perhaps worth repeating here; I do not recall its having been quoted in an 
English work: 

In all living beings the internal niediinn, whit-h is a true product of the organi.vn, preserves the 
necessary relations of exchange and of eiiuilibriuni with the external cosmic nieiliuni, but in proiim- 
tion as the organism becomes more perfect, the organic medium specializes and isolates itself, in a 
certain manner, more and more from the surrounding medium. 

The Belgian physiologist, Fredericq, was one of the first to investigate the 
osmotic relations l)etween the body fluids of marine organisms and the medium in 
which they live. By the method of dialj'sis, and by determinations of the salinity 
of the bod}' fluids, he found that in various marine invertebrates these fluids were 
nearly or (juite isotonic with the sea water. He likewise showed that changes in the 
.salinity of the water resulted in corresponding changes in the body fluids. As 
regards fishes (both elasmobranchs and teleosts) Fredericq maintained that the 
osmotic pressure was considerably less (about one-half) than that of the external 
medium. 

Bottazzi and his colleagues, working at Naples, employed the cryoscopic method, 
using Beckmann's apparatus. B3' this method the freezing point of a solution is 
determined with precision, and from this the osmotic pressure, according to well- 
known ph^^sical principles. Bottazzi arrived at the same conclusion as Fredericq, 
relative to the osmotic pressures of the body fluids of marine invertebrates. The 
reduction in the freezing point (^) due to osmotically active substances in solution 
was found to be nearly constant, ranging from —2.195° C. to —2.36° C. The mean 
of all his determinations was —2.29° C, which is the same figure as his mean 
determination for the local sea water. 

Practically identical results were obtained for elasmobranch fishes, the mean 
osmotic pressure for the blood of three species being expressed by. z/ = — 2.35t5 C. 
The difference between these i-esults and those of Fredericq is explained by the fact 
that the latter inferred a lower osmotic pressure for the blood of elasmobranchs 
from its lower salt content. The blood is rendered isotonic with sea water, however, 
by the presence of an unusually large proportion of urea. Tliis correction has been 
accepted by Fredericq himself. 

For the blood of two species of marine teleosts four determinations by Bottazzi 
yield the mean figure: ^ = —1.036. The blood of these fishes thus appears to have 
an osmotic pressure about half that of the water which they inhabit. 

Rodier, Quinton, and Garrey have also determined that the vascular fluids of 
various marine invertebrates are practically isotonic with the water which they 
inhabit. Rodier and Garrey, employing the cryoscopic method, have likewise con- 
firmed the conclusions of Bottazzi regarding the elasmobranchs, while Rodier, Fred 
ei'icq, and Garrey have by this method obtained confirmatory (though not identical) 
results for teleosts. 

The mean value of /^ for two elasmobranchs tested by Garrey at "Woods 
Hole is —1.92°. The mean value for five teleosts is —0.872°, the figures ranging 
from —0.80° (minuiium for conger eel) to —0.96° (maximum for swordfish). The 
value of /I for the sea water of the neighborhood was about —1.82°. 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 103 

The testimony of a number of investigators seems, then, to be in full accord 
upon certain main points, which may be provisionally accepted as proved. Fred- 
ericq (190i) has classified the three sorts of aquatic organisms, relative to osmotic 
conditions, as follows: (1) Molecular concentration and salt content both approxi- 
mately the same for the [vascular fluids of] animal as for the surrounding water 
(marine inveitelirates); (2) molecular concentration the same, but proportion of salts 
less — the deficiency being compensated for by organic matters in solution — (elasmo- 
1)ritnchs); (8) both molecular concentration and salt content very different from those 
of external water (teleosts, both marine and fresh water; fresh-water invertebrates). 

It is with the third class that we are especially concerned in the present paper. 
The molecular concentration (hence the osmotic pressure) and the salt content are 
both verv different from those of the surrounding- medium. It seems never to have 
been fully appreciated that there is even hei'e a certain correlation between the inner 
and the outer fluids, both as regards osmotic pressure and salt content. But reference 
to the various cryoscopic determinations shows that not all teleosts have blood of the 
same osmotic pressure. Rodier found the latter to range between z?=— 0.62'-' and 
/J = —0.80^ in LopMu>i alone. What is more significant is that the blood of fresh- 
water fishes has been found to possess, on the average, a consideralily lower osmotic 
pressure than that of marine fishes. The mean figure given by Fredericq (1904) for 
two marine teleosts is /:/= — 0.80°, that for three fresh- water species is about — 0..53°. 
Of course in the case of these fresh-water fishes, the osmotic pressure of the blood, 
though lower than that of marine fishes, is nevertheless very much higher than that 
of the fresh water in which they live. Satisfactory determinations of both fresh 
and salt water individuals in the case of species inhabiting both have not, so far as I 
know, been made. As noted above (p. 96), Balland found that the flesh of eels from 
salt water contained a considerably greater percentage of ash than those from fresh 
water. Similar difl'erences in chlorine content were obtained by myself in the case of 
several species, and in general it has been shown that the percentage of salts is greater 
in salt-water fishes than in fresh-water ones. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that these determinations of salts were made for the flesh of the fishes, while those 
of osmotic pressure were made upon the blood. So far as I know the only recorded 
comparison of the salt content of the l)lood of fresh and salt water fishes was made 
by Quinton (p. 95). A considerably higher percentage was indicated for the marine 
forms. If the figures of Quinton are correct, it is likewise to be noted that the per- 
centage of chlorides in the blood is several times a- uii'at as in the flesh. Of course 
the osmotic pressure of neither is entirely ilrpindiiit \ipon the percentage of salts, 
but maj' depend upon organic matters in solution, as was found in the case of elasmo- 
branch blood. Fredericq (1901) has attempted to determine the osmotic pressure of 
the solutions contained in the various tissues of fishes and invertebrates, partly Ijy 
extracting the soluble ingredients by boiling, partly by noting the changes of weight 
in strips of tissue suspended in solutions of varying concentration. Reasons for 
doubting the value of the latter method have already been given (p. 81). 

Where a correlation is found to exist between the osmotic pressure of the l)ody 
fluids of an animal and that of the surrounding water, the question arises. How is 
this correlation maintained^ For various invertebrates, it seems to have been gen- 



104 HULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

erally held (Fredericq, Atwater", Quinton, Garrey) that the bounding membranes, 
or some of them, are permeable both to water and salts. Botazzi and Enriques, on 
the other hand, from experiments upon the excised gat of Aplysla, conclude that, in 
a normal condition, this and presumably the other limiting surfaces of the body are 
only semipermeable. This condition, of course, would be sufficient to insure an 
osmotic equilibrium between the organism and its environment. Equivalence in the 
proportions of the various saline ingredients is maintained, according to these writers, 
on the one hand through the process of (nutritive) absorption, occurring chiefly in 
the ducts of the digestive gland; on the other through the organs of excretion. 

For the elasmobranchs, a permeability to water seems to follow from th(> facts 
above stated. An unlimited permeability to salts must, on the other hand, l)e 
excluded, if, as seems proved, the salt content of the blood is so far below that of sea 
water. Whether the (gill?) membranes are in any degree permeable to salts has not 
been determined experimentally. 

In the case of teleosts, it does not seem to have been generally appreciated that 
there is a certain correlation between the inner and outer fluids, both as regards 
osmotic pressure and salt content; and certain authors have been free to state that 
the membranes of teleost fishes form an efl^ective barrier against osmotic changes. 
Fredericq (as quoted above, p. 100) makes this a.ssertion broadly; while Garrey says 
oi I^undidm JieterocUtim: "The integument and gills are therefore impermeable." 
Garrey is cautious enough, however, not to postulate an absolute impermealniity 
either for Fundulux or for teleosts in general. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 

The more important results of the foregoing experiments may be very briefly 
summarized as follows: 

(1) Certain brackish and salt-water tishes were unable to survive even a gradual 
transfer to pure fresh water, though enduring an abrupt transfer to water of a very 
low degree of salinit}*. Thus fresh water, as such, proved fatal to these tishes, the 
degree. of abruptness of the change being of .secondary importance. 

(2) Considerable changes of weight were found to result, in many cases, from 
changes in the salinity (hence the osmotic pressure) of the surrounding medium. 

(3) Considerable changes in the .salt (chlorine) content of the body were likewise 
found to result, in many cases, from changes in the salinity of the water. 

(4) ('areful control experiments excluded the possibility that the water or salts 
entered or passed from the body through the alimentary canal, leaving as the only 
probable alternative an osmotic exchange through one or more of the limitini: 
membranes. 

(5) In certain tishes, at least, it was found that the membranes chiefly concerned 
in such exchanges were those of the gills. 

Accordingly, we can not conclude from the absence of osmotic equilibrium 
between the fish and its environment that no osmotic interchanges normalh- occur. 
On the contrary, abundant experiments seem to prove that both water and salts may 
under certain conditions be transmitted in either direction without any harm result- 

<i For oysters, op. cit., p. 814. 



EFFP;CTS UPON FISHEt^ OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATER. 105 

im^ to tlic fish. These conditions seem impossible to state in advance for a given 
case. In general we may say that: 

(1) Measurable changes in weight result only from considerable changes in the 
density of the surrounding water, but — 

(2) Not all such changes of density sutHcc to produce changes of weight, even 
when the fish is transferred to a medium which is known to be strongly hypertonic 
or hypotonic to its own body fluids. 

(3) Changes in the salinity of the water may or may not result in changes in the 
salt content of the body. 

(4.) Changes in the body salt content may or may not be accompanied l)y 
changes in weight. 

(a) Neither the changes in weight nor in salt content are at all pi-oportional to 
the changes in the density of the external medium. 

It would appear that there is normally a tendency on the part of the fish to 
resist osmotic changes and to maintain the fiuLds of the body at a definite degi'ee of 
concentration. Under various conditions, however, this resistance is overcome and 
■ a certain degree of permeability is established. This is generally a differential per- 
meability, resulting in osmosis and consequent changes of weight. In such cases, 
however, the membranes are not strictly semipermeable, but transmit salts in some 
measure. Indeed, it would seem that at times the permeabilit}' is indiscriminate, in 
which case the salts may diffuse freely, but no changes in weight occur. These vari- 
ous changes continue until a new level of stability is established, after which the 
normal resisting power of the fish reasserts itself and no further alteration occurs 
so long as the medium is constant. Complete osmotic equilibrium between the fish 
and the water is probaf)ly never attained except in waters having roughly a medium 
degree of salinity. The osmotic pressure of the "internal medium" fiuctuates 
within a much narrower range than that of the " external medium." 

The foregoing conclusions are intended to apply onl}' to normal fishes. It seems 
certain that the enfeebleraent of the fish may result in an increased permeability of 
the membranes, which in turn would doubtless result in a further enfeeblement of 
the fish. The death of those fishes which can not withstand transfer to a medium 
very different from that to which they are accustomed is thus probably in part a 
cause and in part an efl'ectof these changes. Death is accompanied (perhaps in some 
cases caused) by a giving way in the power to resist an abnormal degree of osmotic 
exchange. The bod\- becomes water-soaked (if in fresh water), or dehydrated (if in 
salt). The difference between the more hardv and the more delicate species in this 
regard seems to lie partly in the resisting power of the limiting membranes (chiefly 
those of the gills); partly, also, in internal difl'erences, such as composition of blood, 
etc., which determine whether a given InHux or efflux of water or salts shall prove 
fatal. 

The actual cause of death following a change in the salinity <if tlie water seexns 
to differ in difi'erent cases. With those fishes which succumb rapidly with but a 
slight change of weight (e. g., scup, experiments 69-71), it is unlikely that any 
appreciable alteration occurs in the tissues at large. Such changes are probably con- 
fined to the blood, perhaps, as Bert held, to that in the gill capillaries. In those 
cases, on the contrary, where the fatal ett'ects are not manifested for some days, it 



106 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

seems likely that the manner of death is different. In the case of F. heteroclitus it 
was found in most instances that the endosmotic flow of water had ceased, and that 
a decrease in weight had ensued within one or two daj's after transfer to fresh water. 
On the other hand, it will be remembered that fishes of this species commonly did 
not die for a considerable number of days, while many survived for a week and some 
even for several weeks. Again, it will be recalled that the fatal effects of fresh 
water upon this and some other species were nullified by the admixture of a very 
small percentage of salt water. Analyses showed that in this latter case there was 
little or no decrease in the salt content of the body. A rough approximation was 
pointed out (p. 96) between the percentage of salts in this faintl}' saline water and 
that in the fishes themselves. All of these facts point to the conclusion that one 
factor in the death of salt-water fishes in fresh water is the extraction from their 
tissues of an amount of salts sufficient to reduce the percentage below a certain 
necessarj' minimum. 

If the question ))e asked, Why are not fresh-water fishes thus affected in their 
own medium? it is replied that their membranes have been adapted to resisting such 
an extraction of salts. It is perhaps also true that the irreducible minimum of salts 
in these species is lower than in the case of salt-water ones. In any case the per- 
centage actually present is, on the average, less. 

Whether or not salt water ever has a toxic effect, in the narrower sense, upon 
fresh-water fishes can not be stated definitelj'. Bert denied that such was the case, 
but, as already stated, he is not entirely consistent in his position. In view of the 
fatal effects upon salt-water fishes of some of the individual components of .sea salt, 
when taken separately (Loeb, 1900; Siedlecki, 1903), it seems quite possible that sea 
water itself may act as a poison to fresh-water organisms, independentlv of any 
osmotic effects. Indeed, both of these writers have shown that it is the chemical 
nature of the solutions used rather than their osmotic pressures which determines, 
in many cases, whether they sliall prove fatal. 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE. 

It gives me great pleasure to find in a paper by Prof. C. W. Greene on the 
physiology of the chinook salmon, just published, that certain of the results obtained 
by him lend strong support to the views upheld in the preceding pages. Greene 
finds a very considerable difference between the osmotic pressui-e of blood from 
salmon taken in sea water and of that from fishes taken at the spawning grounds 
far upstream. The mean values for A given by Greene are —0.762^ and — <i.<)2,s , 
respectively, showing a decrease of 17.6 per cent in the fresh-water individuals. 
Greene is not convinced, however, that osmotic changes have been responsible for 
this decrease, but is of the opinion that "the absence of food and the important 
metabolisms occurring during the eight to twelve weeks' sojourn in fresh water are 
to be considered in this connection, and possibly are sufficient to account for the 
change " (p. 455). 

Another of Greene's results is of great interest to me, namely, that he found 
but a slight reduction (3.3 per cent) in the osmotic pressure of the blood of salmon 



EFFECTS UPON FISHES OF CHANGES IN SALINITY OF WATEK. 107 

taken in faintly saline water near the (Sacramento) river's mouth. Greene's conclu- 
sion appears to be that the slight extent of this reduction was owing to the short time 
which had elapsed since the fishes had left the sea. Unfortunatel^v the length of this 
interval is not stated. According to Rutter's account, the first steps of the passage 
into the Sacramento River are rather gradual, the fish falling back somewhat with 
each ebb tide. My own experiments show that with certain fishes, at least, a single 
day's sojourn in fresh water is suflicient to eflect a considerable reduction in the salt 
content of the body. On the other hand, even a ver^- slight degree of salinitj' was 
sufiicient to prevent this change. In the absence of further data I suggest the same 
explanation for the results obtained by Greene with the brackish-water salmon. 



LIST OK WORKS REFERRED TO. 

1891. Atw.vter, W. O. The chemical composition and nutritive values of food fishes and aquatic 

invertebrates. Report of V. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries for 1888, pp. 679-868. 
1898. B.\LLAND. Sur la composition des poissons, des crustaces et des moUusques. Comptes rendus 

de rAcad(5mie des Sciences, t. 126, pp. 1728-1731. 
1903. Bea-v, T. H. Catalogue of the fishes of New York. Bulletin no. 60, New York State Museum. 
1865. Bernard, C. Introduction a I'etude de la medecine experimentale. Paris, 1865. 
1871. Bert, P. Sur les ph^nomenes et les causes de la mort des animaux d'eau douce que Ton itlonge 

dans I'eau de mer. Comptes rendus de I'Academie des Sciences, t. 73, pp. 382-385, 464-467. 
1873. . La mort des animaux d'eau douce que I'on immerge dans I'eau de mer. 

Cbmptes rendus de la Societe de Biologie, 5' sc'rie, t. 3, pp. 59-61. 
1883. ■ — . Sur la cause le la mort des animaux d'eau douce qu'on plonge dans I'eau de 

mer et reciproquement. Comptes rendus de I'Academie des Sciences, t. 97, pp. 133-136. 

1896. BoTTAZzi, F., and Ducceschi. Resistance des erythrocytes, etc. Archives italiennesde Biologie, 

t. 26, pp. 161-172. 

1897. BoTTAZzi, F. La pression osmotique du sang des animaux marins. Archives italiennes de 

Biologie, t. 28, pp. 61-72. 

1901. BoTTAZzi, F., and Enriques, P. Ueber die Bedingungen des osmotischen Gleichgewichts und 
des Gleichgewichtsmangels zwischen den organischen Flussigkeiten und dem iiusseren Medium 
bei den Wasserthieren. Archiv fur Anatomie und Physiologie. Supplement-Band, p. 109- 
170. 

1903. Brown, 0. II. The immunity of Fundulus eggs and embryos to electrical stimulation. Ameri- 
can Journal ol Ptiysiology, vol. 9, pp. 111-115. 

1903. Church, A. H. Food. London, 1903. 

1897. Davenport, C. B. Experimental morphology. New York, 1897. 

1884. Dittmar, W. Report on researches into the composition of ocean water. Challenger Reports: 

Physics and Chemistry, vol, i. 

1885. Fredericq, L. Influerice du milieu ambiant sur la composition du sang des animaux aquatiques. 

Archives de Zoologie Experimentale, 2' serie, t. in. Notes et Revue, pp. x.xxiv-x.xxviii. 
1891. . Sur la physiologie de la branchie. Archives de Zoologie Experimentale, 2' 

.serie, t. ix, pp. 117-123. 
1904. . Sur la concentration moleculaire du sang et des tissus chez les animaux aqua- 
tiques. Archives de Biologie, t. 20, pp. 709-730. 
1895. (tarman, S. The cyprinodonts. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, vol. xix, 

1895. 
1905. Garrey, W. E. The osmotic pressure of sea water and of the blood of marine animals. 

Biological Bulletin, vol. viii, no. 4, pp. 257-270. 
1900. GiARi), A. Sur I'adaptation brusque de I'einnoche {G'istero.-<tt'iix li-nchunix Cuv. et Val.) aux 

eaux alternativement douces et marines. Comptes rendus de la Societe de Biologie, t. 52, 

pp. 46-48. 



108 15ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU UE FISHERIES. 

1905. Greene, C. W. Physiological studies of tlie chinonk Falinon. KulU-tin I'. S. Buii-au of 

Fislieries 1904, vol. xxiv, pp. 429-456. 
1892. (jRiFFiTn.'*. Physiology of the Invertebrata. Loiidoii, 1892. 
1887. Hambl'hger, H. J. Ueber die Salz- und Rohrzucker-LOsungen bewirkten Veninderungeii dor 

Blutkorperchen. Archiv fiir Anatomie und Physiologie, 1887, p. 31-50. 
1896-1900. JoKDAX, D. 8., and Evermann, B.W. The fishes of Nortli and Middle America. Bulletin 

United States National Museum No. 47. 

1896. Katz, J. Die mineralischen Bestandtheile des ^IuskelHei«-hes. Arcliiv fiir die gesamnite 

Physiologie, Bd. 63, p. 1-85. 
1904. Lrhtexfeld, H. Ueber die chemische Zusammensetzung einif^er Fischarten. Archiv fiir die 

gesammte Physiologie, Bd. 103, p. 353-402. 
1894. LoEH, J. Ueber die relative Empfindlichkeit von Fischenibryonen gegen Sauerstoffmangc! 

und Wasserentziehung in verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien. Archiv fiir die gesammte 

Physiologie, Bd. 55, p. 530-541. 
1900. . On ion-proteid compounds and their rule in the mechanics of life phenomena. 

1. The poisonous character of a pure XaCl solution. American Journal of Physiology, vol. 3, 

no. vii, pp. 327-338. 
1900. . On the different effect of ions upon myogenic and neurogenic rhythmical con- 
tractions and upon embryonic and muscular tissue, .\merican Journal of Physiology, vol. :l, 

no. vin, pp. 383-396. 
1881. Mather, F. Fishes which can live in both salt and fresli water. Transactions of the American 

Fish Cultural Association, pp. 65-75. 
1890. Mosso, A. Ueber verschiedene Resistenz der Blutkorperchen hei verschiedenen Fischarten. 

Biologisches Centralblatt, Bd. X, p. 570. 
1900. QuiNTON, R. Communication osmotique chez I'lnvertclirc marin normal, entre le milieu inti'- 
" rieur de I'animal et le milieu exterieur. Comptes rendus de I'Academie de.s Sciences, t. l.'il, 

1.1). 905-908. 
190l\ . Permeabilite de la parol ext^rieure de I'lnvertebr^ marin, non seulenient a I'eau 

niais encore aux sels. Comptes rendus de I'Acad^'mie des Sciences, t. 131, pp. 952-955. 
1904. . L'eau de mer milieu orgauicjue. Constance du milieu marin original com me 

milieu vital des cellules a travers la surie animale. Paris, 1904, 503 pp. 
1899. RoDiER, E. Observations et experiences comparatives sur l'eau de mer, le .sang et des liquidi .< 

internes des animaux marins. Travaux des laboratoires de la Station Zoologique d'Arcachon, 

p]i. 103-123 (cited by Frederic(i, 1904). 
19011. • . Sur la pression osmotique du sang et des liquides internes chez les poissons 

Selaciens. Comptes rendus de I'Acadi^'mie des Sciences, t. 131, pp. 1008-1010. 

1902. RuTTER, C. Studies in the natural history of the Sacramento salmon. Popular Science ^lontldy, 

July, 1902, pp. 195-211. 

1904. . Natural history of the quinnat salmon. Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Coiiimi.>^>i..u 

1902, vol. xxn, pp. 67-142. 

1903. Siedlecki, M. Sur la resistance des epinoches aux changements de la pression osmotique du 

milieu ambiant. Comptes rendus de I'Academie des Sciences, t. 137, pp. 469—471. 

l!H):l. . L'action des solutions des sels alcalins et alcalino-terreux sur les cpinoclu-s. 

Comptes rendus de I'Academie des Sciences, t. 137, pp. 525-527. 

1897. Smith, Eugene. The fishes of the fresh and brackish waters in the vicinity of New York City. 

Proceedings of the Linnsean Society of New York, pp. 9-51. 

1902. . The Home Aquarium. New York, 1902. 

1892. DE VARKiNV, H. Experimental evolution. London, 1892. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY, 
CALIFORNIA, AND VICINITY. 



By F. M. MacFARLAND, 

Associ3.te Professor of Histology, LeUnd Stanford Junior Uni'versity. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY, CALIFORNIA, AND 
VICINITY, 



By F. M. MacFARLAND. 
Associate Professor of Histology, Lclami Stanford funior University. 



This paper does not purport to be a complete list of the Doridoidea found in 
Monterey Bay and vicinity, but probabl}' includes all of the commoner forms there 
represented. It is based upon collections made at various intervals since 1892, 
mostly in the immediate vicinity of Pacitic Grove, Cal., and much of the manuscript 
has been for several years in practically the form here presented. It was not 
deemed desirable, however, to publish the descriptions of some of the i-arer forms 
until the acquisition of further specimens had made possible more extended morpho- 
log^ical study. Several species which now are represented by but a single individual 
in the collection are withheld for the present. 

This study was conducted at the Hopkins Seaside Laboratory," which is situated 
on the southernmost shore of ^bintin-ey Bay, ubnut Il'h luilcs south of San Francisco. 
Tlie entrance to the bay i-. uliout I'n iiiilr> broad, and it^ noitlicrn and eastern shores 
present an almost continuous >;ui(ly licach, luokcii at long intervals by short rocky 
stretches; but on the south, from Monterey onward, the shore line is nmch more 
diversified, granitic cliifs rising to 4:0 or 50 feet above the sea and offering every 
variety of rocky com- and siieltered sand beaches, with a wealth of littoral animal 
and plant life. Foini I'ino- forms the southern headland of the bay, but the general 
character of the coa-^t continues the same for several miles southward. Beyond 
Cypress Point opens another and much smaller bay, Carmelo Bay, at the mouth 
of the Carmel River, with the rugged and precipitous Point Lobos at its southern 
boundary. The most of the forms herein described were collected along the southern 
shore of Monterey Bay and the neighboring coast line as far south as Point Lobos 
and are mainly from the tidal zone, though some dredging has been done also. 

The general systematic arrangement of the group here followed is modified from 
that of Prof. R. Bergh as given in his System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden 
(Wiesbaden, 1892). For the convenience of other students of the group on the Pacific 

o My sincerest thanks are due to the directors of the Hopkins Seaside Laboratory, Professors Jenkins and Giliiert, for 
the facilities afforded me by that institution and for their unfailing kindly interest and encouragement in my work. The 
generous cooperation of Mr. Timothy Hopkins, of San Francisco, made possible the illustration of many of the species 
represented in this paper. I am indebted to the Smithsonian Institution for the assignment of a table in the Naples 
Zoological Station during the winter of 1902-3, where I had the valuable opportunity of studying and comparing many of 
the Mediterranean forms with these of the California coast. My grateful acknowledgments are due likewise to Professor 
Dohrn and his able staff. 

Ill 



112 BULLETIN OF THK BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

coast, the characters of all the families and sul)families have been given, whether 
representatives of them have been taicen in Montere}' Ra_y or not. In se\iM;il ia>es 
the generic characters given by Bergh have been slightly moditied in uniniporttint 
points to admit forms belonging unmistakably to the genus. 

For the identification of even the genera to which many of the inidibraneliiate 
mollusca belong, it is necessary to make a full and careful dissection. This has been 
done in each case, but a complete morphological description of the forms discusseil 
in the iH-esent paper has not been attempted, simply an abridged account of the 
anatomy sufficient for their ready identification being here contemplated. It has 
l)eoii my especial endeavor to secure adequate colored drawings of all species not 
elsewhere so illustrated, rnt'ortunatoly, with the exception of Alder and Hancock. 
Trinchese, Vayssierc, and a few others, not many authors have published such illn- 
trations. The lack is the more deplorable on account of the imiid^sibility of ])resprv- 
ing the beautiful colors, or even the natural form, in the museum speiiinens. 

The following tabulation will indicate the general systematic leiationship of 
the forms discussed in the present paper.' With the exception of tlie early and 
fragmentary papers of Gould, Cooper, and Stearns, and several n)ore thorough ones 
of Bergh, the California opisthobiancliiate :\Iollusea aiv pra.-tieally unknown. Thi- 

fact accounts for the larev proiuirtic f new -|)eric^ fomid liy me, which have been 

descril)ed in a brief preliminary papci- ))ul>lisli((| in I lie Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington (vol. wiii. Feb. :.'. l'.ii)."i). under the title "A Preliminary 
Account of the Doridiihe of Montei-ey Bay. California." The types of these are 
deposited in the United States National AIus<nmi, and cotypes will be placed in the 
zoological museum of Leland Stanford Junior University and the nuiseum of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Sciences; also in the author's collection. 

Order OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 
Sul)order Nudibranchiata. 
Section Doridoidea. 

Family A. Doridid.e. 



Subfamily 


I. 


Bathydori.liiife. . 


Subfamily 


II. 


lIcxabraiK-lnrup. 


Subfamily 


III. 


1. Arcliidorip iiiDUtereyen.sis (Co:iper). 
1'. Aiii^odoris nobilis (MacFarland). 


Sulifamily 


IV. 


DiscodoridiuiB. 

:i. Discodoris heathi MacFarland. 
4. Rostanga jralchra MacFarland. 


Sul>family 


V. 


Diaululinfe. 

5. Diaulula sandiegensis (Cooper). 
1). Aldisa sanguinea (Cooper) 


Subfamily 


VI. 


7. Cadlina marginata MacFarland. 

8. Cadlina Havomac-ulata MacFarland. 


Subfamily 


VII. 


Kentrodoridina'. 


Subfamily 


VIII. 


Platydoriilina-. 


Subfauiily 


IX. 


ChromodoridiuK. 

9. ChromodorLs i)orterie Cockerell. 


Subfamily 


X. 


MiamirinK. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 113 

Order OPISTHOBRA^rCHIATA— Continued. 
Suborder NlIDIBRA^-CHIATA — Continued. 
Section Doridoidea — Continued. 
Family B. Doriopsidid.e. 

10. Doriopsis fulva MacFarland. 
Family C. Phyllidiid.e. 

Family D. Polycerid.e. ■ 

Subfamily XI. Polycerin;e. 

11. Aegires albopunctatus MacFarland. 

12. Laila cockerelli MacFarland. 

13. Triopha carpenteri (Stearns). 

14. Triopha maculata MacFarland. 

15. Triopha grandis MacFarland. 

16. Polycera atra MacFarland. 
Subfamily XII. (^oniodoridin;*'. 

17. Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland. 
IS. Acaiithodciris brunnea MacFarland. 

19. Ancula ]xacifica MacFarland. 

20. Hopkinsia rosacea MacFarland. 
Family E. Corambid.e. 

Family F. Doridoxid.i!. 

0PI8TH0BRANCHIATA. 
NUDIBRANCHIATA. 

DORIDOIDEA. 

Genital conduit triaulic, liver completely inclosed in the visceral mass, female duct bifurcated. 
Anal aperture postero-median, upon the dorsum, surrounded by the branchial rosette, or rarely 
between the peri-notwum and the foot. 

Family A. DORIDID.B. 

Branchial plumes in an arc or circle usually joined together at their bases, usually retractile into 
a common cavity. Rhinophores always with perfoliate clavus. Pharyngeal bulb never suctorial. 

Subfamily I. BATHYDORIDINH. 

Body (large) almost semiglobular, soft, pallial margin scarcely any; tentacles rather large, some- 
what flattened, acuminate; branchial plumes many (6), entirely separate, nonretractile; the foot 
wide. Pharyngeal bulb very large, similar to that of the Tritoniadie; labial armature none; mandibles 
large, flattened, masticatory margin smooth. Median tooth of radula somewhat compressed; lateral 
teeth numerous, hooked, edentulate. Hermaphrodite gland sejiarate from the liver; j)enis unarme<l. 

Subfamily II. HEXABRANOHINII. 

Body (large) soft, f.attened, elongate oval; dorsum smooth; pallial margin wide, undulating, its 
margin thin, undulating; tentacles large, foliaceous, their margins fluted; branchiae of many (6-8) 
separate arborescent plumes, retractile into separate cavities; the foot wide. Labial armature very 
strong, on each side a thick lamella made up of very minute hooks. Rhachis of radula naked; lateral 
teeth numerous, hooked, edentulate. Penis very long, unarmed. 

Subfamily III. AEOHIDORIDINll. 

Body not hard, somewhat depressed, the dorsum tuben-uUite or granulate, j)allial margin not 
narrow; tentacles small; branchial plumes almost always tripinnate or quadripinnate; the foot wide. 
Laliial armature none. Rhachis of radula naked; pleurie multidentate, teeth hooked. Penis usually 
unarmed. 

B. B. F. 1305—8 



114 BULLETIN tiF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Genus 1. ASCHISOBIS Bergh. 

Doris, auct. 

Areltidoris Bergh, Malacologisfhe Untersuchungun (Semper, Keisen im Archipel der Philippi'nen, II, Bd. Ill), H. XI\', 
1878; p. 616, Supplement-Heft I, 1880. }>. 33; H. XVIII, 1892, p. 1092. Nudibranohiate Gasteropod Mollusca of lljc 
North Pacifie Ocean. I. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1879, p. 106. Report on the Niidibranchiata, Challenger 
Reports, Zoology, X. 1884. p. 84. System der Nudibranchiaten Gasteropoden, p. 100, 1892. Die Opisthobranchi<n 
(Albatross Expedition), Bull. Mils. Comp. Zool., XXV, 1894, 10, p. 157. 

Body not hard, subdepressed, notfeum granular or tubercular; tentacles short, thick, with external 
longitudinal sulcus; brancliial plumes not numerous, 3-4 pinnate; the foot wide, its anterior margin 
superficially sulcate. Labial armature none. Rhachis of radula naked, pleurae multidentate, teeth 
hooked. Peni.= unarmed. Vagina unarmed. 

1. Archidoris montereyensis (Cooper). 
[PI. .\xni, fig. 4; pi. XVIII, fig.s. 1-5.] 
norU monlereyensU Coopero. Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci.. II, 1862, p. 204; III, 1863, p. 158. 

Arrhidnris montereyensis. Bergh, Mai. Unters., H. XIV, 1878, p. 624. Nudibr. Moll. North Pac. Ocean. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1879, p. 107. Syst. der Nudibr. Gast., p. 100, 1892.— MacFarland, Preliminary Account of the Dorididit of 
Monterey Bay, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, XVIII, February 2, 1905, p. 37. 

Body elongate, elliptical, but slightly depressed, the ends nearly equally roimded, dorsum some- 
what arched. Dorsum not hard, everywhere closely set with low conical tubercules, in alcoholic 
specimens somewhat rounded. The largest of these are about 1 mm. in diameter and between them 
are smaller ones of varying size. Mantle edge thick, extending everywhere beyond the foot except over 
the tip of the tail when the animal is crawling. General ground color (pi. xxin, fig. 4) light yellow, 
having a dusty appearance, due to extremely minute brown, greenish brown, or black dots thickly 
sprinkled over the dorsum everywhere. Larger patches of the same color are scattered over the dor- 
sum, principally over the median portion, upon as well as between the tubercules, and more sparingly 
upon the branchial plumes. In alcohol the yellow color is lost, but the dark blotches turn to a dark 
blue shade and last for some time. 

Length up to 50 mm., width 25 mm., hei^dit 11' mm. 

Foot smooth, elongate, elliptical, light yellow, the anterior margin bilabiate, the upper lip much 
thicker and wider than the lower, no median notch. 

Head inconspicuous, mouth small, a vertical slit, the sides continued into the short, blunt, fold-like 
tentacles which are auriculate with a clearly marked external groove (pi. xviir, fig. 5). Ehinophores 
stout, retractile into conspicuous sheaths, the margins of which bear irregular tubercules similar tcj 
those of the general dorsal surface. Stalk conical, the clavus slightly dilated, conical, perfoliate, with 
24-30 leaves on each side. 

Branchial plumes 7, large, spreading, 3-4 pinnate, yellowish, sprinkled with minute brown or 
black spots giving them a dusty appearance, occasionally with larger jiatches of the same color. 
Deeply retractile within a prominent sheath with tuberculate margin. The plumes are arranged in a 
U-shaped arc around the anal papilla, which is truncately conical and often tipped with the brown or 
black color of the spots of the dorsum. Renal pore near the base of the anal papilla and slightly in 
advance on the right side. 

Blood glands small, thin, the anterior one rudimentary, the posterior one behind and in contact 
with the central nervous system, narrow, ribbon-like, with lobulate margins, about 2 mm. long by 0.5 
mm. wide. 

Pharyngeal bulb strong, conical, its length about 5 mm.; breadth and height, 4 mm.; the radula 
sheath projecting behind and below tor about 2 mm. as a rounded process. Lip disk rounded, covered 
with a thick, colorless cuticle. 

" The very fragmentary description of Cooper is as follows: " Pale yellowish,''with scattered blacli spots {or entirely 
brown?); mantle rough tuberculate, or nearly smooth, dorsal tentacles knob-shaped, branchial rays bipinnate, short, in 
eight divisions, forming a crown-shaped expansion on the posterior third of the dorsum. Foot expanded into a broad, 
thin margin as wide as the mantle. Length, 3 inches; breadth, 1 inch; height, three-fourths inch; form, elongated oval. 
Dredged in to 10 fathoms in Monterey Bay, adhering to fragments of sandstone; only 2 obtained in September." The 
specimens studiei! by Bergh were taken at Sitka. Alaska, and were sent to him in a dried condition. From a study of 
this material he assigns TK in.onieretjauis to his genus Archidoris and gives general measurements of the body (.shrunken ) 
and the characteristics of the radula. Further than this no study of the .species has been made. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSC A FROM MONTEREY BAY. 115 

Radula colorless, broad and short, about 4 mm. long by 3.5 mm. in width, deeply grooved, the 
teeth in 33 rows, the last 3 immature. Rhachis very narrow, naked. Pleurfe multidentate with 42^9 
strongly hooked, compressed teeth. The outer face of the pleural teeth convex, the inner concave, 
the shaft bearing a large triangular, wing-like expansion on its inner margin, its upper edge thick- 
ened, the inner thin. Numerous fine, ridge-like striations diverge from the inner margin of the shaft 
and pass out into the wing throughout its whole extent, being especially prominent in the lower half 
(pi. XVIII, fig. 3). Teeth increasing in size gradually from within outward (pi. xviii, fig. 2), the outer- 
most ones decreasing rather rapidly, the general shape being retained (pi. xviii, fig. 1). Length of 
shaft of innermost teeth 0.114 mm.; length of hook (perpendicular to longest axis of shaft) 0.054 mm. 
Length of shaft of largest teeth of middle portion of row, about 0.240 mm.; length of hook of same, 
0.150 mm. 

Salivary glands long, whitish, ribbon-like, about 2 mm. in diameter, in length 10-12 mm., extending 
straight backward to the cardiac (posterior) end of thestomach. Stomachin antero-median cleft of the 
liver, large, saccular, its cardiac end below and posterior, its pyloric end on left anterior side of the visceral 
mass, the intestine curving upward and to the right along the upper anterior Ijorder of the stomach, 
tlience backward in a deep groove in the dorsal surface of the liver to the anus. It is a slender, thin- 
walled tube about 1 mm. in average diameter and 25 mm. long. 

Liver covered everywhere by the hermaphrodite gland, tapering posteriorly and rounded, in front 
divided into two large lateral lobes by a broad median cleft occupied by the stomach. The left lobe 
is rounded, the right with anterior and lateral flattened areas caused by pressure of the anterior genital 
miiss. Bile cyst huL'c, .■l.im.'atcd, . yliiidrical, 4 mm. long by 2 mm. in diameter, opening into the 
stomach cliisc to its canliar rnd and ciitiii'ly concealed by that organ, behind and below which it lies. 

Hermai)liri)(bti' ;:Uuiil, iloscly cuviTiriL' the whole surface of the liver, yellowish. The hermaphro- 
ditic duct rises from the anterior end of the right lobe of the visceral mass with a diameter of 0.3 mm. 
and is very short, dilating at 1 mm. length into the whitish ampulla. The ampulla passes forward in 
a sinuous course, with an average diameter of 1 mm., to the anterior end of the genital ma-ss, where 
it is closely looped into a coil and divides into the vas deferens and the oviduct. Its total length is 
alxiut 24 mm., with an average diameter of 1 mm. 

The anterior genital mass is large, plano-convex in form, its flattened side dorso-posterior, nearly 
circular in outline, its diameter about 11 mm., the convex surface directed outward and downward. 
The ventral and posterior margins are sharp, the anterior and dorsal ones rounded and occupied by 
the coils of the hermaphroditic ampulla and vas deferens, and the spermatotheca, respectively. 

The everted glans penis is conical, unarmed, long and rather .slender, about 7 mm. long by 1 mm. 
in diameter at the base, the tip blunt and flattened, recurved upward and backward. The prseputium 
is conical and thick, about 3 mm. long. The muscular vas deferens arising from it, describing a number 
of closely coiled loops, pass<'s ainnt; the anterior external margin of the genital mass to its origin as a 
branch of the hermaphroditic aiii|iiilla « ith no trace of a prostate gland along its course. Total length 
of vas deferens when straiglitcn.d .mt alioiit L'S-30 mm., its average diameter 0.5 mm. 

The vaginal opening is situair.l ii nncdialcly liehind the penLs, above the duct of the nidamental 
gland, its duct slender, 0.5 )iiiii n i.li . r.iiH-iii- nl.li(|uely upward to the posterior end of the spermato- 
theca and opening into it after a sliirlitly sinuous course of about 1 mm. (pi. xviii, fig. 4, vd.). The 
spermatotheca (pi. xviii, fig. 4, .yi.lh. ) is spherical, thin-walled, about 5 mm. in diameter, lying on the 
upper margin of the genital mass and concealing the spermatocyst and its duct, which lie immediately 
(jutside and belo\v it. It receives at its posterior end the very short common duct of the spermatocyst 
and the vagina. The spermatocyst (pi. xviii, fig. 4, gp.c.) is elongate, pear-shaped, its length 3 mm., its 
diameter 1.5 mm., pinkish in color, its duct as long as the cyst, with a diameter of 0.3 mm. and coursing 
backward under the spermatotheca on the upper outer convex face of the genital mass to unite with 
the very delicate uterine duct. The latter duct (pi. xviii, fig. 4, u.d.) 0.2 mm. long by 0.1 mm. in 
diameter, runs forward and passes into the nidamental gland close to the oviduct. 

The nidamental and albumin glands form the greatest portion of the anterior genital mass and 
consist of a peripheral more translucent portion made up of closely coiled tubules inclosing a denser, 
more centrally placed white part, the other relations of the glands as usual in the genus. 

The species which is here identified with A. inontereijensig (Cooper) is comparatively common 
in Monterey Bay, occurring in rocky tide pools at nearly all seasons of the year. It is especially 
abundant on the piles of the wharf at Monterey, where it is found in company with the form next 



116 IHJLLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

described and witli which it might be readily confused at first siglit. A. mmii: ir,i,-iixis, however, does 
not attain one-half the size of the latter, the distribution of the darks|"ii- ii|i'.ii tli>> .lursuni is markedly 
different, and the tentacles are altogether unlike, being in A.monternj, i(.<i.- lUittciied and auriculate, 
with an external groove, w^hile in Anisodoris nubilis they are elongate and digitiform. An examina- 
tion of the internal anatomy reveals very important points of difference, notably the absence of a 
prostate gland in this species, while in Anisodoris nobilig a very large prostata is present. 
A specimen deposited in V. S. National Museum (no. 181285). 

Genus 2. ANISODOKIS Bergh. 

iig Plate, Fauiift Chilensis. Heft 3, 189S. p. 508. 

Form of body, tentacles and branchiae as in Archidoris. Large prostate gland present. Vagina 
and penis unarmed. 

In my preliminary paper upon the Dorididse of Monterey Bay, a new genus, Moniereinn, was pro- 
posed for the reception of a species which differed strikingly from the other genera of the Archidori- 
din:*". My description of this form was written in 1894 practically as it appeared in 1905 in the paper 
cited aljove, and inadvertently, in revising the manuscript, the important paper of Bergh (1898) upon 
tlie Opisthobranchs of Chile in the Plate collection was overlooked. A new genus, Anisodoris, with 
which Montereina is practically identical, is described in this paper by Bergh. The slight difference 
of long cylindrical tentacles in the Monterey form is hardly sutiicient to warrant its retention as a 
distinct genus, and Montereina must therefore be regarded as a synonym. To the genus Anisodoris 
Bergh has assigned the following species, all from Chile: (1) An. punctuolata (d'Orbigny). (2) Ax. 
variolata (d'Orbigny). (3) An. marmorata Bergh. (4) An. tessellata Bergh. 

To this list is here added the following Monterey form, which is distinct from these. The genus 
thus far appears to be limited to the Pacific coast of North and South America. 

2. Anisodoris nobilis (MacFarland). 
[PI. xvni, figs. 0-11: pi. x.xii, fig.s. 1 and 2.] 
Mtniierema nubilis MacFarland. op. cit., p. 3.S. 

Body very large, plump, arched, but little depressed, sloping abruptly in front (pi. xxii, fig. 1), less 
so behind. Broad, elongate, elliptical in outline, the ends nearly equally rounded. General ground 
color a rich orange yellow, varying to light yellow in some specimens (pi. x.^ii, figs. 1,2). Dorsum 
thickly tuberculate, the tubercles slightly inflated at the outer end, giving them a knob-like appearance. 
The largest tubercles are 1.5 mm. in diameter by 2 mm. in height, decreasing in size as the mantle 
margin is approached. Between the large tubercles smaller ones are everywhere closely set. Dorsum 
mottled everywhere between the tubercles with irregular blotches of dark brown or black. The total 
amount of this mottling may vary within wide limits, some individuals being quite light yellow 
while others are very dark (pi. x.xii, fig. 2). Branchial plumes pinkish, tipped with white. 

Length up to 20 cm., width to 6 cm., and height up to 3 cm. 

Mantle everywhere projecting far beyond the foot save behind, where the tip of the tail protrudes 
for varying lengths. Sides of body not high, smooth, light yellow. 

Foot broad, smooth, light yellow in color, abruptly rounded in front, more gradually so behind, 
its anterior margin bilabiate with a slight median notch. 

Mouth relatively small, lips fleshy, the oral tentacles digitiform, bluntly conical, 5 mm. long, 
directed forward and curved outward toward the tips (pi. xviii, fig. 6). 

Rhinophores stout, the stalk conical, the clavus perfoliate with about 24 leaves, deeply retractile 
within low sheaths, the margins of which are tuberculate. 

Branchial plumes 6, large, spreading, tri- and quadripinnate, when fully extended covering the 
whole of the posterior dorsum. A thin membrane-like expansion joins the bases of the plumes. 

Anal papilla large, cylindro-conical, blunt, occupying the center of the circle of branchite. 

Renal papilla small, at right and in front of anal papilla, between the bases of the first and second 
anterior plumes on right side. 

Blood glands in two distinct portions of nearly equal size, both flattened, finely lobulate, and 
irregular in outline. The anterior gland lies in front of the cerebral ganglia upon the pharyngeal 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLXJSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 117 

bulb, is oval in ^'eneral outline, the broader, thicker portion directed posteriorly. Length about 5 
ram., width 4 mm. The posterior gland is transversely placed immediately behind the cerebral gan- 
glia, extending on the right over a part of the anterior genital mass. Length 5 mm., width 6 mm. 

Pharyngeal bulb large, conical, its length about 10 ram., width 8 mm., and height 6 mm., the 
radula sac projecting behind and below as a rounded cylindrical process of 4 mm. length. Lip disk 
.1 mm. in diameter, covered with a thick colorless cuticula, the opening an inverted T-shaped cleft. 

Radula broad and short, deeply grooved, colorless or nearly so, the rhachis very narrow, naked. 
Teeth in 26 rows, the last 2 being immature. Pleural teeth large, stronglj' hooked, 55 in anterior 
rows, 60 in the iniddle rows, and 62 in the posterior rows. The general type of the pleural teeth is 
much the same as in Archidoris, the outer face being more convex than the inner. The outermost 
teeth increase rapidly in size toward the center of the row (pi. xviii, fig. 7), the shaft and hook being 
nearly at right angles. The teeth from the middle portion of the row (pi. .win, figs. 8 and 11) have 
strongly curved hooks, much more so than in ArchidorU montereyensis (cf. pi. xviu, fig. 3), while the 
wing-like expansion along the inner margin of the shaft is but slightly developed. The innermost 
pleural teeth (pi. .xviii, figs. 9-10) decrease slightly in size, possess strong, curved hooks, strongly 
convex outer and concave inner and dorsal surfaces of the shafts. 

Salivary glands long, narrow, band-like, passing backward near median line on floor of the body 
cavity beneath the stomach, with a total length of 15 mm. and a width of 2 mm. at anterior end and 
gradually narrowing posteriorly. 

The thin-walled cesophagus leads directly backward to the large S-shaped stomach lying in a 
broad notch in the anterior end of the liver, its cardiac end below and in median line. The organ 
curves upward and to the left, its pyloric end passing obliquely forward to the right side into the 
intestine, receiving the broad bile duct on the posterior lower surface near the cardiac end. Length, 
about 24 mm., greatest diameter about 8 mm., these dimensions varying with the degree of distension. 
The intestine is a stout tube about 3 mm. in diameter at its origin from the pylorus, curving upward 
and diagonally backward from left to right in front of the stomach, and coursing backward in a deep 
groove on the dorsal surface of the visceral mass at the right of the median line to the anal papilla, 
in the center of the circle of branchiae. Total length about 40 mm., its inner surface longitudinally 
plicate. The liver is bluntly conical in shape, yellowish, closely covered by the hermaphrodite gland, 
its apex directed posteriorly. In front is a deep wide cleft occupied by the stomach, above a dorso- 
lateral longitudinal groove for the intestine, the right anterior lobe flattened into facets by the pressure 
of the anterior genital mass. 

The hermaphroditic gland is yellowish, thin, closely invests the liver, and at its anterior upper 
border gives origin to the short, narrow, straight hermaphroditic duct, 2 mm. long by 0.3 mm. wide, 
which pajsses directly forward to the anterior genital mass, dilating into its wide, whitish ampulla, 
which is closely looped upon the inner anterior face of the mass. The diameter of the hermaphroditic 
ampulla is 1 mm., its length about 8 mm. 

The anterior genital mass is large, its outer surface convex, its inner rounded in front and beveled 
obliquely from within outward behind. .\t its anterior inner margin the distal end of the hermaph- 
roditic ami)ulla passes into the substance of the nidamental gland and divides into the spermatic duct 
and the oviduct. The former duct is short and narrow, passing almost at once into the large, whitish 
yellow prostate gland which lies upon the upper surface of the anterior genital mass. It is a large 
ovoidal liody, with smooth outline, about 6 mm. long by 3 mm. in greatest diameter, convex above and 
flattened below. From its distal extremity passes the long, slender vas deferens, about 22 mm. in 
length by 0.6 ram. in greatest diameter, convoluted into a number of close loops along the anterior 
liorder of the genital mass, and dilating into the thick, conical penis (prseputium), which is 2.4 mm. 
wide by 4 mm. long (retracted), with a short, conical, miarmed glans. 

The uterine duct receives the duct of the spermatocyst a short distance from its point of emergence 
from the nidamental gland. The spermatocyst is spherical, 1.5 ram. in diameter, with a short duct about 
as long as the cyst. The large spherical grey spennatotheca, 5 mm. in diameter, is situated in the 
posterior half of the anterior gertital mass, and receives the oviduct on its lower anterior surface close 
to the point of origin of the vaginal duct. The latter is about 10 mm. long and 0.3 mm. in diameter, 
dilating gradually at its distal end into the unarmed vagina. The nidamental and albumin glands are 
large, their structure and relations usually as in the Archidoridinje. 



118 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Habitat: In rocky tide pools all along the coast of Monterey Bay from Monterey to Point Lolins 
and beyond. An abundant species found at all seasons of the year, nicst common during the summer 
months, and the larjroet dorid found in the bay up to the present time. Its bright yellow color makes 

it a very i >|iieUi.iH .il.jeet at low tide. Usually very abundant on the piles nf the wharf at MunteTey 

in company \viili the •■ii\:\]\fr Archidorts monterei/eniii--!. 

Type nil. 1S11\S4, U. S. National Museum. 

Subfamily IV. DISOODORIDINJE. 

Body not hard, depressed; notrpum minutely granuligerous, pallial margin rather wide; tentacles 
digitiform; branchial leaves nearly always tri- or quadripinnate; foot rather wide. Labial armature 
(labial lamellae) made up of extremely minute, closely packed rods. Rhacbis of radula naked, 
pleunc multidentate, the teeth hooked. IV-nis usually uuariued. 

Genus 3. DISCODOEIS Bergh. 

DUcodorh Bergh, Jahrbiicher d. deutsehen maliicozoologischeu Cesellschaft, IV, 1.S77, p. M. Mai. Unters.. XII. IS-7. 

p .118; Sup. I, 1880. p. 47: II. 1881, p. 108: XV, 1884, p. 0:S: XVI, 1, 1888, p. 80.i; XVII, 1890, p. 89.5. Rep. on Nudibr.. 

Challenger Reports, X, 1884, p. 92. System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892. p. 102, 

Body rather .soft, roundeil or oval in outline; the branchial aperture slightly crenulate, stellati', 

or bilabiate; anterior margin of the Indt bilabiate, the upper lip more or less notched. Prostate gland 

large. 

3. Discodoris heathi MacFarland. 

Discoduris heallii MacFarland, np, cit,, p. 3a, 

Body elliptical, broad, depressed; the notwum minutely tuberculate, nearly smooth. General 
color light yellow, darker toward the median line; the notaum sprinkled everywhere with extremely 
minute black or brown spots, giving the anipial a general dusty appearance. Irregularly scattered 
over the dorsum a variable number of black, brown, or brownish-red flecks, the majority of them in 
the mid-dorsal region. (PI. xxiii, fig. 6.) In alcohol the yellow color is lost and the dark spots become 
lighter. 

Mantle margin thin, wide, crentilate, extending far bej'ond the foot, except at the ti|) of the tail. 
The foot rather narrow, its anterior end abruptly rounded, bilabiate; the upper lip deeply notched, 
the tail short and blunt. 

The head is small and inconspicuous, being almost concealed Ijy the mantle; the oral tentacles 
long and cylindro-conical (pi. xviii, fig. 12), curved outward, 

Rhinophores (pi. xxiii, fig 6) moderately large, cylindro-conical, the stalk stout, the clavus perfo- 
liate with 10-15 leaves; the whole organ retractile within a sheath with low, thin, slightly sinuous or 
lobed margin. Color of the rhinophores slightly darker than the mantle, thickly sprinkled with 
minute black spots. 

Branchial plumes 8-10, tripinnate, small, spreading, whitish-yellow, sprinkled with minute black 
spots, deeply retractile within a low sheath, the margin of which is similar to that of the rhinophores. 
Plumes arranged in an incomplete circle, closed behind by the low, conical anal papilla. Renal 
opening on the right and slightly anterior to the base of the anal papilla. 

Total length of the animal up to 30 mm., its width 1.5 mm,, and height H mm. 

Mantle thick, fragile, densely spiculate, its inner surface tiiiekly strewn with niiimte Mack spots and 
a few of thesame color scattered over the pseudo-peritoneum :iIiom. ih,. cintnil nrr\i.iis sxstem. 

Pharyngeal tube large, conical, 2 mm. long, dilating ra|iidly into the lar^ie |.liar\ ii<.'eal hull), about 
4..5 mm. in length, 3 mm. wide and 2.5 mm. high, the rounded end of the radula sac projecting behind 
and below for a distance of 1 mm. 

Labial disk elliptical, convex, the opening vertical, slit-like, a lateral fold on either side about 
one-third the distance from the bottom to the to|i of the opening. The armature is light yellow in 
color and consists of short, closely set rods « ith si|uarish ends about 42 u long by 3.5 ft wide, arranged 
in two lameUee on the upper half of the sidis ( if the opening. Each lamella is approximately quadran- 
gular in shape, the upper border prolonged backward in a triangular point ( pi. xviii. fig. 15). Length 
of upper border 0.750 mm., of lower border 0.525 mm,, height of lamella 0.750 mm. 



OPISTHOBRANf'HIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 119 

Radula colorless,- twice as k.nts as wide, not deeply grooved. The teeth in 20 rows, with 86-42 
t.-eth in each row. Rhachis narrow, naked. Pleursv with 36-42 strongly hooked teeth (pi. xviii, fig. 
1:5, 14). The first 2()-l'."i ..i th.s.- \;uy but little in size, the hook slightly increasing in length, theshaft 
obliquely curved towar.l thr inr.liari Hne of the radula and bearing a thin, wing-like expansion on its 
inner side. The outermost iL'-li; ]pleura? decrease very rapidly in size, are fitted closely together, and 
become reduced to thin concave plates. 

The anterior genital mass is quite large, occupying the side and floor of the cavity in front of the 
liver. Its outer face is convex, the inner side presenting two faces oblique to each other and of about 
equal size, the crest between them being occupied by the spermatoeyst. 

The hermaphroditic duct ( pi. xviii, fig. 16, hd. ) emerges from the anterior lobe of the visceral mass, 
is very delicate and short, and dilates almost immediately into its ampulla (pi. xviii, fig. 16, ha.) upon 
the posterior inner face of the genital mass. The ampulla is large, grayish, 1 mm. in diameter by 10 
Mini, in length, describes a short loop backward and then courses forward along the outer surface of 
the proximal loop of the prostate gland to the anterior face of the genital mass, where it narrows, 
gives off the spermatic duct, and passes on as the oviduct (pi. xviu, fig. 16, up. d. ov.). 

The penis ( imeputium) is 2 mm. long by 8 mm. in diameter, the everted glans is bluntly conical, 
sliort, and unarmed. The vas deferens ( pi. x viii, fig. 1 6, v. def. ) is very long, narrow, looped upon the 
anterior face of the genital mass, 0.5 mm. in diameter by about 15 mm. long, auA ]r.,^-i'< into the thick, 
jiinkish-yellow prostate gland (pi. xviii, fig. 16, ]tr.), which lies in a loop diiv, icI |M,~iiiiorly along 
the lower, inner margin of the genital mass, its inner i>ortion pinker and more di-t inn ly lolmlated than 
the outer turn of the loop. Length of prostate 14 mm., its greatest diameter 2.5 mm. xVt the lower 
margin of the anterior face the gland contracts into thr short .spermatic duct, which branches off from 
the distal end of the hermaphroditic ampulla. 

The small spermatoeyst is oval in shape, 1 mm. long, and lies upon the vaginal duct, its duct quite 
short and . .]iening into the uterine duct ( pi. xviii, fig. 1 7, sp. r. ) . The spermatotheca is large, somewhat 
oval in outline, 3 mm. in longest diameter, and lies upon the crest between the inner anterior and 
posterior faces of the genital mass. Its two ducts join it close together (pi. xviit, fig. 17, up. tli.) the 
vaginal duct passing straight outward laterally (pi. xviii, fig. 17, va(j. d. ) and dilating into the vagina, 
its length being about 3 mm., its average diameter 0.4 mm. 

The large albumin gland makes up a large portion of the genital mass, occupying the outer and 
lower part, the yellowish nidamental gland being inclosed by it and exposed on the inner and posterior 
faces of the ma.=s. A long, flattened, narrow vestibular gland lies on the outer posterior face of the 
genital mass and opens into the vestibulum close to the vagina. 

Habitat: In rocky tide-pools from Point Pinos to Monterey, rather rare. T'sually most easily 
found during July and August, but has been taken during the winter months as well. 

Th species name is given in honor of Dr. Harold Heath, assistant professor of zoology in Stanford 
University, who has done excellent work upon the mollusca and to whose willing cooperation the 
author owes much assistance in collecting Pacific coast nudiliranchs. 

Type no. 1.H1282 U. S. National Miiseum. 

Genus 4. ROSTANGA Bergh. 

Rostariga Bergli, Gatt. nOrdischer Doriden, Aroh. f. Natiirgoscli.. XLV. 1, 1S79. p. 3.S3. Malacol. Unters. Sup. H. II, I8.S1, 
p. 99. System der Nudibr. Gasterop., 1892. p. 105. 

Notseum covereil wdth minute hispid papilla", l)ranchi;e of simply pinnate leaves. Rhachis of radula 
naked; inner pleural teeth strong, with large body and small hook; the remaining ones less strong, 
erect, the body smaller, the hook elongated and more slender, the apices of the outer pleurse with 
slender denticles. 

4. Bostanga pulchra ^NlacFarhuid. 
[PI. X.XIV, tig, S, pi. XVIII, tigs. 18-21; pi. XXI, Hg. 109.] 
RiMavga pidchra MacFarland, op. clt., p. 40. 

Body elliptical, slightly depressed, the sides nearly parallel, the ends of body equally rounded, the 
mantle ample, covering the whole body except the tip of the tail when the animal is crawling, (ien- 
eral ground color (pi. xxiv, fig. 8) bright red, varying at times from light yellowish red to deep scarlet, 



120 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

the back sprinkled everywhere with minute brown and black spots between the papillae. The num- 
ber of these spots is highly variable, in some individuals being very small, in others thickly set and 
often grouped in small patches, deepening the general color of the animal to a reddish bmvvn. hi 
alcohol the red color is quickly lost, the more permanent brown becoming very conspicuous u|>oii tin- 
light yellowish white of the rest of the animal. 

Dimensions of largest individual taken, IS mm. in length, 10 mm. breadth, .5.5 mm. height, tin- 
average size usually found, however, being about 8-12 mm. long. 

Dorsum covered everywhere with small, closely set, hispid papillse, in height ranging up to 0.42 mm . 
ill diameter to 0.08 mm., strengthened by divergent spicules extending from base to apex, the central 
portion of apex sunken and surrounded by the higher margin, elevated at intervals by the spicules 
into pointed projections. 

Sides of foot nearly parallel, abruptly rounded in front, more tapering behind. Anterior margin 
deeply bilabiate (pi. xxi, fig. 109), the upper lip projecting beyond the lower, notched in the median 
line. Oral tentacles long and slender. General color of the ventral surface of foot, mantle, and sides 
of body a lighter red than the dorsum, rarely with fine black sprinklings. 

Rhinophores (pi. xxiv, fig. 8) short, stout, translucent pink, the stalk stout and conical, prolonged 
above the clavus as a blunt, cylindrical process, nearly one-fourth the length of the whole organ. C'la- 
vus perfoliate, bearing altogether from 20-24 nearly vertical leaves (10-12 on each side). The leaves 
rather thick, triangular, with the apex directed downward, increasing in size regularly from liefore 
backward. Tip of rhinophore directed forward, the rest of the organ nearly vertical. Rhinophore 
entirely retractile within sheath, the margin of which is not appreciably elevated above the sur- 
rounding dorsum, and bears papillae similar to those of the general donsal surface. 

Branchial plumes 10-12, erect, separate, nearly equal in size, slightly paler than dorsum, arranged 
in a circle, completely retractile within a sheath the margin of which is scarcely elevated and bears 
papillie similar to those of the dorsum. Anal opening upon a low papilla in the center of the circle 
of branchiie, the minute renal opening at its right and slightly in front. 

Labial disk round, convex, covered with thick colorless cuticula, its opening j. shaped. The 
lower half of the sides of the opening is occupied by a crescentic band of flattened hooks, the slightly 
concave border being directed forw-ard, the upper angle much in advance of the lower, the lower ends 
being separated by a narrow space. Length of the armature, 0.24 mm. ; its greatest width, 0.072 mm. 
The elements of the armature are arranged in 5 rows closely overlapping each other, their general 
shape being the same. The hooks of the most anterior row are blunt, flattened, and but slightly 
elevated and directed forward, the base rounded in front, the upper surface sloping backward beneath 
the hooks of the succeeding row. The elements of the remaining rows progressively decrease in size, 
the hcMjks are shorter and pointed. Length of longest element of the most anterior row, 21 //; its 
width 6 //, decreasing in the last row to a length of 6 /(, and a width of 5 fi (pi. xviii, fig. 21). 

Radula broad, colorless, the median groove deep. Teeth in 65-80 rows, with 81 teeth in each 
row. Rhachis naked. 

First pleural tooth thick, stout, the base short and broad, its hook heavy, slightly curved with 8-11 
small denticles upon its inner margin (pi. xviii, fig. 18a). Height of base to ape-x of hook about 
0,013 mm., the length of hook 0.008 mm. The succeeding 10 pleural teeth have a large, strong, broad 
base bearing a wing-like expansion thickened above upon its outer border, overlapping the adjacent 
tooth (pi. XVIII, fig. 19). The hookis strong and thick, increasing in length and becoming more slender 
from about the twelfth tooth outward, the base diminishing in size, the hook longer, more slender, 
and less curved (pi. xviii, fig. 20a), passing over rather rapidly into long, slender elements (pi. xviii, fig. 
206, e), each w-ith a small, compressed, wing-like base and long, slender, slightly curved hook, bearing 
at the distal end from 1 to 6 very long denticles upon the inner margin. These denticles arise in the 
distal third of the hook and, increasing slightly from within outward, reach nearly to the tip of the 
tooth and give it the appearance of being divided (pi. xviii, fig. 20c-/). The outer teeth of the rows are 
very flexible and slender, thus giving to this portion of the radula a brush-like appearance. 

The hermaphrodite gland extends over the dorsal, lateral, and anterior faces of the liver as a thin 
layer, varying from 0.18 mm. to 0.3 mm. in thickness, being at its maximum about one-third the 
thickness of the liver in the same section. From its right anterior lobe arises the very narrow^ and 
short duct which extends obliquely forward and downward to the hermaphroditic ampulla. The 
anterior genital mass 'S large, being at least half as large as the hermaphrodite gland and li\er com- 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSC^A FROM MONTKREY BAY. 



121 



bineil. From above it is rectangular in outline, 3.2 ram. wide liy 3 mm. long by 2 mm. thick. The 
herniaj)hro<litic ampulla is whitish, slightly curved vertically, the convex face directed downward, 

2.5 mm. long, with a greatest diameter of 0..5 mm. It courses anteriorly along the ventral face of the 
anterior genital mass in a groove between the nidamental gland and the spermatotheca. Its anterior 
end curves upward and enters the nidamental gland at its anterior inner face, giving off the spermatic 
duct and the uterine duct at its entrance. 

Nearly two-thirds of the bulk of the anterior genital mass is made up of the very large, nearly 
spherical spermatotheca. In sections it measured 0.76 mm. high by 0.93 mm. long in an individual of 

6.6 mm. total length, the transverse diameter in sections of another individual of the same size being 
0.97.5 mm. It is lined with a single layer of large cubical ciliated cells becoming flattened posteriorly. 
The uterine and vaginal ducts open into it upon its outer and upper surface close together. The thick 
walled vaginal duct passes directly outward from it into the vagina, the thinner and shorter uterine 
duct receives the duct of the oblong-oval spermatocyst and curves directly downward to its origin as 
a branch of the hermaphroditic ampulla close to the entrance of the latter into the nidamental gland. 
The spermatocyst is about 0.52 mm. long by 0.22 mm. wide and lies transversely uixni the upper 
anterior outer face of the anterior genital mass. 

The spermatic duct dilates into a broad thin prostate gland which nearly envelops the sperma- 
totheca, leaving only a small portion of its ventral surface free. The gland has thin walls and a 
large, sac-like lumen which passes anteriorly into the vas deferens. The vas deferens courses to the 
left and at about the median line loops back toward the right, passing straight outward and downward 
into the muscular penis (prpeputmm). The retracted glans is blunt, cylindrical, of 0.3 to 0.5 mm. in 
length and about 0.15 mm. in diameter, and is entirely unarmed. 

Habitat: Abundant everywhere along the coast in rocky tide-pools from Monterey to Point Lobos, 
upon a red sponge which incrusts the under side of overhanging rocks, and with which it is nearly 
identical in color. Has been taken at all times of the year in apparently equal abundance. The egg 
bands are of the usual form characteristic of the Dorididse, a narrow flat ribbon attached by one edge 
in a closely wound coil to the sponge or to the rock, and of the same color as the animal. The spawn 
of R. ajcnnea Forbes as described by Alder and Hancock (Monograph British Nudibranchiate Molluaca, 
1848) is white, while in hundreds of cases of that of R. pulchra seen by me it has always been bright 
red, and has been found at all times during the year. 

Rostanga pulchra differs strikingly externally from the two previously known species of the genus — 
R. coccinea Forbes and R. perspwitlala Bergli — in lacking the yellowish or whitish area around and 
connecting the rhinophores, but especially in the structure of the radula and labial armature, as shown 
in the following tabulation: 



R. perspicillata. 



Color ; Scarlet, sprinkled with black 

spots. Yellowish area around 
rhinophores and connecting 
them. 

Rows in radula ! 61-66 

Teeth in row 60-65 

First pleural tooth No denticles on the hook 

Outer pleurse I With 1 long denticle 

Labial armature I A ring of rods in 12-15 rows, in- 

I terrupted above and below. 



Brownish red or brick red, dotted 
with black spots. White area 
around rhinophores and con- 
necting them. 

.51-57 

5D-70 

With 4-6 denticles on hook 

With 1 long denticle 

A ring of 20 rows of rods 



Uniform bright red 
let sprinkled wit 
spots. 



Bergh (Mai. Unters., Sup. Heft II, 1881, p. 102) gives the labial armature of R. corcinea as a ring 0.18 
mm. broad, apparently interrupted above and below and made up of 12-15 rows of closely packed stout 
rodlets up to 0.05 mm. in length, the most anterior ones with slightly enlarged distal ends. Serial 
sections of R. coccinea secured at Naples for comparison show this armature as a band of rodlets, clearly 
interrupted above and below, having a vertical breadth of 0.21 mm., the uppermost rodlets 0.006 mm. 
in height by the same in width, and increasing progressively in the succeeding rows below to 0.048 
nmi., the diameter remaining the same. In R. perspicillata Bergh (op. cit., p. 106) the labial armature 
forms a continuous ring of about 20 rodlets, in the broadest portion reaching 0.05 mm. in length. In 
R. pulchra, as described above, the elements of the armature are in the form of flattened hooks, over- 



122 HULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

lapping each other closely and arranged in but 5 rows, ranging in length from 0.006 mm. to 0.021 mm. 
The whole armature is in the form of a crescentic band on either side, the concave face directed 
foi ward. 

The relatively enormous spermatotheca and its relation tn the prostate gland is a characteristir 
separating li. putchra clearly from li. coccinea and li. perKpicillniu. 

Type no. 181292, U. S. National MuHenni. 

Subfamily V. DIAULULINai. 

Body neither hard nor soft; depressed or suliilt|iicssi'il; untanim usually minutely villous, often 
silky; tentacles digitiform; branchial aperture roun.l.-.l, < niiiihitf, branchial leaves tripinnate; ante- 
rior margin of foot bilabiate, upper lip notched. Laliial aniiatinv none. Rhachis of tongue naked. 
Pleune umltidentate, usually hooked. Penin usually unanufd. 

Oenn3 5. DIAULULA Bergh. 

THauluta Bergh. Gattuncen nordischer Dorideii. Arch. f. Naturgesch, XXXV, 1879. p. 343. On the Nudibranchiate Gast. r 
opod Mollusoa of the North Paciflo Ocean (Sci. Results of the Exphjr. of Alaska, I, Art. VI). Proc. Acad. X:ii 
Sci. Philadelphia, 1880. pp. 40-^6. System der Nudibr. Gasterop., 1892, p. 10.% Die Opisthobranchien, Biilkiin 
Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, XXV, 10, 1894, pp. 171-176. 

Body fairly soft and depressed; notseum silky, minutely villmis; tentacles cligitiform; l>ranchial 
aperture rounded, crenulate, branchia; tripinnate; foot rounded in front, bilabiate, upjier lip notched 
in median line. Labial armature, none. Rhachis of tongue naked. Pleurae multidentate, teeth 
hooked. Penis unarmed, prostate large. 

5. Diaulula sandiegensis (Cooper). 

[I>1. xxni. Hk. .-.; pi. .win, figs. 22-24.] 

Doris {Actinoq/dusf) Sandieuensis Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., II, 1S(;2, p. 204; III, 1S63. p. .^.s. 

Diaulula sandiegensis Bergh, Nudibr. Moll. North Pac. Ocean, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. ISSO, pp. 40-10.— MacFarland, 
op. cit., p. 41. 

Body soft, elliptical, velvety, the ends equally rounded, somewhat depressed. Mantle extending 
beyond the head and foot everywhere except at the tip of the tail when the animal is crawling. Edge 
of mantle wide and thick, slightly crenulate, projecting 6-8 mm. beyond sides of body in alcoholic 
material. Dorsum everywhere minutely villains ami velvety, pale yellowish in color with dark brown or 
black rings of varying size, number and posit imi (].!. .win, Kg. 5). In general these rings are arranged 
in two longitudinal .series on each side of the median line with 3-6 rings in each row, but this is sub- 
ject to much variation. The number may be increased to 20-30 irregularly scattered ring-like blotches 
or may be reduced to 2 or 3 very faint ones, and between these extremes all gradations may occur. 
The largest rings noted measured 8 mm. in diameter, though the average size is nearer 4 mm. for the 
large ones. Small patches of brown may also occur among the rings. The general color of the dor- 
sum may vary from light yellow to deep brownish yellow or even chocolate. 

Head entirely concealed by mantle, the mouth a vertical slit, the tentacles about 3 mm. long, 
finger-like. 

Foot elongate oval, the ends I'dunded, the anterior end deeply l)ilabiate, the upper liii thinner, 
broader, and bearing a median notch. 

Rhinci].liiires rimical, dilated in the clavu,s, perfoliate, with about 20-30 leaves, deeply retractile 
into a conspic iiMiis sbeath with crenulate margin. 

Branchia' li deeply retractile, tripinnate plumes inclosing the anal papilla in a nearly complete 
circle. Margin of the branchial sheath prominent, crenulate. Anal papilla conspicuous, conical, 3 
mm. high, 1.5 mm. in diameter, attached anteriorly to the basal branchial ridge. Renal opening at 
right and in front of anal papilla, inconspicuous. 

Pharyngeal bulb not large, about 4 mm. long, 2-3 mm. high and 3.5 mm. broad, the radula sheath 
very prominent on the lower hinder margin, projecting as a compressed, rounded, keel-like structure 
for about 1.5 mm. No labial armature save a simple cuticula. 

Radula rather broad, about twice as long as wide in anterior jiortion, yellow. Teeth in 19-22 rows 
with from 26-30 teeth in each half row. 



OPISTHOBBANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 123 

Rhachis liroad, naked. Pleural teeth similar in shape, strongly falcate, compressed, the inner 2 
or 3 (pi. .xviii, fig. 22) smaller than those following, the outermost ones also strongly reduced in size 
(pi. XVIII, fig. 23). Upon the inner side of each tooth a narrow wing-like expansion which is con- 
tinued as a decreasing thickening up alone the back of the tooth toward the tip (pi. xviii, fig. 24). 

Habitat: In rocky tide pools of the fucoid zone all along the southern coast of Monterey Bay. 
Not abundant but lia.s been taken at all times of the year. The species has a wide range, having been 
recorded from Sitka, Unalaska, Puget Sound, Monterey Bay, Santa Barbara, and San Diego, and in a 
light colored variety, D. sandiegenxis, var. pallida Bergh NNE. of Punta Delgada, off the coast of 
Patagonia in S. lat. 42° 24', W. long. 61° .38'. 

At Monterey the breeding season occurs principally during the summer months, but individuals 
have dejiosited their eggs in the aijuaria at the Hopkins laboratory in December and January, and the 
hroail white spiral egg bands of this species have been found in the tide pools at thesame time, though 
not as abundantly as during the months of June, July, and August. 

This species was discovered and superficially described by Cooper (1862) and afterwards more 
(nll\' liy P>er£rh I isso), whose careful account of the anatomy of the form, baseil upon specimens from 
.Alaska, is amply snliicient for its ready recognition. 

A si)tTinK'n deposited in U. S. National Museum (no. 181288). 

Genus 6. ALDISA Bergh. 

Aldisa Bergh. Malacol. Unters., H. XIV. ls7S. p. XXXVIII. Gattiingen niirdischer Doriden. Arch. f. Naturgeseh.. 
XLV, 1. 1879. p. 348. System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 106. Nudibranche.s et Marsenia provenant des 
Campagne.s de la Princesse- Alice (1891-1897), R^s. Camp. Scl. Albert I" de Monaco, Fasc. XIV, 1899, p. 7. 
Tentacles tubercule-like or auriform. Pleural teeth erect, rod-like, the external margin serrulate, 
(ilans penis armed. 

6. Aldisa sanguinea (Cooper)." 
[I'l. XXIV, tig. 7. pi. XVIII, tigs. 2.5-2U: pi. xxi, figs. 112, 114.] 

Doris {Asteronotm) mnguinea Cooper, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., II, 1862, p. 204; III, 1863. p. .58. 
Asteronoiusf sangiiineus Bergh, System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 111. 
Atclisa sauguinea MacFarland, op. cit., p. 42. 

Body somewhat depressed, oval, the ends about equally rounded. Dorsum everywhere thickly 
covered with small conical tubercules, the general color light to dark red (PI. .x.xiv, fig. 7), sprinkled 
everywhere with very minute black spots. On the median line immediately in front of the branchiae a 
large rounded or oval spot of black, another similar spot in median line just behind the rhinophores, 
which often is very much elongated or divided into 2, one l)ehind the other. The.se spots may vary 
in size and number, but seem to be quite constant in color marking. In alcoholic specimens the black 
spots become greenish, the red color disappearing entirely. 

Margin of mantle rather thick, covering the foot everywhere, except at the extreme tip of the 
tail, when the animal is crawling. 

The foot is abruptly rounded in front, less so behind, the sides slightly converging posteriorly. 
.\nterior margin of foot bilabiate, the upper lip thin, undivided. Color everywhere beneath light to 
dark red. 

Total length up to 17 mm. with a width of 8 mm. and a height of 6 mm. Lent;th of foot nf same 
specimen, 13 mm; its greatest width, 6 mm. 

Head small, concealed between mantle and foot ; the tentacles short, auriform, witli a clearly marked 
external longitudinal groove. 

Khinophoies rather stout, the .stalk cylindro-conical, the clavus dilated, conical, tapering to a 
blunt til), perfoliate with about 12-15 leaves, the whole organ deeply retractile into a sheath, the low 
margin of which bears scattered, rounded tubercules, similar to those of the dorsum. 

Branchial plumes, 8-10, simply pinnate or irregularly bipinnate, arranged in a circle, i-ompletely 
retractile into a sheath, with low tuberculate margin. Anal papilla low, centrally placed. 

Blood gland very thin and small, the anterior lobe almost rudimentary, the posterior lobe lying 
transversely tipon and behind the central nervous system. 

"Cooper's very fragmentary description is as follows: "Brilliant red, with 
distributed. Surface .smooth: dorsal tentacles short; branchiae composed of 8 .simply 
posterior end of the body. Length, 5 inch; breadth, i inch: height, about the same.' 



124 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FlSHERIEiS. 

Pharyngeal tube large, funnel-shaped, the large lip disc thickened and glandular, with rather 
strong cuticula. In sections a dehcate armature of extremely fine short rodlets may be made out. 
The pharyngeal tube is continuous into the pharyngeal bulb, with no sharp line of demarcation 
externally. The latter is somewhat conical, strong, and about 2.5 mm. long, inclusive of the radula 
sheath, which projects slightly behind. 

The radula is rather wide, colorless, the teeth in about 70 rows. The rhachis is narrow, naked, 
the pleural teeth very numerous and slender, at least 70 to 100 in each half row, and of very striking 
form, which readily marks out this genus from any other of the Dorididie. Each tooth is composed of a 
slender shaft arising from a strongly compressed, triangular base of uniform or but slightly changing 
size (pi. XVIII, figs. 25, 266); its distal end is slightly enlarged, slightly hollowed behind, and bears on 
its thickened external and upper projecting margins a single series of extremely small denticulations, 
which are continued down the outer border of the shaft for varying distances, in some cases reaching 
i the length of the tooth (pi. xviii, iig. 26f()- The inner teeth are the longer, having a length of about 
0.5 mm.; the outermost are much shorter, ranging down to 0.03 mm. The diameter of the shaft 
averages 0.003 to 0.004 mm., increasing gradually toward the distal end, where it measures 0.006 mm. 
to 0.008 mm. All the elements of the radula are very flexible, and the most careful manipulation is 
nece.?sary to avoid bending and disarranging them. 

The short cesophagus passes directly backward to the stomach, which lies in the anterior cleft of 
the liver. Its relations and those of the intestine are the usual ones in the Dorididse. The liver is 
bluntly conical, the broader end directed forward with a deep median cleft occupied by the stomach. 
Above the liver is slightly flattened and behind is bluntly rounded. Its length in a large individual 
(16 mm. long) was 4.5 mm., with a greatest diameter of 3.5 mm. The right anterior lobe formed by 
the median cleft is shorter than the left one and faceted by the pressure of the anterior genital mass. 

The ovotestis is a lobulated organ closely attached to the dorsal and anterior surfaces of the liver. 
In thickness it is nearly equal to the latter organ and thus makes up at least one-halt of the bulk of 
the two. From the inner face of its left lobe the hermaphrodite duct is given off, passing immediately 
below the pyloric end of the intestine downward and to the right, in front of the le-ser (anterior) curva- 
ture of the stomach, thence obliquely forward beneath the spermatotheca to dilate into the herma- 
phroditic ampulla. It is much larger than in Dorididse of similar dimensions, reaching a diameter of 
0.3 mm. The hermaphroditic ampulla is very large, its average diameter beingabout 0.7 mm., with a 
total length of about 6 mm. It is coiled in an S-shaped loop upon the lower anterior face of the ante- 
rior genital mass (pi. xxi, fig. 112, h. amp. ). At its anterior end it constricts suddenly, gives off the 
narrow spermatic duct and passes into the nidamental gland. The spermatic duct is very short, dilat- 
ing into the large thick-walled prostata, which describes a U-shaped loop upon the upper anterior face 
of the anterior genital mass, immediately above the hermaphroditic ampulla, and resting upon and 
against the spermatotheca (pi. xxi, fig. 112, pr.). Its distal end constricts into the muscular vas defer- 
ens, which describes a downward loop, returns and passes outward to dilate gradually into the penis 
(pi. XXI, fig. 112, ('. d.). The glans penis is cylindrical, blunt, about 3 mm. long by 0.04 mm. in diame- 
ter, is covered with a firm cuticle and with 5-6 rows of small recurved hooks (pi. xxi, tig. 114) . These 
hooks average 0.003 mm. in height and 0.005 mm. in length. 

The vagina is conical in form, its greatest diameter about 0.4 mm., its length 0.6 mm., and passes 
rather abruptly into the vaginal duct, a slender, thin-walled tube which courses straight inward to 
the spermatotheca, into which it opens very close to the exit of the uterine duct. 

The spermatotheca is a large spherical thin-walled organ, having a diameter of about 2 mm., and 
making up fully one-third of the volume of the anterior genital mass (pi. x.xi, fig. 112, sp. th.). Into 
the uterine duct, close to its origin, opens the narrow, slender duct of the spermatocyst, a rather large, 
elongated, pear-shaped organ lying upon the groove between the spermatotheca and the nidamental 
gland and overlapping both organs. Its distal end curves outward, is doubled downward upon itself 
and is continued into a short duct which opens into the uterine duct of the spermatotheca, close to the 
latter. The total length of the spermatocyst is about 2 mm., its greatest diameter being nearly 
0.5 mm. 

The nidamental and albumin glands make up about one-third the bulk of the anterior genital 
mass. The former is much the larger, contains a large cavity and partially incloses the albumin 
gland on its inner face. The duct of the nidamental gland (pi. xxi, figs. 112, n. gl. d.) lies below and 
slightly behind the vas deferens and vaginal duct, their external openings occupying a similar 
relation. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLISCA FROM MONTEKEY BAY. 125 

This species presents many marked differences from the only other recorded species of this genu?, 
A. 2e(/andiea Alder and Hancock, and is without question distinct from it. It is here provisionally 
identified with Cooper's Doris sanguinea, though it may prove to be different, if Cooper's original 
specimens can ever be found. It occurs all along the coast from Monterey Bay to Point Lobos in 
rocky tide pools and is not at all rare during the summer months. 

A specimen deposited in the U. S. National 3Iuseuni (no. ISliiTT). 

Subfamily VI, OADLININi:. 

Body somewhat depressed; notfeum granuligerous, scarcely rough; branchial leaves simply 
jiinnate, bi- or tripinnate; tentacles short, flattened, acuminate; foot rather wide, with a deep anterior 
marginal sulcus. Labial armature lamelliform, almost annulate, of extremely small hooks. Rhachis 
of radula with a denticulate tooth; pleurae imiltidentate, ]ilearal teeth honked, the external margin 
serrulate. 

Genua 7. CADLINA Bergh. 

Cadlina Bergh, On the Nudibr. Gasterop. Moll, of the North Pacific Ocean. I, Proc. Phila. .\cad. Nat. .Sci.. 1879, p. 114. 
Die Opisthobranchien, Ball. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXV, 10, p. 168. System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 
108. Malacol. Unters. XVIII, 1892, p. UOO. 

Glanp peni,'^ armed with a series of hooks. 

7. Cadlina marginata MacFarland. 

Cadlina marginata MacFarland, op. cit., p. K. 

Body elongate, elliptical, somewhat depressed, less abruptly rounded behind than in front. 
Notccum firm, covered everywhere with low tubercles, each one tipijed with lemon yellow surrounded 
by a narrow ring of white and forming the center of a clearly marked polygonal area (pi. .xxv, fig. 11). 
General ground color everywhere clear translucent yellowish white, the tubercles tipped as above. 
Upper and lower margins of mantle, and lateral and posterior edges of f(jot with a narrow band of 
lemon yellow (pi. xxv, figs. 10, 12), the tips of rhinophores and branchiae and their sheaths of the 
same color. In alcohol the light yellow color disappears and the animal becomes uniformly white. 
Varying degrees of contraction of the not»um in death cause the mantle tubercles to Ijecome more 
or le.ss prominent within a wide range. 

JIantle margin wide, broadly overlapping the foot everywhere except posteriorly (pi. xxv, fig. 
111.) Foot narrow, nearly linear, tapering slightly posteriorly, in front abruptly rounded, bilabiate, 
the upper lip notched, thin, the lower one thick and fleshy. General ventral surface everywhere 
smooth and white, except the yellow border of foot and mantle. 

Head small, rounded, mouth a longitudinal slit, the tentacles short, triangular, flattened, auri- 
form, with a distinct external groove. 

Khinophores small, perfoliate with 16-18 leaves, the clavus conical, inclined backward, the 
cylindro-eunical t-talk erect, the whole organ completely retractile within a low sheath, the margin of 
which bears low tubercules tipped with lemon yellow. 

Branchial plumes 6, bipinnate, spreading, arranged in an incomplete circle which is completed 
behind by the anal papilla. The plumes completely retractile within a low sheath with tuberculate 
margin, the tubercles tipped with lemon yellow. 

Dimensions of large individual: length 45 mm., width 22 mm., and height 8-10 mm. 

Pharyngeal tube cylindro-conical, 2.5 mm. long by 2 mm. wide, the pharyngeal bulb strong, 
4 mm. long by 2.5 mm. wide by 3 mm. high, cylindro-conical, the radula sac projecting behind and 
below as a cylindrical, roimded prominence for about 1 mm. Labial disc convex, the opening trian- 
gular with the apex downward, the armature a broad yellow band, quadrangular below, narrowing 
on the sides and interrupted above, its greatest width 1 mm. The elements of the armature are 
closely set bifid hooks about 0.04 mm. in height (pi. xviii, fig. 27.) 

The broad radula has a length of 4 mm. and a width of 2 mm., with a shallow median groove. 
The teeth are in 90 rows, of which the last 4 are undeveloped in the sheath. The dental formula is 
47-1-47. Rhachis with a single series of teeth, erect, hooked, the tip divided into 4-6 nearly equal 
blunt denticles (pi. xviii, fig. 28«.) 



126 BULLETIN (IF TIIK HI'KEAU OF FISHf:RIES. 

Pleural teeth 47, the first one strongly hooked with 3 large denticles on its inner margin (pi. xviii, 
fig. 286), and 6-7 smaller ones on the outer margin. The successive pleune are of much the same 
shape, the tip becoming longer and more pointed, the denticles limited to the outer margin alone and 
increasiug in number to 12 (pi. xviii, fig. 29). The outermost pleuraj diminish in size, being finally 
reduced to compressed, jagged, slightly concave plate.s (pi. xviii, figs. 30-31). 

The liver is smooth, plump, bluntly conical in outline, the apex directed backward and lying jii-t 
beneath the branchial rosette. Anterior end obliquely truncate toward the left side from about tin 
middle of the organ. Length 17 mm., breadth 8 mm., and height 6 mm. in an individual of 35 mu]. 
total length. 

The hermaphrodite gland, yellowish in color, is distributed in thin lobules over the surface of the 
anterior and lateral portions of the liver, extending well backward toward its tip. The hermaiihrodite 
duct is formed by the union of 2 ducts meeting at right angles on the anterior oblique face of the liver, 
coming from the upper right and left hand lobules of the hermaphrodite gland, respectively. The 
main duct is quite short, dilating into the long ampulla, the posterior end of which describes a loop 
upon the anterior median face of the liver and, passing forward, is looped back and forth upon the 
lower inner and anterior faces of the anterior genital mass. Immediately after giving rise to the vas 
deferens it passes into the nidamental gland close to the anterior border of the albumin gland. 

The anterior genital mass is oval in side view, somewhat wedge-shaped from above, the thin end 
directed posteriorly and formed by the nidamental gland. The external face is convex, the inner one 
flattened. The lower anterior border is occupied by the coils of the hermaphrodite ampulla, imme- 
diately above which lies the dark spermatotheca, and upon this in turn the thick loop of the prostatic 
portion of the vas deferens. Greatest antero-posterior length of inner face of the anterior genital mass 
is 10 mm., its height 7 mm. 

The penis is short, about 2 mm. in length, passing over into the vas deferens, at first slender and 
muscular, but rapidly increasing in diameter and becoming glandular. It courses inward and back- 
ward upon the upper anterior face of the anterior genital mass, doubles downward upon itself and 
returns outward and downward to its origin from the anterior end of the hermaphroditic ampulla. 
Its greatest diameter is reached about midway of its length, where it measures 1.4 mm., with a tot;il 
length of about 10 mm. The glans penis is short, bluntly conical, and armed with minute hooks. 

The vagina is short and narrow, tapering into the straight vaginal duct which courses directly 
inw-ard and upward to the spermatotheca, into which it opens. Close to its entrance is the opening of 
the uterine duct which receives the duct of the spermatocyst, about midway of its length tow"ard the 
nidamental gland, into which it opens close to the opening of the hermaphroditic ampulla. 

The spermatotheca is somewhat spherical in shape, dark brown, and is about 3.5 mm. in diameter. 
It lies upon the anterior inner face of the anterior genital mass between the loops of the prostate 
portion of the vas deferens above and those of the ampulla of the hermaphrodite duct below. The 
openings of the 2 ducts are very close together upon the outer face of the organ. 

The spermatocyst is pear-shaped, 1.4 mm. long by 1 mm. broad, and lies below and V)ehind tlie 
loop of the vas deferens, its narrower end directed outward and downward, the duct short and slender, 
joining the uterine duct about midway of the length of the latter. The uterine duct pa.-ses as usual 
into the nidamental gland close to the anterior border of the albumin gland. 

Type no. 181287 U. S. National Museum. 

8. Cadlina flavomaculata ^lacFarland. 
[PI. XXV, lig. 9; pi. XIX, ligs. 3J-S7: i.l. xxi, lig. 110,] 
Cadlina flavomaculata MacFarland, op. cit., p. 43. 

Body elongate, elliptical, almost linear, depressed, bluntly rounded at the ends, less so behind 
than in front. Notseum thickly set everywhere with low rounded tubercules. General color yellow- 
ish white, inclined to cream, on each side of dorsum a row of 7-10 small lemon yellow spots borne 
upon low tubercules, the first one of these spots just outside of and behind the rhinophores, the last 
one outside of and usually behind the branchial plumes ( pi. xxv, fig. 9) . 

Rhinophores black, brown or brownish yellow, very conspicuous against the pale dorsum. 
Branchial plumes white or yellowish white (pi. xxv, fig. 9). In alcohol the dark color of the rhino- 
phores is usually permanent, the rows of lemon yellow tubercules become white and are usually easily 
distinguishable, while the general body color becomes paler or is lost entirelv. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATK MoLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 127 

Mantle margin broad, thin, densely spiculate, everywhere widely nverlapiiing the foot except 
behind, its under surface smooth (pi. xix, fig. 32). 

Foot linear, bluntly pointed behind, in_ front abruptly rounded, bilabiate, the lower lip thick, 
fleshy, the upper one thinner. Head small, fitting into a depression in ventral surface of mantle, the 
tentacles short, flattened, blunt, auriform, with a distinct groove on outer margin (pi. .xix, fig. 32) . 

Eliinci]ilH,ii-s ratlifi- laiL'c. ciiMt, diverging, perfoliate with 10-12 leaver, the clavus forming three- 
fourths of ihctnlal l.'ii-ili oi the (.iLiaii. Rhinophores deeply retractile within low sheaths, the margins 
of wliirh aiv (hill aial >l.-l.tly tuln-ivular. 

Branchial i>iuuies small, lU-11, u.sually simply pinnate (pi. .xxi, fig. 110), occasionally biiiinnate 
in part, siireading, completely retractile within low sheath with thin edges. 

Length of large specimen 20 mm., breadth 8-10 mm., and height 3-4 mm. 

Labial disc strongly convex, the opening triangular with the apex directed upward. Labial 
armature a broad, light yellow band, quadrangular below, triangular on the sides, narrowing toward 
the top, where it is interrupted, the inner surface of the band everywhere convex. Greatest width 
0.390 mm. The elements of the armature closely set, slightly curved hooks, bifid at the distal end, 
with a neight of about 24 mm. (pi. xix, fig. 33).- 

Radula small, broad, 1 mm. long by 0.6 mm. wide, with a vii\ shalhiw median grove. Teeth in 
77 rows, the last 4 immature. Dental formula 23-1-23. Khachis very narrow, bearing a single series 
of teeth overlapped by the first pleural on either side (pi. xix, fig. 54). Base of rhachidian teeth large, 
tlu- hook nearly horizontal, divided into 4-6 long, nearly equal blunt denticles (pi. xix, figs. 34-35). 
Pleural teeth 23 in number, the first lateral with a stout hook bearing on its inner margin 2-3 large 
denticles, on the outer margin 4-7 smaller ones (pi. xix, fig. 34). The successive lateral teeth beyond 
the first increase in height and in the number of denticles upon the outer margin up to 12-15, the 
inner margin being destitute of them. Toward the middle of the row the denticles become longer, 
more slender, and the whole tooth becomes saw-like in form (pi. xix, fig. 36). The outer 3 or 4 
deci:ease in size somewhat (pi. xix, fig. 376), but not so much as in the preceding species. Height of 
largest lateral teeth 0.054 mm., width of rhachidian tooth 0.012 mm., its length 0.018 mm. 

The peritoneum is colorless and smooth, the blood gland lobulated and closely applied to the 
central nervous system, over which it lies. The liver is smooth, bluntly rounded behind beneath the 
branchial opening, slightly dilated about midway of its length and olili.|Ucly tnuicated in front from 
right to left, the face thus formed being in close contact with the anterior Lrcnital mass. Total length 
6 mm., its greatest width 3 mm. Midway of the left side of the liver the i>yloric cud of the stomach 
is ex[)Osed, giving rise to the intestine, which arches across to just beyond the median line toward the 
right and then jiursues an oblique course backward to the anus. 

The hermaphrodite gland is thick and lobulated, covering incompletely the dorsal, lateral, and 
anterior faces of the liver. The hermaphrodite duct is very short, dilating into the ampulla, which, 
passing forward on the lower inner face of the anterior genital mass for about 3 mm., doubles back 
upon itself, describing a simple loop, and returns jwsteriorly to the anterior inner edge of the oblique 
face of the anterior genital mass. Here it gives rise to the spermatic duct and opens into the 
nidamental gland. 

The anterior genital mass is large, bluntly conical in front, lieveled from left to right behind, the 
flattened face thus formed fitting closely against the oblique auteri'ir face of the liver. Tlie outer 
surface is convex and made up almost entirely of the niilameiital Lilaiid, 

The spermatic duct, rising from the distal end of the lierma|>liroilitii' aiiiimlla at tlie [loint where 
it enters the nidamental gland, is a very long, closely coiled tube lying np.^u the anterior end of the 
anterior genital mass. In it may be distinguished a proximal thicker glandular pnition in a conspicu- 
ous loop upon the upper anterior face of the genital mass, and a more slender muscular portion, the 
vas deferens proper passing into the conical penis (prseputium) after describing a double loop upon the 
anterior face of the genital mass. The glans penis is short, bluntly conical, and is armed with minute 
recurved hooks, the armature extending for a distance of 1 mm. along the lining of its canal. 

The vagina is sliort, conical, passing over into the very slender vaginal duct which courses inward 
to the inner olili(jue face of the nidamental gland and passes into the small spherical spermatotheca, 
alioutO.27 mm. in diameter. Close to its entrance arises the uterine duct, which receives the duct 
of the small pear-shaped spermatocyst and passes into the nidamental gland. 

Habitat: Found in rocky tide pools all along the coast near Pacific Grove. Not rare. Found at 
all times of the year in small numbers. Type no. 181279 U. S. National Museum. 



128 



BULLETIN 



['HE BUREAU OF PTSHERIES. 



Cadiina flavomaculata may be readily recognized by its peculiar coloration, the rich brownish 
black rhinophores standing out strongly against the light yellowish white of the body. It is an 
extremely sluggish animal in confinement, scarcely moving from its place in the aquarium, even uihUm- 
the most favorable conditions. 

The 2 new species of Cadiina here described may be easily distinguished in life from any Dthcr ot 
the Monterey Dorididje by their striking coloration. But 1 other species of this genus has been t:ikiii 
in the Pacific Ocean, Cadiina pacifica Bergti, from Alaska. The subjoined tabulation of the raduhi- i>t 
the 3 Pacific, together with the European species, will aid in distinguishing them. 

Radulse of species of Cadiina. 



Species. 



Formula 



First pleural tooth. 



C. repanda Alder & Hancock . 

C. paeiflca Bergh 

C. marginata MacFarland 

C. flavomaculata MacFarland 



29-30,1,29-30 
33,1,33 
47,1,47 
23,1,23 



4-6 nearly equal den- 
ticfes. No median 
hook. 



3^ denticles on inner 
side; 7-9 denticles 
on outer side. 

.5-6 denticles on in- 
side: 6-7 denticles 
on outside. 

3 denticles on inside; 
6-7 on outside. 



Up to 12. 
Up to 1.5. 



Subfamily VII. KENTRODOEIDINi;. 

Body rather soft, somewhat depressed, notseum very minutely granulated, pallial margin wide; 
tentacles conical; branchia; tripinnate; foot rather wide, its anterior margin with a deep sulcus, the 
upper lip deeply emarginate. Labial armature none. Rhachis of radula naked, pleurae niultidentate, 
the teeth hooked. Penis armed with a .■^tylet or unai'meil; vestibular gland and dart present or not. ; 

Subfamily VIIL PLATTDOEIDINai. 

Body coriaceous, rigid, flattened, fragile, its outline usually oval or rounded; notteum smooth or 
most minutely granulated, pallial margin wide; branchial opening usually few-lobed, stellate; tentacles 
finger-like; anterior margin of foot bilabiate, the upper lip deeply notched. Labial armature none. 
Ehachis of radula naked, pleurae multidentate, the teeth hooked. Prostata large. 

Subfamily IX, OHEOMODOEIDINi;. 

Body elongate, compressed, soft; brilliantly CDlored, often striped or spotted; notwum nearly 
always smooth; mantle margin broad in front and behind, the rest quite narrow; tenta<^le8 small, 
conical, often as if everted; branchial leaves usually simply pinnate. Labial armature strong, of very 
minute hooks. Rhachis of radula very narrow, often with minute compressed spurious teeth; pleune 
multidentate, teeth hooked, often with denticulate outer margin, the first one denticulate on both 
margins. No true stomach. Penis unarmed. ■ 

Genus 8. CHROMODOEIS Alder and Hancock. 

Chromodoris Alder and Hancock, Mon. Brit. Nudibr. Moll., Pt. VII, 1856, p. XVII.— Bergh, Neue Nacktschnecken der 
Sudsee, III, Jour. Mus. Godeffroy, H. VIII., 1875, p. 72; H. XIV., 1878, p. 1. Unters. d. Ch. elegans u. villafranca. 
Mai. Blatter, XXV, 1878, p. 1. Neue Chromodoriden, Mai. BUitter N. F., I, p. 87. Mai. Unters., XI, 1877, p. 464; 
Sup. H. 1, 1880, p. 14; II, 1881, p. 81; XV, 1884, p. 04; XVI, 2, p. 831; XVII, 1890, p. 929, 974. Beitriije z. Kennt. 
d. japan. Nudibr., II, Verb. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Ges, Wien, XXXI, 1881, p. 219. Report on the Nudibranchiata, 
Challenger Reports, X, 1884, p. 64. Rep. on the Nudibranchs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, XIX, 1890, p. 160. 
System, der Nudibr. Gasteropoden. 1892, p. 112. Ueber einige verkannte und neue Dorididen, Verb. d. k. k. zool.- 
bot. Gesellsch. Wien, XLIII. 1893, p. 415. Die Opisthobranchien, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXV, 10, 1894, p. 190. 
Nudibranches et Marsenia provenant des campagnes de la Princesse Alice, Res. Camp. Sci. Albert I" de Monaco, 
XIV, 1899, p. 17.— V. Jhering, Beitr. z. Kenntniss d. Nudibr. d. Mittelmeres, Mai. Blatter, N.F. II., 1880, p. 1. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 129 

9. Cliromodoris porterae Coekcrell. 

[fl. XXVI.Hks. U, 14.1 

ChTomoiloris porterx Cookerell, Three new species i.f (•lirimiorlorix, The Xaiitihis, XVI, UtOl, ■>. j.. I'J.— MacFarluiid. op. 
cit., p. 44. 

In the summer of 1894 a single individual ■>! ' 1ir<i,iin<hii-iy was taken at Light-House Point, and the 
(■oli>red drawings of plate xxvi (tigs. 13, 14) we:.- ma.lc lr..in it. The animal escaped down the over- 
tlciw pipe of the aquarium soon after, and no .spciim 'U-j have .since then been found in the vicinity of 
Monterey Bay. In 1901 Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell described the above species from La JoUa, Cal., 
where it appears to be quite common, as also at San Pedro. With his kind permission the following 
description (1. c. ) and analytical table of species of Cliromodoris found by him are here reproduced: 

"Len^rth abiiut 11 mm., form of ''. mnirr.iil'i/is. Init uniformly nnich smaller and quite different 
in markiiijis. Decji ultramarine blue, inrliiiliii'.; thi- whole of the foot; mantle with two rather broad 
longitu<linal stripe;^ (if bright orange, nut unitel posteriorly and ending anteriorly at the rhinophores, 
but anterior to the rhinophores is a transxerse orange stripe; median stripe of C. vtacfmicmdi repre- 
sented by an inconspicuous, lighter-blue line; margins of mantle very narrowly pure white; foot 
wholly without marks, except that the hind end has a suffused whitish stripe. Rhinophores and 
branchiae entirely retractile. Branchial plumes 11, in a circle, simply pinnate, entirely of the blue 
colcjr of the mantle. After death a number of conical white papillfe (about 9 on each side) appear 
beneath the hind part of the mantle. After death the blue dissolves out and the body becomes a 
sort of jiale greenish blue, with the dorsal stripe very white and the orange band.s as in life. 

"Habitat: In rocky pools at low tide, La Jolla, Cal., early in August, rather connnon. ( Wiimatte 
Porter Cockerell.)" 

Table of species of Chromodoris found at La Jolla. 

.1 iH neral color a deep 'iltrnmarine blue, which after death dissolves out in formalin, or even in .sea water. 

'(. Small, about 11 mm. long, mantle with two orange stripes, foot without orange marks C. porier»: Ckll. 

h. Larger, over 60 mm. long, mantle and foot with numerous orange spots C. vniversUatu Ckll. 

JS. General color purple, very brilliant, the color not dissolving out after death in formalin or sea water. 

(I. JIantle with a yellow margin and three longitudinal yellow stripes; end of foot with an orange stripe. 

C. marfarlamlival. 

The specimen taken at Pacific Grove was 22 mm. in length, twice that of tlie La Jolla specimen.*, 
but in all other external features agrees with them. 

From my own notes of 1894 I take the following description: 

Body elongate, linear, depressed, mantle about equally rounded in front and behind, mantle 
margin rather narrow laterally and behind, in front broad; tail not covered by the mantle save in its 
anterior portion. General body-color deep ultramarine blue; mantle with 2 broad longitudinal stripes 
of orange, entirely or incompletely united behind the branchial plume, ending in front just outside 
the bases of the rhinophores; in front of rhinophores a transverse arc of orange as if a continuation 
of the lateral stripe; a median light lilue line extending from between the rhinophores to the branchia;; 
margin of mantle narrowly edged with white; foot of same ultramarine blue as rest of body with a 
suffused median stripe of lighter blue upon dorsal surface of tail. Rhinophores perfoliate with 12 to 
14 leaves, clavus slightly darker blue than the body of the animal, retractile within low sheaths witli 
smooth margins. Branchiae 9 to 11, simply pinnate, slightly lighter in color than the mantle, 
completely retractile within low sheaths with smooth margins. 

Length, 22 mm. Radula? Reproductive system? 

The above, together with the colored figures of plate xxvi, will sufRce for the ready recognition of 
this species in life. I hope to be able soon to add detailetl anatomical observations upon this and the 
other species of Californian Chromodoridinw, which may throw some light upon the specific distinc- 
tions existing between them. Up to the present time there have been listed the following species of 
this genus from the western coast of North and Central America: 

(1) Chromodoris dalli Bergh, Puget Sound. 

(2) Chromodoris califomiensis Bergh, Santa Barbara Islanrl.s, San Diego, Monterey (Dall). 

(3) Chromodoris imiversitatis Cockerell, San Pedro. La Jolla. 

(4) Chromodoris a(/assizii Bergh, Panama. 

(5) Chromodoris porlera: Cockerell, La Jolla. 

(6) Chro/nodoris macfarlanili Cockerell, La Jolla, San Pedro. 

(7) CAromutfonsaeyiu/m Bergh. Gulf of California. 



130 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Sir Charles Eliot (Cockerell and Eliot, Notes on a Collection of Californian Nudibranchs, Journal 
of Malacology, xii, 1905, p. 37), comes to the well-founded conclusion that Ch. unirersUalis Cockcrcll 
is identical with the previously-described Ch. californiemtis Bergh. The latter species is stated by Oall 
to have been taken at Monterey. It must be of extremely rare occurrence, as 1 have never fouml it 
in twelve years' collecting at varying times of the year. 

Subfamily X. MIAMIRINai. 

Form of body oval, somewhat depressed but arched; Udtctum cancellate, pallial margin ratljcr 
wide; tentacles small or absent; branchiic usually tripinnate; foot not narrow. Laliial annaturr made 
up of minute rods or hooks. Rhachis of radula not narrow, naked, or with spurious teeth; pleune 
multidentate. No true stomach. Penis unarmed. 

Family H. 1)0R1()PSI1)II).€. 

Body nearly always soft, its form almost exactly as in true Dorididee. Oral a].eitiiri' pore like, 
tentacles very sliort, adnate, rhinophores and branchia; as in true Dorididic. Noi,,uiii smooth or 
tuberculate, pallial margin usually wide and undulating. Foot wide as in true (er\ ptohraiHliiate) 
Dorididse. 

Oral tube simple, not glandular. Pharyngeal bulb an elongated cylindrical sucking tube, destitute 
of mandibles and radula. The posterior end of the liver deeply divided. 

Penis armed with a series of hooks. 

Genus 9. DORIOPSIS Pease. 

Doriopsis Pease, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1860, p. 32. Amer. Jour. Conch., VI, 1871, p. 299.— Bergh, Naclftschnecken der Suil 

in, Jour. Mus. Godeffroy, VIII, 1875, p. 82; XIV, 1878, p. 21. Malacol. Unters., X. 1876, p. 384; Sup. I, 1880. |i i 
XV, 1884, p. 693; XVI, 2, 1889, p. 842; XVII, 1890. p. or.ri. Dorinpsen des atlant. .\Ieeres., Jahrb. d. d. Mai. i.. . , 
VI, 1879, p. 42. Doriop.sen d. Mittelmeeres, Jalirli ' ■^ Mi! i;.-, VII, 1880, p. 297. Report on the Nuilihr.. 
Challenger Rep., X, 1884, p. 117. System der Nu'li^i ' i ■ i i i ix92,p.l26. Opisthobranchea prov. d. Camp, 
du yaehtl'Hirondelle, Res. Camp. Sci. .Albert I'"!' i i IV, 1892, p. 16. 

Doridopsis Alder and Hancock, Tnuis.'Zool. Soc, V, 18G4, p i i II i, rnin.s. Linn. Soc, XXV, 186.5, p. 189. 

Body soft, smooth abo\-e. Buccal ganglia situated at posteriijr end of jdiaryngeal bulb. 
10. Doriopsis fulva MacFarland. 



Doruiimis Jtdni. MacFarland, op. cit., p. 4.i. 

Body elongate, elliptical, the mantle equally rounded in front and behind, slightly depressed, 
soft, the dorsal surface with low papilla-like elevations, nearly all of which bear a small central white 
fleck. General color of animal a rich yellow (pi. xxii, fig. 3), the foot and under side of mantle margin 
slightly lighter in color, the rhinophores darker, the branchial plumes yellowish white. In alcohol 
the yellow color is lost, but the white often remains. Mantle margin thin, crenulate, wide, extending 
well beyond the foot, its ventral surface showing a fine reticulate system of whitish lines, the meshes 
coarser nearer the body and becoming smaller toward the edge. 

Foot elongate, elliptical, the anterior and posterior ends nearly equally rounded, the tail project- 
ing but slightly beyond the mantle behind, the anterior margin bilabiate, the upper lii. witli a de-'j) 
median notch, the lower lip fleshy, the lateral edge of foot thin. 

Sides of body between mantle and foot very low, the color a lighter yellow tliaii that of notauni. 
Reproductive openings in usual position upon a jiroinineiit roimded papilla. 

Mouth opening very small, pore-like, entirel> i-oii.-e;iUMl lutuecn mantle and foot. Tentacles 
very short, flattened, adnate to the under surface oi mantle, dose to^i-ther and directed forwanl. 

Rhinophores not large, cyhndro-conical, carried inclined forward and outward, the el;i\ iis sli^ihtly 
dilated, conical, the tip blunt, perfoliate, with about 18-20 leaves, the stalk cylindii.al. .-mooih, om-- 
third the length of the whole organ. Rhinophores completely retractile within eoiis|.icn..ii> sheaths, 
with smooth, thin margins. Length of clavus, 4 mm.; of whole rhinophore, 6-7 mm.; Iieiiiht of 
sheath, 7 nmi. 



OWSTHORRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 181 

Branchial plumes 5, tripinnate, arranged in a circle, widespreading, deeply retractile within a 
sheath with high, thin, flaring margin, its edge smooth, its outer surface with small tubercules similar 
to those of the dorsum. Height of sheath 2 mm., its diameter 6 mm. Anal papilla at right of center 
of circle of branchiie, bluntly conical. Renal oiieniug inconspicuous, at base and slightly in front of 
the anal papilla. 

Dimensions of large individual, length (S mm., lireadth .SO mm., height 12-i:^ mm. Widtli of 
mantle margin 8 mm. 

Internal anatomy: Notfeum thick, somewhat leathery in consistency. Pseudo-peritoneum cul(}r- 
less. Blood gland pale yellow, flattened, about 5 mm. long by 3.5 mm. wide, its anterior border 
re.stiiig upon the central nervous system, its left border in contact with the loop of the enlongated 
pharyngeal bulb. 

Buccal tube cylindrical, white, 3 mm. long, dilating posteriorly into a conical j.i.rtii.n, 4 mm. long 
by 2.5 mm. broad at its posterior end. From the center of the enlarged inva.L'inaii .1 |..i>tiri..r face a 
long slender tube, 35 mm. long by 1 mm. wide, describes a loop to the left, con^ti iris Mid.Unly to half 
its diameter and tlien dilates at the upper margin of the visceral mass into a short, thin-walled tube 
which loops forward and downward to pass into the cavity of the liver. 

The visceral mass is grayish, cylindrical, about 18 mm. long by 9 mm. wide, its posterior end 
rounded and deeply gn>nvcd vertically for the retractor muscle of the branchise. The anterior end is 
obliquely truncated ui.wai.l and liaikward from the left side, the surface thus formed being variously 
faceted by contact witli Ihe antcjinr genital ma.ss, the upper surface with a deep longitudinal groove 
fur the esophagus and iiili>tinc. The cavity of the liver is large, centrally placed, with various short 
cavernous ramiliratii m- •i|Hning into it, and functions as a gastric cavity. 

llermaplinidiiic L'land thin, yellow, covering anterior end and upper anterior half of the liver. 

The hermapliroditic duct is short, about 3 mm. in length, narrow, and leads directly from the 
anterior border of the visceral mass into its ampulla (pi. .tix, fig. 38 h. amp.), a large, straight, yellow- 
isli, thin-walled tube lying along the inner border of the nidamontal gland, 7 mm. long by 2 mm. 
broad, its anterior end recurved and narrowing into a delicate tuln- ninnin'.' ..ntward aliuii; the supe- 
rior face of the gland for about 2 mm., where it passes into its sul.-tain c, L'i\ Iml: ■'ii a- ii .li.cs so the 
spermatic branch. The spermatic duct (pi. xix, fig. 38 sp. d. I j.ass.-s .liiv.ily int.. lln- li ii anterior lobe 
of a large glandular mass of a brownish yellow color, which overlies nearly the whole of the genital 
mass (indicated in fig. 38 by the dotted line), its lumen large and irregular, receiving branches from 
the various lobules of the gland. From the antero-median portion of this prostate-like gland the vas 
deferens appears as a strong white tube, describes a loop forward and pa,sses into the penis. Length 
of vas deferens about 4 mm., gradually dilating into the penis. The penis (praeputium) is conical, 
thick, about 3 mm. in length, the everted glans thick, cylindro-conical, about 1 mm. long by 0.6 mm. 
in diameter, the tip blunt. The whole glans is thickl}- set with a series of strongly-curved hooks 
arranged in quincunx, about 36 // in vertical height and extending down the vas deferens for about 
180// (pi. XIX, figs. 39^0). 

Tlie uterine duct is narrow, 2 mm. long, dilating as it nears the point of entrance of the duct of 
the sperinatocyst and ojicns into the sperraatotheca by a common tube with the vaginal duct (pi. xix, 
fig. 38a, ». </ ). Spermatoc-yst ( pi. xix, fig. 38 sp. c. ) long, tubular, coiled upon itself at posterior inner mar- 
gin of the anterior genital mass, about 6 mm. long by 1.25 mm. in diameter, its duct (pi. .xix, fig. 38a 
sp. c. d.) hmg and narrow, running along the up])er surface of the spermatotheca to its anterior side and 
opening into the uterine duct. Length of duct of sperinatocyst 5 mm., its diameter 0.5 mm. 

Spermatothet'a ( pi. xix, fig. 38 .■<p. Ih. ) very large, spherical, forming fully one-half the bulk of the 
anterior genital mass, covercil dorsally by the brownish gland of the vas deferens. From its anterior 
face the vaginal duct jjasseH outward directly into the vagina without any sharp line of demarcation. 
Length of vaginal duct about 3 mm., its diameter 1 mm.; length of the vagina 3.5 mm., its diameter 
2-2.5 mm. 

Z)onopsis/?(f«a is perhaps the commonest nudibranch to be f.)un<l at Pacific Grove, occurring in 
the tide pools all along the coast at all times of the year, but perhaps most abundantly during the 
summer months. Its egg bands are in the usual form of a long flat ribbon, about 7 mm. in width, 
closely coiled, yellow in color and fastened to the sloping sides of rocks or to brown algw, and are 
also deposited abundantly in the aquarium, in which the animal may be readily kept. Egg-laying 
may occur at any time during the year, but takes place mainly in summer. 

Type no. 181286 U. S. National Museum. 



132 BULLETIN OF THE HUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

F.imily C. PHYLLIDIADJ-:. 

Body subcoriaceous, oval or (■lniii,Mt(-n\.il, siilHlcprcssed. Head indistinct, oral aperture pciv.- 
like, tentacles short, connate at the Ikim', lonniim a vciv sliort veil above the oral aperture, sulc:ili'. 
<ligitiform or depressed, free, rarrly i l'lniin.li,.i,:<,.< i allixcd; rhinophores retractile into sheaths, th- 
clavns perfoliate. Ends of body almost equally rounded. Notseum dilated in its whole circunil'ii- 
ence, the pallial margin everywhere extending beyond the foot. Back almost always uneven, tubci- 
culate; the tubercules forming mid-dorsal longitudinal series or arranged in quincunx; the halu <ii 
the anterior tubercules of the lateral scric"-- juTfurated by the rhinophores or contiguous to them; thr 
halo of the posterior median series -.nus /"./;. ,:,! excepted) perforated by the anus or contiguoiis t^. 
it. * * * External portion of tlir uiplii ,vi, I,, of mantle margin smooth, the inner portion bearint; 
thin transverse brnnfhial lamellte, interrupted in front by the depression for the head, on the riulit 
side by tin- 21 nilal ].apilla. Anal aperture postero-median upon the dorsum or, rarely (Fryer'ni). 
between maiii !.■ aii.l h«i{, the cylindrical rectal tube projecting from its cavity, a groove on its ri!.'l)t 
side leading \>vViv. to the renal pore. Sides of body low, the foot w-ell developed, narrower, ami 
shorter than the mantle. 

Oral tube large, suctorial, pyriform, symmetrical (usually), or asymmetrical on account of a 
regular or irregular glandular nias.s covering it; behind continued into the long, cylindrical pharyntiial 
bulb, destitute of mandibles and radula. Posterior end of liver not cleft. Penis armed with a serii- 
of hooks. 

Family D. POLYCERID.^. 

Branchiie of jiiunate iilumes arranged in an arc or circle, united or se|>aralc at their lia-^es, ncvn 
retractile into a cavity. C'hivtis of rhinophores usually jicrtoliate. Pharyngeal JiuUi sometimes with 
a sucking crop. 

Subfamily XL POLYOERIINai, 

Body more or less elongate and limaciform; dorsum scarcely set off from the .sides, or witli a 
[jrominent lateral margin; frontal limb more or less prominent, simple or ornamented with simple or 
composite appendages; pn each side of the dorsum often either a single dorsal appendage (branchial) 
or several simple or composite ones in a series along the margin. Rhinophores with or without 
sheaths, the clavus usually perfoliate. Branchiai of few plumes, the plumes often composite. Ten- 
tacles small, loVielike, foldlike, or auriculate. Foot not wide, usually rounded in front. Pharyngeal 
liulli simjile. P.nccal cavity usually armed with mandibular lamina? (often made up of minute rods 1. 
Hliachis of radulu usually naked; the larger lateral teeth uncinate, the external ones simple, usually 
without hooks, (ilans penis armed witli a series of hooks. 

Genus 10. XGIRES Lov^n. 

Mjires Lovcn. Ofvers. Votensk.-Akademiens Forh., 1, 181.5, p. 49. Ind. moll., 1.S16, p. 6. 

MgiTus LoviSn, Alder and Haneock, Monogr. part IV, 1.S48, fam. 1, pi. 21; part VI, fam. 1, pi. 17. fi.ss. 13-15; part VII, 

185.5, p. 44, XIX, pi. 46 sup., fig. 17.— G. 0. Sars, Moll. reg. arct. Norv., 1S78, tab. XIV, lig. lOab. 
.^ires, Bergh, Beitr. z. Kenntniss dor Polyceraden, II, 1880, Verh. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Ge.s. Wien, XXX, p. 649. System der 

Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 140. 

Body somewhat limaciform, robust, rigid, with numerous tubercules above, mostly in rows; frontal 
margin narrow, tuberculate; pallial margin inconspicuous, tuberculate; clavus of rhinophores simple, 
their sheaths oblique; tentacles small, lobiform; branchije of few- tripinnate leaves, each one protected 
by a peculiar individual lobe. 

Labial disc with a band of minute rods close to the buccal aperture below; a large mandible 
present above. Radula moderately wide; the rhachis naked; pleurae with many uniformly hooked 
teeth. Glans penis armed. 



OPISTHOBKANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 133 

11. aigires albopunctatus MarFailaiid. 



.-Egires albcrpiiilclatiis MaoFarliiiiil, op. fit., p. 4.S. 

Body arched, not at all depressed, robust, highest and broadest immediately in front of the 
branchial plumes and .sloping rapidly behind into the broad, bluntly rounded tail, in front more 
gradually. Dorsum thickly set everywhere with short, blunt tubercules, cylindrical or with slightly 
expanded apices, arranged in irregular rows. Frontal margin narrow, closely set with tuliercules, 
continned behin<l the rhinophores as a tuberculate ridge, becoming less and less prominent until the 
dcirso-lateral margin is at length marked only by an irregular row of tubercules, curving upward and 
meeting the median dorsal row of the tail behind the branchiae. 

Foot narrow, linear, the sides nearly parallel, tapering abruptly behind into the bluntly rounded 
tail, in front truncate, undivided, the angles simply rounded. 

Mouth small, inconspicuous, with a small, lobelike tentacle on each side. 

Sides of body set off sharply from mai^in of foot, smooth below and in front, behind and above 
with thiee unequal rows of tubercules diverging slightly posteriorly. 

(iround color white or yellowish-white with irregularly scattered small, dark-brown spots, or 
entirely white. Margin of liorsum and everywhere between the tubercules sprinkled with minute 
dots of pure white. 

Rhinophores simple, cylindrical, truncate, 0.5 mm. long, completely retractile within prominent 
tuberculate sheaths, the 5-6 tubercules and the margin being high on the outer side and quite low on 
the inner one. Between the rhinophores a median longitudinal row of tubercules becoming irregular 
behind. 

Branchial plumes 3, tripinnate, small, each one protected by a large irregularly tuberculate lolie 
at its outer side. 

Length of large individual 13 mm., width 3.5 mm., height 4 mm. 

I'haryngeal bulb short, strong, nearly spherical in shape, about 2 mm. long, slightly less in height 
and width, the radula sac projecting behind and below for 0.5 mm. The labial disc is convex, the 
iipening triangular, clothed with rather thick cuticula. Above, forming the roof of the opening, is a 
single, broad, thick mandibular plate, a narrow girdle of fine rodlike cuticular thickenings guarding 
the opening. The mandibular plate (pi. xi.\, fig. 41) is quadrangular in form, its anterior cutting edge 
very thick, straight, the posterior one much thinner, rounded and colorless. Width of mandible 345 jit. 

Radula broad, deeply grooved, colorless, except in the posterior rows, which are yellowish. Teeth 
in 16-22 rows, the last two immature, the formula of the dentition 17-0-17. Rhachis narrow, naked. 
I^leural teeth 17, similar in form, strongly hooked. Shaft with the usual thin, winglike process on 
the inner margin, as shown in plate xix, figure 44, which repvc-rnt- tli.- tifth and sixth pleura of the 
sixth row. The innermost tooth is the smallest of the pleum , tli.- -m r.<iling four increasing in size 
pi. XIX, fig. 42), the remaining ones nearly ecjual, the outerii]ii--t one <lii_'litly smaller (pi. xix, fig. 43). 
Length of innermost tootli 0.09 mm., the outermost about 0.09 mm., average length of- teeth from 
middle portion of row 0.108 mm. 

The anterior genital ma-ss is plano-convex, the plane surface directed upward and inward, ellip- 
tical, about 4 mm. long by 2 mm. broad. The spermatotheca is spherical, 1.2 mm. in diameter, and 
lies upon the anterior upper border of the genital mass. Opening into it close together are the vaginal 
duct and the oviduct, the former passing straight outward to the vagina, the latter short, receiving 
the duct of the small pear-shaped spermatocyst and uniting with the h(riii.i|ilir.i.litic amiMilla. 

The penis (prasputium) is 0.450 mm. long by 0.210 mm. in diaimtcr and |.a!<scs i;iadually over 
into the slender vas deferens. The retracted glans is cylindrical, short, lilnntly n.niideil at the end, 
0.372 mm. long, its canal clothed with very minute, densely set hooks for 0.108 mm. of its length from 
the tip. 

Habitat: Under overhanging rocks at low tide all along the coast from Monterey to Point 
Lobos. \ot rare. Especially common upon sponges in a tunnel-like grotto formed by the waves near 
Pebble Beach, on Carmelo Bay. Very sluggish in movement, shuns the light, and soon dies in 
captivity. 

Type no. 181282, U. S. National Museum. 



134 BULLKTIN OF THK BUREAU (tK FISHERIES, 

Genus 11. lAILA MacFarland. 

Latta MacFarland, op. cit., p. 40. 

Body depressed; frontal and lateral margins narrow, set witli club-shaped papilla;; rhiiiophoresretrar- 
tile, clavus perfoliate; brani-hial plumes few, tripinnate, nonretractile into a sheath; tentacles blunt, 
canaliculate. A flattened submarginal ridge on each side of the anterior end of the body just behind 
and aVjove the tentacles. 

No labial armature nor mandibles. Radula not narrow, the rhachis with a single series of flattened 
spurious teeth; first jileural tooth slender, hook-lilve, tlie second large, the remaining lateral teeth 
(10-13) smaller, flattened. 

Glaus penis armed. 

This genus was proposed for the reception of the following form. It is allied to the gen. ra 
Triopa Johnston and Issa Benr'i, but differs from the first in the character of the frontal appendau-i- 
and in the presence of spuriou- teeth on the rhachis of the radula. From Issa it differs in the absence 
of mandibles, and from l)<)th in tlie jjresence of the submarginal flattened ridge or lol)e. 

12. Liaila cockerelli MacFarland. 

[IM. XXVII, Hks. l.i; I>1. XIX, figs. 4.T-50.] 
Laila aickerelU MacFarland, op. cit., p. 47. 

Body elongate, depressed, the ends rounded, the back slightly convex, the mantle margin promi- 
nent, overlapping the foot everywhere except behind. 

Dorsum rounded (pi. .X'.'cvii, fig. 1.5), gently sloping to sides and anterior and i>osterior ends from 
region of the heart. Pallial margin bearing closely set, stout, club-shaped papilla? arranged in sliort 
oblique rows of 3-1 papillse in each, increasing progressively in size from the outermost ones toward 
the median line. Length of papillse 1-6 mm., breadth up to 1 mm. Each papilla is supported by an 
axial column of strong sjjieules. Median portion of dorsum with numerous scattered low tubercules 
of varying size, the largest near the median line, between them the surface smooth. 

Head M-ide (pi. xix, fig. 4.5), sloping above, the frontal margin prominent, bearing papilla' similar 
to those of the sides of the mantle, the mouth opening large with consi>icuous fleshy, plicated lips. 
Along the side of the head and anterior end of the body on each side a fleshy, flap-like subpallial 
ridge (pi. xix, fig. 45a), its anterior end just behind and slightly above the base of the oral tentacles, 
close Ijelow the pallial margin and parallel to it. The anterior and posterior ends of the ridge are 
rounded, its margin smooth. Length of ridge 2 mm., width 0.5 nmi. Tentacles cylindro-conical, 
truncate, grooved on upper surface throughout the entire length. Length about 2 mm., diameter at 
base 0.7 mm., at apex 0.3 mm. 

Foot linear, abruptly pointed behind and extending beyond the mantle, its margins thin and broad, 
in front squarish, slightly emarginate, the corners rounded, deeply bilabiate, the upper lip projecting 
beyond the lower and slightly cincave (pi. xix, fig. 45.) 

Ehinophores retractile within smooth margined sheaths. Stalk and clavus of nearly equal length, 
tapering to a blunted apex, the clavus slightly dilated, perfoliate with about 13 leaves. 

Branchial plumes 5, nonretractile into cavity, tripinnate, in an incomplete circle the center of 
which is occupied, by the anal papilla. Renal opening at light of anal papilla and near its base. 

General color yellowish white, slightly translucent. Clavus of rhinophores, processes of pallial 
margin, and tail tipped with deep orange red, the branchial plumes and dorsal tubercules occasionally 
flecked with the same color. Dorsum marked with irregular network of transparent lines upon the 
whitish background, the effect of the multitudinous spicules shining through the skin. 

Total length 20 mm., width 7 mm., height 6 mm. in the largest individual taken. 

Pharyngeal bulb small, flattened, oval in shape, the radula sheath projecting slightly behiml. 
Length 3 mm., width 2 mm., height 1 mm., in an individual of 15 mm. length. Lip disk directed 
obliquely downward, strongly convex, covered by thin colorless cuticula, the opening vertical, slit-like, 
with a slight T-shaped widening at dorsal and ventral margins, formed by shallow grooves at either 
side. .\ slight ring-like thickening of the cuticle marks the opening; behind this the cuticle has a 
faint tesselated apjiearance. Ko distinct mandibular plate present. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 135 

Radula nearly colorlesi?, broad, with wide median groove. Teeth in 7f)-82 rows, the last 2 or 3 
rows incompletely developed. Rhachis narrow, averaging 19 u wide, with a single series of colorless 
flattened plates occupying nearly the whole width of the rhachis, nearly rectangular in form, slightly 
l)roader at anterior than at posterior end, the edges irregular in outline. Average length 0.018 mm., 
wiilth anterior end 0.011 mm., posterior end 0.008 mm. ( PL xix, figs. 46, 48) . Pleural teeth 2, the first 
one ( pi. XIX, figs. 46, 47« ) a simple, strongly curved hook directed vertically, its shaft somewhat expanded 
and flattened at its posterior end and fitting closely to the second pleural tooth. Length 0.036 mm. 
The second pleural tooth (pi. xix, fig. 47/>) strong and heavy, the shaft irregular in form, olslique, at its 
ujiper end two strongly liooked cusps, the inner one smaller and directed inward, the larger outer one 
being more vertical, the two together forming a crescentic figure as seen from above. Below the inner 
hook a strong rounded elevation on the upper portion of the shaft, passing obliquely outward into a 
riilge. The lower end of shaft bluntly rounded, bearing a slight wing-like elevation on its outer face. 
Length of lateral tooth from end of shaft to crest 0.038 mm., diameter below inner cusp 0.011 mm. 

L'ncinal teeth 10-13 in number, closely set, pavement-like, presenting from above an arched, 
quadrangular outline with two pointed cusps at the lower angles strongly developed in the first 4 teeth 
(pi. XIX, flg. 46 c, (f; fig. 49 c, /), but much reduced and finally disappearing in the remaining outer 
ones (flg. 49 g-n), which become modified into flattened plates of considerable thickness. 

Olans penis long, cylindrical, blunt, about 0.6 mm. in length by 0.04 mm. in diameter, with an 
armature of minute thorn-like hooks arranged in 10 to 12 slightly irregular longitudinal rows 
(pi. XIX, fig. 50.) 

Habitat: Under shelving rocks in tide pools along the coast, especially near Point Aulon and 
Point Pinos. Not rare. Much smaller individuals of the same species have been collected at San 
Pedro, Cal., by Prof. T. I). A. Cockerell, who has very kindly turned some of them over to me, 
together with his notes upon the same. I take pleasure in dedicating this species to him. 

Type no. 181290, U. S. National .Museum. 

Geuns 12. TRIOFHA Bergh. 

Triopha Bergh, On the Xudibranchiate Gasteropod Mollusoa of the Xorth Pacific Ocean (Dall. Explor. of Alaska, I, Art. 6), 
II, l.sSO, pp. 261-21)6, (al.<iO in Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila.. 1S80, p. 112). Sy.stem der N'udibr. Gasteroi>oden, 1892, p. U.S. 
Die Opisthobranchien! Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXV, 10, 1894, pp. 184-187. 

Form of body somewhat limaciform; margin of the narrow frontal lobe with a series of short 
simple or composite granulose appendages; margin of dorsum with uodulate or short-branched 
appendages; rhinojihores retractile, clavus perfoliate; tentacles short, calyciform, the outer margin in 
part cleft ( auriform ) ; branchiie of few tripinnate leaves. 

Mandibular plates triangular, made up of short, closely set rodlets. Kadula rather narrow; rhachis 
with several .series (4) of spurious teeth; pleura; with several (.3-18) rows of larger teeth; lateral teeth 
many (10-18). 

Prostate gland large. Glans penis armed. 

This genus was established in 1880 by Bergh to receive two species of nudibranchs from the 
Pacific Ocean. Of these the Tr. rarpenteri (Stearns) occurs in ilonterey Bay and is here given, while 
the two following species are new but undoulitedly l>elong to this genus. 

13. Triopha carpenteri (Stearns). 

[PI. XXVII, figs. 16, 17; pi. XIX, figs, al-i^; pi. XXI, Jigs. 108,113.] 

Trio))a carpenteri Stearns, Description of a new genus and two new species of nudibranchiate moUusks from the coast of 
Califiirniii, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., V, April 21, 1873, p. 78, flg. 2.— MacFariand, op. cit., p. 48. 
Body limaciform, elongate, robust; anteriorly obtusely rounded, posteriorly rather bluntly pointed. 
Head obliijuely flattened, semilunar, bearinga narrow frontal margin (pi. xxi, fig. 108) extending later- 
ally beyond the rhinophores, continued behind into the less conspicuous dorso-lateral ridge, and bear- 
ing along its whole length a large number of irregularly lobed and tulierculate papilla; (pi. xxvii, figs. 
16-17). Dorsum slightly arched, set off from the sides b)' a series of tuberculate processes (5-9), of 
varying size and form, borne upon an inconspicuous low ridge, in many cases almost indistinguishable. 
The first of these processes lies in continuation with the frontal margin in the region of the rhinophore, 
the last 2 or 3 behind the branchia;. Scattered upon the minutely granuligerous dorsum many smaller 



136 KFLLETIN OF THJ: BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

simple or compound tubercles, in some cases approximating the size and complexity of the marginal 
ones. These are usually irregularly arranged, tending, however, in some individuals to form a median 
series, especially in the head region (pi. .xxvii, fig. 16). Behind the branchiic a median tubercle, 
often several scattered ones, and in front of the rhinophores 2 or 3 similar ones. 

Rhinophores retractile into prominent sheaths, the margins of which are thin, smooth, or slightly 
wavy in outline. Stalk stout, erect; the clavus curved backward and upward, perfoliate with 20-:;i) 
leaves. 

Branchiic .5, large, tripinnate, wide spreading, entirely separate at the base; 1 antcrinr iiu-dian 
plume and 2 pairs of lateral ones. In the center of this circle of branchiie is the anal papilla, a 
conspicuous conical elevation bearing the anal opening at its summit. Near its base on the right 
side is the minute renal pore. 

Tentacles short and stout, auriform, a longitudinal slit extending along their outer border, the 
margins of which fold together (pi. xxi, tig. 108, a). In alcoholic material these organs often take on a 
cuplike form, due to shrinkage. 

Anterior margin of foot rounded, the sides nearly parallel, the posterior end rather abruptly 
pointed. 

General body color white (pi. xxvii, iigs. 16, 17), inclined to yellowish above, often sprinkled with 
minute whitespots borne upon very small tubercles. Tipsof branchiae, clavus of rhinophores, appendages 
of frontal and lateral margins, and the numerous scattered tubercles of the dorsum a deep orange 
color. Numerous irregular blotches of orange are also scattered along the sides of the animal in 
no regular arrangement. The region of the body beneath the gill plumes is darker, caused by the 
deep brown liver shining through the skin. In alcoholic specimens the orange color is lost and the 
specimens are everywhere white. 

Pharyngeal apparatus large and strong, in shape truncately conical, slightly compressed laterally, 
the radula sheath projecting below and behind as a rounded eminence. 

Lip disk strongly convex, covered by a strong, brow-nish yellow cuticula, the opening inverted 
T-shape (pi. xix, fig. 55). Behind the oral slit on each side the cuticula passes into a triangular, 
brownish yellow plate, broad above, its apex directed downward. In an individual of 5 cm. length 
this plate has an extreme length of 2 mm. and a height of 3 mm. and is made up of closely set slightly 
curved blunt rods, those of the anterior border having a length of about 0.150 mm. and a diameter 
of 0.004 mm. 

Radula broad, deeply grooved, dark amber in color. Teeth in 33 rows, of which 3 are immature 
at the end of the sheath. Rhachis broad, bearing 4 rows of flattened plates (spurious teeth). The 
inner 2 rows of these plates, in the older portion of the radula, are quadrangular, about 180// in 
width by the same in length, grayish yellow, the anterior margin thickened and smooth, the lateral 
and posterior ones irregular (pi. xix, fig. 51). In the younger, posterior portion of the radula these 
plates become lighter in color, trapezoidal in shape, and much wider than long (pi. xix, lig. 54); e. g., in 
the thirtieth row, length of plate 0.150 mm., width of posterior margin 0.240 mm., of anterior margin 
0.165 mm. The outer row of median plates is made up of more triangular thickenings, the rounded and 
slightly thickened anterior margin being much narrower than the posterior one, the outer margin 
prolonged backward, especially in the posterior portion of the radula (fig. 54), where it becomes a 
long process extending under the pleurte. Pleural teeth yellow, strongly hooked, of nearly uniform 
shape and size. The number varies in different individuals from 9 to 18. In five different raduUe the 
number of pleural teeth w-as 13, 18, 10, 9, 14, though for each radula the number is constant in all the 
rows. The base of each hook bears a wing-like process usually directed at right angles to the direction 
of the hook, and hence easily overlooked (fig. 53). The uncini (fig. 51), quadrilateral in general 
outline, vary from 9 to 18 in number in different raduke, while in the same radula the number is not a 
constant one for all of the rows. A conspicuous longitudinal crest directed toward the median line is 
borne by most of the uncini. It gradually decreases in size toward the outer portion of the radula 
and is entirely lacking in the outermost three or four uncini (pi. xix, figs. 51, 52). 

The esophagus is a nearly straight muscular tube passing almost directly backward from the 
pharyngeal bulb, 10 mm. in length and reaching a diameter of 3 mm. At the anterior border of the 
visceral mass it dilates into the stomach, which lies in a deep, oblique groove in the anterior end of 
the liver. The stomach describes a simple loop from right to left, its pyloric portion, emerging from 
the liver on tlie lower left-hand side, curving upward and forward u])on the upper face of the liver, 



Ol'ISTHOBRANCHlATE MOLLUSCA F-ROM MONTEREY BAY. 137 

thence in a broad loop backward to the anus. Total length of the intestine about 23 mm. The liver 
is bluntly conical behind, its surface smooth, the anterior end bluntly flattened. The oblique groove 
in which tlie stimiach is included divides it alnidj^f coiupU'tely into two unequal lobes. 

Tlif lierniajihroditic gland covers nearly I In- whi.lf si ii face of the liver with its rather thick lobules. 
The heriuaphroditic duct is very long and sli-ndei, and, arising from the anterior dorsal side of the 
groove in the liver, courses forward and downward to the posterior face of the anterior genital 
mass, where it describes a series of irregular loop.s between the spermatotheca on the left and the 
nidamental and albumin glands on the right, this portion being slightly more dilated than the first 
part of the hermaphroditic duct, thus forming the hermaphroditic ampulla. At the anterior end of the 
nidamental gland the ampulla constricts again, gives off the spermatic duct, and passes into the 
nidamental gland. The spermatic duct dilates almost at once into the long, thick, lobulated prostate 
gland, about 14 mm. in length by 2 mm. in breadth, which describes a loop (pi. xxi, fig. 113, pr.) upon 
the anterior face of the anterior genital mass, the distal end of the loop being again bent upward upon 
itself. A convoluted vas deferens succeeds the prostate for about 4.5 mm., dilating at the upper 
anterior surface of the anterior genital mass into the obliquely placed cylindrical ampulla, 4.5 mm. 
long by 2 mm. in diameter, its distal end directed toward the median line of the animal and doubling 
sharply outward toward the penis, into which it dilates. Glans penis and distal portion of lining of 
its lumen armed with minute hooks. 

The vagina, 4 mm. in length by 1 mm. in extreme diameter, passes straight inward into the short 
vaginal duct, which opens through the outer anterior wall of the large spherical spermatotheca. The 
latter organ (pi. xxi, fig. 113, sp. th. ) is about 5 mm. in diameter and makes up about one-half the bulk 
of the anterior of the genital mass. From its anterior face is given off the uterine duct close to 
the entrance of the vaginal duct. After a short course this duct passes, as usual, into the nidamental 
gland at its anterior inner face, receiving midway of its length the very short and slender duct of 
the spermatocyst. The spermatocyst (fig. 113, sp.c.) is pear-shaped, 2 mm. long by 0.7 mm. in greatest 
diameter, and is placed transversely upon the upper anterior portion of the nidamental gland in 
contact with and partly covered by the proximal end of the prostate gland. 

Dimensions of largest preserved specimen, scarcely at all shrunken: Length, 60 mm.; height, 
immediately in front of branchite, 29 mm. ; greatest width, 15 mm. ; width of head, 15 mm. ; maximum 
height of dorso-lateral processes, 3 mm.; length of foot, 57 mm.; its greatest breadth, 7 mm. 

Habitat: On brown kelp of thefucoid zone and under overhanging rocks in tide pools everywhere 
along the rocky coast from Monterey to Point Lobos. Altogether the most common nudibraiuh of the 
region and the most conspicuous one, owing to the contrast of the bright orange color of its appendages 
with the white of the body. It is avoided by the tide-pool fishes as apparently inedible, its bright 
colors seemingly serving a warning purpose. 

A specimen deposited in U. S. National Museum (no. 181291). 

The fragmentary description of Stearns (1873)3 jg liased entirely upon external features, but is 
sufficient to render t'Citain the identification of living specimens. The foregoing l)rief anatomical 
description, especially the stnu-ture of the radula, shows that this is a species distinct from Triojilia 
modesta Bergh, with which it Ijas lieeu united liy the latter writer (Bergh, 1894, 1. c. ). 

14. Triopha maculata MacFarland. 

[PI. XXVIII, fiK !>-: I'l- XIX. fiK^. S.M-oSI: Jil. XXI, tigs. 1011, 107.] 
Trioplm iiiaeulaia JlacFnrland, op. cit., p. 49. 

Body limaciform, strongly rounded above, plump, the back passing over insensibly into the sides 
save for the line of processes which indicate the boundary. Sides slightly compressed, a shallow longi- 
tudinal groove immediately above the margin of the foot. Foot linear, bluntly rounded in front, 
less so behind. Head flattened in front, sloping forward from the rhinophores to the wide semicir- 
cular frontal margin, which bears a fringe of from 10 to 12 short, stout processes, each of which toward 

« "Animal shig-shaped: anteriorly obtusely rounded, posteriorly pointed, somewhat attenuated; cephalic tentacles 
clavate, upper part of same of an orange color, below white; gill plumes 5, arborescent, resembling fern leaves, tipped 
with orange; plumes and tentacles ,"5 inch in length; the former situated in the middle of the bacli somewhat posterior 
to the center. Six tentacular processes on each side, tipped with orange and ,\ inch long: also short tentacular processes 
in front of the head: body I5 inches in length, translticent white, covered with fine papillae of an orange color. Habitat: 
Monterey, at Point Pinos, near the light-house, on the under side of granite rocks at edge of laminarian zone." 



138 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

its distal end branches into several blunt or knoblike divisions, which may in turn be branched or knf>l i- 
bed (pi. XKViu, fig. 18). This frontal margin extends laterally below the rhinophores and in it;^ 
prolongation along the dorso-lateral margin is a series of 4 to 6 short, branched processes essential I \ 
similar to those of the frontal margin. Posterior portion of the body sloping rapidly downward frcjin 
a point just in front of the branchiw into the short, blunt tail, which is highly arched above. 

Rhinophores stout, club-shaped, rising from a conical base and expanding above info a broaili i 
clavus, directed backward and in turn tapering to a blunt tip. Length of clavus the same as that 
the stalk, or nearly so, about 3 mm. Clavus perfoliate with about 18 plates, which are habitu:ill 
carried in a nearly vertical position. Rhinophores retractile into conical sheaths about one-third tin 
height of the whole rhinophore. Margin of sheath smooth or slightly crenulate, fluted longitudinally. 

Below tbe broad semilunar frontal margin (pi. xxi, fig. 106) the rounded, full-lipped mouth, 
sucker-like in general appearance, at each side continuous with the oral tentacles. Oral tentacles 
auriform, directed forward and outward, the base cylindrical, outer half deeply grooved on upper 
side and transformed into a rolled plate, truncate at top with a wavy, sinuous margin (pi. xxi, fig. 
107). (ireatest diameter of tentacles equal to one-half their total length. 

Branch i;c on po.sterior dorsum arranged in a circle about the anus in 5 tripiunate divisions arising 
from separate bases. Anterior plume unpaired in median line, the remaining 4 paired and laterally 
placed. Plumes low, wide spreading, nonretractile. 

Anal opening at summit of conspicuous cylindrical papilla in the center of the circle of branchia>. 

Renal opening an inconspicuous slit on the base of the anal papilla on its right anterior side. 

Color of dorsum and sides yellowish brown, usually of very deep shade, but in some individuals 
quite light. Dorsum and sides of body everywhere thickly set with small bluish-white round or oval 
spots, each one forming the center of a very slight polygonal eminence bounded by narrow orange- 
yellow lines upon the dark-brown background (pl.xxvin. fig. 18). Foot below orange yellow with fine 
dark-brown flecks save at the margins, which are clivitili'ip onuiL'i'. sliadiii'j off aliuve on the sides into 
the deep yellowish brown of the dorsum. In smalli-r iiiiliviiliuil> the i;ciii-ial lol.irs are usually lighter, 
tending to a light orange, the lighter bluish-white spots liring suiullcr au'l less conspicuous. Frontal 
and doiso-lateral processes and tips of branchial plumes bright orange or vermilion, shading below 
into dark brown. Stalk of rhinophore yellowish, leaves and antero-median line of clavus and margin 
of the sheath edged with bright orange red. , 

Pharyngeal bulb very large and strong, conical, slightly compressed laterally, the radula sheath 
projecting behind and below as a rounded eminence. Length 4 mm., width 2.5 mm., height 2 mm. 
in an individual of 15 nun. total length. 

Labial disk oblique, oval, somewhat convex, the opening of an inverted T or Y shape (pi. xix, fig. 
59). Cuticula not thick, colorless, prolonged inward to form the tubular mouth lining, its sides con- 
tinuous with the dark yellow, triangular mandibular plates characteristic of the genus. These plates 
are broadest above, the apex directed ventrally, and the anterior and dorsal margins are of nearly 
equal length, forming a right angle at their junction.. The plates are made up of short, flexible, blunt, 
cross-striated rodlets having a diameter of about 3 //. 

Radula broad and short, deeply grooved, light yellow in color, and made up of about 14 rows of 
teeth. Rhachis broad, bearing 4 .series of flattened plates (spurious teeth). The 2 innermost rows 
are quadrangular in shape, colorless, the anterior margin thickened and fairly smooth, the posterior 
one jagged and irregular (pi. xix, fig. 57, a). These jjlates increase in length from the anterior (older) 
end of the radula backward, and also, though less, in width, the general quadrangular shape remain- 
ing the same. The outer rows of rhachidian plates are made up of flattened triangular elements, 
slightly larger toward the sheath than in front. They are about as long as broad and bear a more or 
less extensive thickening in the central region, the lower inner corner of which is occasionally ])ro- 
longed into a sli.rht cusp (|il. xix, fig. 57, h). Pleural teeth 4 in older portions of the radula, usually 5 
toward thr sliratli, latL'i', stron'j:ly hooked, of nearly the same size and shape, the abaft with a wing- 
lik,- ,.x|,aiision ,,„ III,. ,lo,sal si^l.Mpl. xix, fig. 55, o,"58). Uncini (pi. xix, figs. 56) 7 to 8 in number, 
the fii-^t . .iH-s slightly prismatic in form, gradually becoming reduced to elongated flattened plates. The 
first 4 or 6 of nearly the same size, then decreasing rapidly to the outermost ones. A well-developed 
longitudinal crest, directed toward the median line and slightly overlapping the adjacent tooth, is 
borne by all except the outermost 2 or 3 uncini. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 139 

The cfi-ophagus is relatively short, being but 3 mm. in length, is curveii to the left, and jtasses intn 
the large thin-walled saccular stomach, the greater jiortion of which lie.s in fnmt of the liver and 
entirely free from that organ, its' pyloric portion only being inclosed in a deep oblique furrow which 
divides that organ into a smaller anterior and a larger posterior lobe. The intestine courses to the left 
in this groove, doubles downward and forward, thence describing a loop upward to the dorsal surface 
of the viscera, where it passes in a wide curve over the surface of the anterior genital mass posteriorly 
to the anus. 

The hermaphroditic gland covers the anterior upper face of the liver, its duct arising from the upper 
surface close to the pyloric end of the stomach by the union of two main branches, which are lost in 
fine ramifications in the substance of the gland. The duct is short, dilating into the long convoluted 
whitish ampulla which courses forward, pas.sing beneath the anterior genital mass in a series of 
loopings in a groove between the nidamental gland on the right and the large spermatotheca on the 
left. The total length of the hermaphroditic ampulla is about 12 mm., nearly one-half the total length 
of the whole animal. At the anterior face it passes into the nidamental gland, giving off the spermatic 
duct, which emerges from the substance of the gland and at once dilates into the thick lobulated 
prijstate gland. This organ is broad and describes an S-shaped loop upon the anterior and inner faces 
of the anterior genital mass, forming with the spermatotheca, which it closely covers, fully one-half the 
bulk of the mass. Its distal end passes into the narrow muscular vas deferens, which, after a very 
short and somewhat tortuous course, dilates into its spindle-shaped ampulla, 2 mm. long and 1 nun. in 
diameter, lying obliquely upon the dorsal face of the anterior genital mass and inclosed in the loop of 
the intestine. The wall of this ampulla is very much thickened and muscular. Beyond it the vas 
deferens doubles outward upon itself and courses obliquely forward and outward, dilating into the 
prcputium, a cylindro-conical structure 2.5 mm. long and 1.5 mm. in greatest diameter. At its base 
projects the blunt glans penis, armed with minute hooks. 

The vagina is short and cylindrical, passing straight inward for 2.2 mm., when it makes a sharp 
tarn posteriorly and, tapering for 1.5 mm., passes into the much narrower vaginal duct, which, with 
a length of 1 mm., opens into the spermatotheca upon its upper face. The spermatotheca is a large 
spherical organ, 2 mm. in diameter, its anterior lower and inner faces nearly covered by the loops 
of the large prostate gland, which also overlaps a portion of its upper surface. The exit of the uterine 
duct from the spermatotheca is 1 mm. distant from the entrance of the vaginal duct and is situated 
uiiun its anterior face. The uterine duct is slender and passes downward and outward, being com- 
pletely concealed by the overlying lobules of the prostate. It is about 2.5 mm. in length, and just 
before entering the nidamental gland receives the duct of the spermatocyst, a small pear-shaped sac 
lying upon the upjier anterior face of the anterior genital mass, its surface e.xposed between the distal 
portion of the vas deferens and the top of the prostate gland. 

The nidamental-albumen gland complex is small, about 2.5 mm. in length, 2 mm. in height, and 
1 nun. in thickness. Its outer surface is conve.x, the inner irregularly faceted. The gland is about 
eiiually divided between the albuminous and nidamental portions, the former occupying the upper and 
the latter tlic Inwer portions, respectively. The relations of the ducts are as usual. 

The largest sjiecimen taken had a total length of 52 mm., breadth 10 mm., ami height 11 mm., 
though the majority of individuals are much smaller than this, averaging perhaps 30 to 40 mm. in 
length. 

Habitat; Aliundant everywhere during the summer months in rocky tide pools all along the coast 
from Monterey to Point Lobos. During the winter months it is not so abundant, but is never entirely 
lacking. 

Type no. 181276, U. S. National Museum. 

15. Triopha grandis :MacFarland. 

Triopha ijramlis MacFarland, op. cit., p. 50. 

Body large, the largest specimen measuring 80 mm. in length, 25 mm. in width, and 30 mm. in 
height in alcoholic material. Plump, not at all depressed nor compressed, highest in region of the 
heart and sloping rapidly backward to tip of the short, blunt tail, more gently sloping forward. 



140 BULLETIN OP^ THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Mead flattened above, vvitli a conspicuous semicircular frontal margin bearing 8 to 12 tuberculate or 
branched processes (pi. xxviii, fig. 19). Frontal margin extending laterally well beyond the region of 
the rhinophores. Dorsum arched, smooth, of a yellowish-brown color, flecked everywhere with bluisli 
?pota or entirely plain, the processes of frontal margin and dorso-lateral region, the tips of the 
branchiic, and tip of the tail yellowish red. Dorso-lateral margin marked out by a series of 4 to li 
1)rancliing processes similar to those of the frontal margin but longer, reaching a length of 10 luiii., 
the Ijranchings quite short. 

Foot linear, rounded in front, more grailually tapering behind to the liluntly pointed tail. 

Mouth directed obliquely downward, the tentacles^Jilunt, auriform, 3 mm. long, the outer lialf in 
the form of a rolled plate, the opening \ipward. 

Rhinophores fairly large, perfoliate with about 20 leaves, the stalk stout, conical, the clavus 
conical, inclined backward, completely retractile within con.spicuous cylindrical sheaths with smooth 
margins. 

Branchie 5 in number, tri- and quadripinnate, wide spreading, their bases separate, arranged in a 
circle around the anus. Anal opening at the top of a large cylindro-conical papilla, the renal opening 
slit-like, situated on the base of the anal papilla at the right anterior side. 

Pharyngeal bulb large, slightly conical, not depressed nor compressed, the radula sheath project- 
ing from the ventro-posterior surface as a rounded enlargement. Salivary glands long, band-like, 2 
mm. broad, extending back under the liver for about 10 mm., the distal ends connected in a loop. 

Labial disk oval, but slightly convex, the opening vertical, an irregularly inverted Y-shape below, 
on either side below the mandibles a deep fold. Within the opening the colorless cuticula passes over 
above, laterally, into the light-yellow mandibles, which are elongate triangular in shape, much 
reduced in size as compared with other species of this genus, occupying less than the upper half of 
the sides of the flattened oral tube. The mandibular plates are about twice as long as broad, and are 
made up of short, slender, slightly-curved, elastic, blunt rods from 2 to (5 /^ in diameter, the longest 
at dorso-anterior margin and decreasing in length behind and below. 

Radula large, broad, straight, deeply grooved, the deep amber teeth in 18 rows, of which the last 
2 are immature. 

Rhachis broad, with 4 series of flattened plates (spurious teeth). The 2 median rows (pi. xi.x, 
fig. 60, o) of nearly equilateral rectangular form throughout the wliole radula, their length and width 
being about 0.270 mm. About one-fourth the length of the plate behind its anterior margin it is 
thickened into a sharply defined transverse cutting ridge of a light-yellow color, contrasting strongly 
with the grayish remaining portion of the plate. About one-third the length of this ridge, from the 
inner margin of the plate, a fainter longitudinal ridge, sloping toward the anterior margin, joins it 
(PI. .XI.X, fig. 60, a), and in the posterior portion of the radula a similarly placed ridge toward the outer 
side of the radula may mark off with it a rectangular elevated area (pi. xix, fig. 61). Margins of the 
plate irregular, especially the posterior one. In the posterior portion of the radula the region of the 
plate behind the transverse ridge tends to become convexly thickened in its inner median area (fig. 61 ). 
The plates of the outer series (pi. xix, fig. 60, 6) of the rhachis are triangular in general shape and of a 
light-yellow color. The anterior inner angle is sharp and thickened, the other two rounded and 
thinner. The antero-latei'al border is thickened and slopes upward into a strong, rounded, longitu- 
dinal elevation, which terminates posteriorly in a heavy, blunt cusp, its apex forming a shoulder on 
the antero-lateral border just below the anterior angle of the tooth. 

Pleural ( pi. xix, fig. 62) with 8 strong, large, amber-yellow teeth of similar form, strongly hooked, 
decreasing in size but little from within outward. In the anterior region of the radula the number 
may be reduced to 7. The body of each tooth is long, obliquely placed, slightly curved, and t,visted 
at its lower end toward the median line of the radula. The hook is large, directed slightly inward, 
and flattened dorso-ventrally with a broadly pointed cutting edge. A small, inwardly directed wing- 
like expansion is borne on the basal portion of the shaft. 

Uncini (pi. xix, fig. 63) prismatic, amber colored, 8 in number, the shai)e of the first ones much 
resembling the bodies of the pleurfe with occasional indications of a hook above. The inner 4 of nearly 
the same size, their length aljout 300 mm., width about 70 mm., the outer 4 becoming flattened and 
decreasing rapidly in size, the outermost one being colorless and almost rudimentary. A longitudinal 
wing-like crest projects toward the median line, often overlapping the adjacent tooth, as in the other 
species of this genus. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 



141 



The large lobulated blood gland lies upon the front portion of the anterior genital mass, extending 
transversely from the median line toward the right side for a distance of 10 mm. It is flattened, thin, 
and deeply divided into lobules. 

Hermaphroditic gland large, concealing the liver; the hermaphroditic duct, narrow at first, after 
a course of about 8 mm. passes into a very long, more dilated portion, which is coiled in irregular 
corkscrew-like windings against the inner posterior flattened face of the large hemispherical mass 
formed by the nidamental and albumen glands. Straightened out this duct measures about 60 mm., 
a length nearly equal to that of the whole animal. Near the anterior end of the above glands it divides 
into the the .spermatic duct and the oviduct. The sj^ermatic duct passes almost directly into the 
prostate gland, which is large, slightly flattened, looped closely upon itself, minutely lobulate, and has 
a total length of about 20 mm. and a maximum diameter of about 3 mm. Leaving the distal end of 
tlie prostate gland, the vas deferens, after a short (2 mm.) narrow portion, dilates into the long ampulla. 
This oriian is of a cylinilro-conical shape, slightly broader (2 mm. ) at its proximal end than at its distal 
one, alxiut 5 mm. in length, and with thick muscular walls. Beyond the ampulla the duct continues 
for about 8 mm., dilating gradually and passing into the penis .-lieath, which is alx)ut 6 mm. long by 
» mm. broad. Upon its dorsa! surface lies the small, rounded u'cniiul iiaii-dinn borne upon a branch of 
tlie pleural commissure. The glans penis and the distal end "i the- \a- deferens are closely set with 
minute, erect, daw-like hooks (pi. xi.x, fig. 64) for a distance of about 2 mm., becoming more scattered 
and fewer toward the inner limit of their occurrence. Length of teeth about 42 mm., diameter of base 
about 12mm., their tips directed towardjhe opening of the duct in the completely retracted glans. 

The oviduct is as usual in the genus. The very large spermatotheca, about 10 mm. in diameter, 
occupies nearly the whole of the upper portion of the genital mass; its inner duct is short and receives 
the short duct of the 5 mm. long, pear-shaped spermatocyst, its distal portion, about 8 mm. long, grad- 
ually dilates into the vagina. 

The above structural characteristics distinctly mark out this form as a species of Triopha totally 
ilistinct from the remaining three Pacific coast species. During the summers of 1893 and 1894 it was 
quite abundant U]ion the brown kelps, Xcreoci/KtiK and _'/.«■, ■.„//x//.v. off Point Aulon and Point Pinos. 
Since then it has been taken at intervals from the saiiir lialiitMi. i.iit in fewer numbere, the large kelp 
beds having almost entirely disappeared along the coast lictunn .Monterey and Pacific Grove. It has 
never l>een taken in sliore collecting, where Triopha c<trpenlen and Triopha nidculala are common. 

Tyjie no. 18128o, V. S. National Museum. 

Radidx of species of Triopha. 





Number of Number of Nu 
rows. pleurfe. | u 


mberof 
noini. 


Authority. 




21-28 4-7 
33 9-lS 
U 4-5 

18 1 8 




10-13 
9-18 

7-.S 


Bergli. 




Tr inaeulata MacFarland 


Do 


Tr "randis MacFarland 









Geuns 13. FOLTCESA Cnvier. 

Polycera Cuvier, Regne .\nim'., 1817, II, p. 390; ed. 2, 1830, III, p. 52.— Bergh, Beitr. zu einer Monographic der PoIyceradeTi. 
I. Verb. d. li. k. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, XXIX, 1879, p. .599. System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden. 1892. p. !.t<). 

Body limaciform, nearly smooth; frontal margin digitate; rhinophores nonretractile, <-lavus 
perfoliate; branchi;e of few leaves, simply pinnate; upon each side of the branchiae a single larger 
<ligitiform extrabranchial appendage; tentacles short, lobiform. 

Mandibular lamellae with a winglike process above. Radula rather narrow; rhachis naked; 
lateral teeth 2 large unequal ones and several external ones. 

Prostate lai-ge. Oilans penis armed. 



142 BLTLLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

16. Polycera atra MacFarland. 

[PI. XXIX, lig. 22; |.l. XX. liKS. (■■5-72: pi. XXI. figs. 105,111.] 
Polycera atra MacFarland, op. cit., p. 50. 

Body limaciform, smooth, plump, highest, in front of branchiie, sloping backward to the short, 
pointed tail. Slightly contracted in front of heart, then somewhat expanded in the slightly flattened 
head. Head rather high, sloping downward in front, bearing a moderately w'ide horseshoe-shaped 
frontal margin carrying 4 slender pointed processes (pi. x.'six, fig. 22). At the sides of the rhinophoren 
this veil is slightly dilated, carries one or two short, pointed, angular processes (pi. xx, fig. 65), and is 
continued laterally into a more or less elevated dorso-lateral ridge, highest in the region of the 
branchiie, where it bears one or two compressed, pointed tubercles, sometimes elongated into short 
processes (pi. .xxix, fig. 22). The conspicu(jus lobe of P. qiiadrilineata is here represented by a low 
tubercle of varying height. Behind the branchiie these ridges unite in a low median crest to the tip 
of the tall. 

Gill plumes simply pinnate, 8 in number, nonretractile, tallest in front, and decreasing regularly 
in size from before backward. 

Rhinophores stout, nonretractile into sheaths, the stalk conical, the clavus club-shaped, perfoliate, 
slightly inclined backward. 

General body color black (pi. x.xix, fig. 22) , dorsum and sides with numerous rows of yellow spots 
more or less confluent into continuous lines. The intermediate spaces between these yellow spots in 
longitudinal series is grayish, as are also the basal portion of the frontal veil and the foot. Frontal 
processes, tips of rhinophores and dorso-lateral tubercles or processes yellow. Branchial plumes with 
a series of yellow spots, the tips also of the same color. Foot linear, the anterior angles prominent 
(pi. XX, fig. 65). Tentacles very short, lobiform. 

Anal opening at summit of low, cylindrical papilla in center of circle of gill plumes. Renal open- 
ing slitlike, at the right and in front of the anal papilla. 

Reproductive apertures as usual in the genus, on right side midway between the anterior margin 
of head and branchiie, the penis opening rounded, the vaginal and gland openings guarded by a fold 
of the skin. 

Size: Length up to 2,S mm., breadth up to 6 mm., height in heart region 7 mm. 

Pharyngeal tube short, pharyngeal bulb nearly spherical, very muscular, its length about 3 mm., 
breadth 3 mm., height 2.5 mm., the strong cutting face of the mandibles projecting in front and above. 
Mandibles strong, of a light yellow color, the anterior cutting face very oblique, made up of two 
portions, the ventro-anterior cutting portion and the dorso-lateral arched wings (longitudinal and 
transverse portions of Bergh's description of P. qiuidrilineata, 1879, p. 606). The cutting portion, of a 
deep yellowish-brown color, strong and thick, presents an outer arched shieldlike surface which is 
strongly marked with concentric lines, indicating the laminated structure clearly seen in section, as 
in figure 68. Upper anterior ends of the cutting portions approximated, roimded, the lower posterior 
ends divergent and curved backward and upward. Laterally and above the cutting portion is con- 
tinued into the arched plate (pi. xx, fig. 67, 6), the anterior margin of which is stronglv concave, its 
superior and posterior margins rounded. The relation of the two plates is best shown in thfi section, 
figure 68, taken along the line a 6 of figure 66, from which it is evident that the cutting portion forms 
the expanded and thickened ventro-anterior border of the dorso-lateral wing. Seen in front view the 
line of junction of the external face of the wing with the cutting plate forms a clearly defined line, as 
shown in figure 72, a. 

Radula rather deeply grooved, of a rich amber color in the posterior teeth, deepening anteriorly to 
a dark brown. Teeth in 9-10 rows, of which the last one is rudimentary, the halves of the rows of 
teeth in not exactly a straight line across the radula (pi. xxi, fig 111). 

Rhachis naked, not narrow, in width about 0.3 mm. 

Pleural teeth 2 (pi. xx, fig. 69; pi. xxi, fig. Ill), unequal, the first smaller than the second, alike 
in shape, the stout shaft flattened, slightly concave upon its inner surface, bearing upon its outer margin 
a br.iad triangular winglike expansion directed toward the median line. The lower end of the shaft 
rdunded, the upper end bearing a large smooth-edged hook at rightangles to the shaft. Length of first 
rhachidiau tooth 0.300 mm., of second 0.412 mm. 



OI'ISTHUBRANCHIATE MULLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 



148 



Uncinal teeth 3, triangular prismatic in form, decreasing in length and width from within outward. 
Each bears a sharp crest upon the upper two-thirds of its inner border, from which the upper sur- 
face slopes outward, the inclination decreasing in the second tooth and nearly disappearing in the 
third. Li)\ver end of the uncini rounded, the upper triangular and sloping inward. Length of first 
uncinu.-- 0.202 mm., of second 0.16.5 mm., of third 0.099 mm. Occasionally a rudimentary fourth uncinal 
tooth may be found (pi. xx, fig. 70), but this is of rare occurrence. 

Nervous, vascular, and digestive systems present no striking distinctive characters different from 
the other species of the group. 

Blood gland irregularly lobulate, lying upon aorta at anterior end of the genital mass. About 
1 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, and 1 mm. thick in large individuals. 

Reproductive system: Ovotestis thin, covering the whole of the liver. Hermaphrodite duct deli- 
cate, thin-walled, short, its ampulla not long, its walls thicker, slightly dilated, dividing at anterior 
face of nidameutal gland into spcnuatic duct and oviduct. Spermatic duct short, looped in close con- 
tact with nidameutal gland and passing into the large prostate gland, which is made up of a flattened 
loop of the glanilular tube, the whole closely bound together in the form of a concave disk of about 2 
mm. diameter, lying upon the anterior face of the spermatotheca. From its anterior end is given off 
the narrow vas deferens, about 0.2 mm. in diameter and 5 mm. long. No ampulla other than a very 
slight dilation of the duct is to be found (pi. x.xi, fig. 105 amp). Glans penis truncately conical, 
closely set with minute, curved teeth, the largest 8/( in height by 2.5 /z wide (pi. x.x, fig. 71), arranged 
in rows, the total length of the armature in the retracted glans and the vas deferens together being 
about 1 mm. Vaginal duct and uterine duct given off from a common duct, about 0.1 mm. long at the 
outer side of the spermatotheca. The very narrow, thin-walled uterine duct receives the 0.4 mm. long 
duct of the spermatocyst and doubles its diameter, and after a course of about 3 mm. opens into the 
spermatotheca, for the last half of its length being closely attached to the vaginal duct. Spermatocyst 
(pi. XXI, fig. 105 sp. c. ) ellipsoidal, 1 mm. long, 5 mm. broad, its duct extremely narrow. The sperma- 
totheca (pi. XXI, fig. 105 sp. th.) large, about 2 mm. in diameter, spherical, on lower median side of the 
genital mass forming one-half of its total volume. The vaginal duct, about 5 mm. long and 0.3 mm. 
in diameter, gradually dilates at its distal end into the vagina. 

Habitat: On brown alga; in rocky tide pools from :Monterey to Cypress Point. Kspecially abun- 
dant at Point Alones (Chinatown Point). Common. 

The structural characteristics of Polycera atra clearly separate it from any other species of Puli/cera 
hitherto described. The low extrabranchial appendages resemble those of Palio pallida, described by 
Bergh ( bSSO) from Alaskan waters, but the coloration, the long frontal processes, the mandibles, radula, 
and reproductive apparatus are all decidedly different. 

Type no. 181278, U. S. National Museum. 

RaduUv of Kpecies of Poli/cera, and Palio. 



Species. 


Number 
o£ rows. 


Number 
of uncini. 


Authority. 


P quadrilineata 


15 
12-13 
14-15 
16-18 

l:i 

16 

13-1.5 

18 

tf-10 


4 

4-5 
4 
8 
6 
5 

5-7 
5 

3-4 






MeverandMoebius. 
"%^o. 






P lesson ii 


Alder and Hancocli. 










P Dallida 


Bergh. 


kaiVa !;:;::::::::::::;::::::::;:::::::::::::::;:::::::;;:::;:::::;:::::: 









Subfamily XII. GONIODOEIDINai, 

Body oval, more or less dejiressed, pallial margin strongly prominent; or elongate, sometiujcs 
liuiaciform, the dorso-lateral margin sometimes with simple appendages. Rhinophores often with 
sheath, retractile or non retractile, the clavus parfjliate; branchi« rarely of few plumes, usually of 
many, the plumes usually simply pinnate, rarely tripinnate, often arranged in liorseshne form. Ten- 
tacles small, lobiform; the foot usually wide, rarely narrow, rounded in front or with prominent angles. 



14-1 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Pharyngeal bulb supplied on its upper surface with asessileor petiolated sucking crop (ingluvies). 
Labial disk covered with simple cuticle or armed with a ring of hooks or mandibular plates. Radnla 
more or less narrow; rhachis naked or occasionally with spurious teeth; pleurse usually with a sinj^'le 
large hooked tooth, occasionally two hooked ones, and with usually few, sometimes many, external 
teeth. 

Glans penis upually armed with a series of hooks. 

Genus 14 ACANTKODORIS Gray. 

Acanthodoris Gray, Fig. Moll. Animals, IV. IS-iO. p. 103. Guide Moll. Brit. Mus., 18.57, p 207.— Alder and Hancock, Mon. 
Brit. Nudibr. Moll., VII, 1865, p. 43; Ap. p. xvii.— 6. O. Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norvegia;, 1878, p. 308.— Bergh, 
Gattungen nordischer Doriden, Arch. f. Naturgesch., XLV, 1, 1879, p. 3.56. Nudibr. Moll. North Pac, II. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1880, p. 237. Monog. d. Polyceraden, III, Verb. d. k. k. zool.-bot. Gesch. Wien, XXXIII, 
1883, p. 170. Malacol. Unters., H. XVII. 1890, p. 988. System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 1,58. 

Body soft, subdepressed; notfeum thickly covered with short villi; margin of rhinophore aper- 
ture lobed; branchial plumes few, tripinnate, arranged in a circle; head wide, veliforin, tentacles 
short, lobiform. 

Armature of labial disk of minute hooks, below with j)rpjecting thickenings of the cuticle. Radula 
rather narrow; rhachis naked; first pleural tooth very large, hooked, external pleural teeth few (4-8), 
smafler. Buccal crop connate with pharyngeal bulb. 

Glans penis armed; vagina very long. 

17. Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland. 



Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland, op. (it., p. 51. 

Body plump, highly arched, slightly higher and broader in front than behind, the jreneral body 
outline oval. Dorsum soft, villous everywhere, covered l)y small, thickly set, bluntl_\' conical papilUe 
(villi), but slightly retractile. Margin of mantle everywhere overlapping the foot except at tip of the 
tail, its margin liroad and rather thick. 

General ground color of dorsum and ventral surface clear translucent, yellowish white, or pink- 
ish, the papilla' and branchial plumes tipped with lemon yellow, the mantle edged with the same 
color. 

Length of animal up to 35 mm., breadth up to 22 mm., and height 9 mm. 

Head (pi. xx, fig. 7.S) wide, veliform, the sides prolonged into broad, triangular, pointed tenta- 
cles, a wide, rounded notch between them in the median anterior margin of the head. Moutli a small 
longitudinal slit. 

Foot broad, rounded abruptly, and slightly concave in front, the sides very slightly tajiering 
toward the posterior end, where it is less abruptly rounded to the lilunt tail. 

Rhinophores long, tapering, inclined forward, the clavus recurved and inclining slightly back- 
ward. Perfoliate with about 24 leaves, the length of clavus and stalk nearly the same, about 5 mm., 
the whole organ 10 mm. long with a basal diameter of 2 mm. Retractile into a low sheath, the mar- 
gin of which bears numerous short papillce similar to those of the dorsum. 

Branchial plumes 5, bipinnate, nonretractile within sheath, widespreading, arranged in a circle 
inclosing the an;il papilla and numerous slender papillae similar to those of the general dorsum. Anal 
opening at the summit of a low blunt papilla, connate to the sides of which are 3-5 slender-pointed 
processes forming ridgelike lateral elevations and extending beyond the summit. Pseudoperitoneum 
sparsely sprinkled anteriorly with tine dark flecks. Blood gland elliptical, light colored, disk-like, 
about 1 mm. long by 1.5 mm. wide and 0.5 mm. thick, lying transversely above the central nervous 
system. 

Pharyngeal bulb 2 mm. long, 2.5 mm. high (including crop), and 1.3 mm. in width. The crop 
conspicuous, hemispherical, with a narrow median longitudinal muscular band, the sides ridged with 
muscular bands converging toward the under portion, it.s walls very thick. The radula sheath pro- 
jecting behind and below for 0.5 mm. No conspicuous esophageal diverticulum at anterior end of 
the esophagus as in A. hrminen from the same locality. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSC A FROM MONTEREY BAY. 145 . 

Labial disk oval, convex, about 0.9 mm. in diameter; its cuticle thin and colorless. The light 
yellow armature (pi. x.x, fig. 74) a pavement of minute hooks (pi. xx, iic;. 79) confined mainly to a 
triangular area on the lower and lateral borders of the opening. The lowermost portion of the labial 
armature is free from hooks and is occupied by a broad, slightly concave thickening of the cuticle, 
narrowing to a point posteriorly and anteriorly forked, divergent into two bladelike proce.sses which 
project freely a short distance from the margin (pi. xx, tigs. 75, 76), the whole structure being shaped 
much like an arrowhead, the point directed backward and extending into the colorless cuticle lining 
the entrance to the pharyngeal bulb, its total length 0.288 mm. 

Radula very narrow, with a deep U-shaped groove. Teeth in 27 rows, the last 3 rudimentary. 
Rhachis very narrow, naked. First pleural tooth (pi. xx, fig. 77) very large, upright, compressed, its 
base quadrangular in lateral outline, the posterior border thin and overlapping the outer anterior 
margin of the first pleural tooth of the succeeding row. Lower portion of the base rounded in front, 
strongly thickened. Height of base about 0.210 mm., its length 0.114 mm. The anterior portion pro- 
longed upward into a strong slightly curved hook about 0.180 mm. in length, upon the inner margin 
of which is a series of 5-7 denticles midway of its length, decreasing rather irregularly in size from 
abo\e downward. In the older, more anterior teeth of the radula, the number of denticles is occasion- 
ally increased to 10-11, the lowest 4-5 being extremely small. Length of the largest denticles about 
0.008 mm. 

The remaining pleurje, 5-tj in nundier, arc small and <if nearly the same size, oblique, the basal 
portion thickened, the upper margin j)ortion prolonged posteriorly into a slightly flattened, bluntly 
pointed hook with a thin, keellike plate below, the general shape resembling that of the fii'st pleural 
tooth (pi. XX, fig. 78). Average length 0.05 mm. 

Hermaphroditic gland very thin, covering nearly all of the liver, its duct thin walled, slender, 
about 0.6 mm. long by 0.1 mm. broad, arising from the right anterior lobe of the visceral mass near 
the median line and passing in a short loop into its dilated ampulla. Anterior genital mass small, 
plano-convex, its superior border occupied by the glandular portion of the vaginal duct, the sperma- 
totheca, and the spermatocyst, its inner flattened face by the loops of tlie ampulla of the hermaphro- 
ditic duct, its outer convex face formed by the nidauiental and albumin glands. The ampulla of the 
hermaphroditic duct describes a short loop upon the inner face of the nidamental gland, passes for- 
ward and upward, describing almost a complete circle, gives off the spermatic duct, and passes at once 
into the nidamental gland. Length of ampulla .3 mm., its diameter 0.5 mm. 

The spermatic duct describes an 8-shaped loop closely attached to the anterior margin of the 
genital mass, passes backward in a long free loop underneath the anterior end of the visceral mass 
near the median line, returns upon itself, and passes into the penis. Total length about 8.5 mm., 
diameter 0.2 mm. Penis cylindro-conical, 1 mm. long by 0.4 mm. wide, the retracted glans bluntly 
conical, armed with very minute hooks, occupying nearly the whole length of the hollow pra'putium. 

The uterine duct (pi. xx., fig. 80, u. d.) is very slender and short, passing directly from the ante- 
rior inner margin of the nidamental gland to its superior margin, where it receives the slightly wider 
duct of the pear-shaped spermatocyst (0.5 mm. long) (pi. xx, fig. 80, sp. c), and passes immediately 
into the spermatotheca. The spermatotheca (pi xx, fig. 80, -ip. Ih. ) is small, about 1 mm. in diameter, 
spherical, and concealed entirely by the overlying portion of the vaginal duct. The total length of 
the vaginal duct is about 7 mm., its proximal portion describing an S-shaped loop (pi. xx, fig. 80, a.), 
and dilating rapidly into the glandular portion (pi. .xx, fig. 80, gl. ). This glandular jiart is thickened; 
its walls of large gland cells, the lumen narrow; its total length about 1.2 mm. Its external surface 
bears 4 equidistant longitudinal grooves, and the intermediate portions are transversely lobulated at 
intervals, the general outline in cross-section being that of a quatrefoil. The distal portion of the 
vaginal duct is nearly straight, about 4 mm. in length, and passes over insensibly into the vagina 
(pi. XX, flg. 80, (!. d.). 

Habitat: Tide pools at extreme low water, near I'oint I'inns. Rare, but 4 specimens of this inter- 
esting species having been taken. 

Araiilhodorts hudxoiti differs markedly in the detail.s of its radula armature, and also in the repro- 
ductive system, from any other species of this genus, especially from the forms recorded thus far from 
the Kacitic ccjast. Bergh (1880) has described Ac. inlosn var. alhesrois, and Ac. pilosa \a.T. purpurea, 
together with a new species, Ac. ccerulescetis from -\laska. These are all strikingly different from .b-. 
B. B. F. 190.i— 10 



146 HULLETIN OF THK BUREAU OF J-ISHERIES. 

hudsoni and the following form here ilcprrilxvl, niiiih are tlie only ones of this jrenus ; 
Monterey Bay or its vicinity. 

The specific name here given is in recognition of tlic masterly work i.f my friend 
Hudson in the illustration of various animal forms. 

Type no. 181289, U. S. National Museum. 

18. Acanthodoris brunnea MacFarland. 



Araitlhodoris briinnca JlacFarland, op. fit. p. 52. 

Body outline oval, convex, broadest in front almiit in the rej.'ion of the rhinophores, the mantle 
firm and thickly set everywhere with conical tulien nh- ha\iii'j muhdcl tips (PI. xxix, figs. 21, 21).) 
Tubercules of varying size and of no definite arrun^Mincni -;i\r ihat the smaller ones almost invariably 
alternate with the larger (about 1 mm. in diameter i. Mantl.- e\ciy«liere covering the foot excejit 
posteriorly when the animal is in motion, its margin broad and rather thick. General color of dorsmii 
brown, flecked with irregular blotches of black in varying amount (pi. x.xix, fig. 21). Between the 
tubercules numerous small spots of light lemon yellow, the mantle edged more or less completely with 
the same color. Stalks of branchial plumes yellowish brown, marked on the inner side with twn 
narrow longitudinal lines of dark brown, the branchia; tipped with lemon yellow. Rhinophores <leep 
blue-black, tipped with yellowish white. In alcoholic specimens the general darker color is well 
retaine<l, the yellow tending to disappear. 

Total length of animal 19-22 mm., width it-l.i mm., lunght 7-9 nun. 

Head large, veliform, concealed by mantle (pi. xxix, tig. 21 ), continued laterally into the wide Hat 
tentacles, in front with a slight median concavity. Tentacles broad, recurved, bluntly pointed at tij^s, 
their anterior curved margin thin. Mouth a longitudinal slit. Foot oval, nearly quadrangular, it- 
anterior and posterior ends bluntly rounded. (General color of under surface yellow, the lower faic 
of mantle, the head, tentacles and sides of body sprinkled with fine dark brown or black <lots. 

Rhinophores long, cylindro-conical, tapering to blunt tips, inclined forward and outward, perfoli- 
ate with 20-28 thin, slightly oblique lannniv, the lower ones occupying the front of the clavus only 
(pi. XXI, fig. 104). Stalk one-half the length of the laminate portion. Color deep lilin'-lilack, ti|i|ied 
with yellowish white, the lamiufe edged with a very narrow line of white. ii"t imtKcalile w illumt a 
hand lens. Fully extended length, 8..5 mm. Retractile within a low sheath, tin- margin nt whicli is 
prolonged into 6-8 lobes resembling the dorsal tubercules, but somewhat fiattened. Three of these 
are as high as the dorsal tubercules and are placed at equidistant intervals, one external, the other two 
antero-median and postero-median, respectively, the intervals between them V)eing occupied by lower 
similar ones (pi. xxi, fig. 104). 

Branchial plumes 7, wide spreading, bipinnate, nonretractile within a sheath, arranged in an 
incomplete circle about the anal papilla on posterior dorsum. About 10 tubercules are included 
within the rosette, 4-5 of them large and inclosing the anal papilla, which is about one-lialf the height 
of the largest tubercules, and is edged with a narrow line of j'ellow. 

Pseudo-peritoneum thickly sprinkled with fine black pigment. Blood gland lobulated, whit.-, 

placed transversely upon the central nervous system, overlapping in front the large proximal i - 

voluted portion of the salivary glands, which is coiled at the sides and upon the small o>sophageal 
diverticulum. 

The pharyngeal bulb is strong, its height, including the crop, is 3 mm., length 2.3 mm., width 
2 mm., the radula sheath projecting behind and below for 1 mm. Crop large, spherical, constricted 
longitudinally into two symmetrical halves about 2 mm. long by 3 mm. wide. The sides are ridged 
laterally by the ec.nver'.;ing muscles to the lower anterior portion, the walls very thick and muscular. 
I'.asc (if rrcip joined 'ln'<'i-tly to the dorsal portion of the pharyngeal bulb, with no trace of a petiole. 
I.aliial ilise nMiml, eoiivex, its light brown cuticle radially striated, the opening elongate, slit-like, the 
ends dilated. The labial armature is made up of a band of mosaic-like plates, about 0.240 mm. in 
width, incomplete above. Each plate is in the form of a minute erect hook, its apex directed out- 
ward, either pointed or blunt sometimes bifid (pi. xx, fig. 83). Height of a typical labial element, 
0.007 nun. At the lower margin of the labial armature (pi. xx, fig. 81) a single flattened i)late-like 
concave thickening of the cuticle projects freely forward for 0.082 mm., its width 0.033 nun. at the 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 147 

l)ase, the fn^e end about 0.05 mm., with a total length of about 0.270 iiiiii., l)luut anil y.iiZgeA as though 
Ijroken off, its proximal portion extending acro.'^.s the whole band ami interrupting the continuity of 
the hooks below (pi. xx, fig. 82). 

Radula narrow, deeply grooved, the teeth in 24-2S rows, the last two of which are rudiiucntary. 
The oldest teeth colorless, those toward the posterior end of the radula light yellow. 

Rhai'his very narrow, naked. First pleural tooth (pi. xx, flg. 84) large, upright, compressed, its 
base quadrangular in lateral outline and overlapping the outer anterior margin of the first pleural of 
tlie following row. Lower portion of the base strongly thickened, upon its upper posterior border a 
scjuarish thickened shoulder directed obliquely upward. Height of base about 0.192 mm., its length 
0.0B6 mm. The anterior portion of the base is prolonged upward into a strong, slightly curved hook 
al)out 0.150 mm. in length, upon the inner l)order of which is a series of 14-19 denticles, the longest 
being 0.012 mm. in length. The remaining pleune, 6-7 in number, are .=mall, borne obliquely on the 
radula, and decrease regularly in size outward. The first of the outer plates (pi. xx, figs. 85, 86) are 
depressed, flattened above, bluntly pointed behind and have a thin, keel-like plate below, the general 
shape being somewhat similar to that of the first pleural tooth; the outermost ones are reduced to 
mere flattened plates (pi. xx, flg. 87). 

The anterior genital mass is small, plano-convex, its flattened face directed inward and upward, 
somewhat oval in shape, with a long diameter of about 4 mm. The hermaphrodite duct is sliort 
and very narrow, dilating almost immediately into its whitish ampulla (pi. xx, fig. 88, Ji. aiiip.) of 
about 0.5 nun. diameter, with a length of about 6 nnn. The ampulla describes an S-fornied loop 
u]5on the plane face of the anterior genital mass, its lower turn coursing forward and upward along 
the anterior margin of the nidamental gland, entering into it and dividing into the oviduct and the 
sjiermatic duct. The uterine duct (pi. xx,fig. 88, 88n, it. d.), emerging from the gland, narrows rapidly 
in passing upward to the superior border of the genital mass, receives the short duct of the pear- 
shaped spermatocyst, 0.4 mm. long by 0.3 mm. wide (pi. .x.x, fig. 88o, up. c. ), and passes into the sper- 
uuitotheca. The spermatotheca (pi. xx, fig. 88, 88o, sp. th.) is spherical, about 1 mm. in diameter, 
with a very short common duct receiving the uterine duct and the vaginal duct. The latter (fig. 88, 
ssrt, vug.), together with the vagina, is not more than 6 mm. long, much shorter than in any other 
species of this genus yet described, its diameter gradually increasing from 0.3 mm. to O.K mm. and 
passing without definite boundary into the vagina. 

The spermatic duct is very long and much convoluted, its loops lying at the antericir iKmUv nf 
tlie genital mass. The first 9 nun. of its length are closely bound down to the genital ma.-^s by con- 
nective tissue, have an average diameter of 0.8 mm., and are sharply marked off from the succeeding 
slenderer portion, which describes a large loop free from close connection with the remainder of the 
organs. This muscular portion is 0.2 mm. in diameter with a length of 9 mm., the total length of the 
whole duct thus being 18 mm. It enlarges rapidly at its distal end and passes into the thicker cylindro- 
conical penis, 3 mm. in length by 1 mm. in average diameter. In the specimens dissected a part of 
the distal end of the glans was missing, and hence the armature of hooks could not be made out 
satisfactorily. 

Haliitat: Dredged off hard sandy lintt(,ini i?i abi.iut 10-20 meters depth near entrance to Monterey 
Harbor. Twelve specimens were taken in two drcilge hauls in 1894, and an occasional specimen has 
been dredged since then near the same locality. Type no. 181293, U. 8. National Museum. 

Genus 15. ANCULA Lov^n. 

.inciila LiivOn, liide.v Moll. Soaml., p. r,. 1.S4C,.— .\lder and Hancock, Monog. Brit. Xudibr., Ill, 1846, Fam. 1, pi. 2.5; VI, lSb4, 
Fam. 1, pi. 17, fig. 7-8; VII, lSo5, pi. 4(>, Sup. flg. 22; Appendix 18,i,i, p. .wiii.— Meyer and Moebius. Fauna der 
Kieler Buc-ht, I, 1865, p. 59.— G. O. Sars, Moll. reg. arct. Xorv.. 1878, p. 364.— Bergh, Bcitr. z. Jfonogr. der 
Polyceraden, II, 1880, p. 3. System der Nudibr. Gasteropoden, 1892, p. 164. 

Body limaciform, smooth; scarcely any frontal veil; rhinophores nonretractile, with two anterior 
linear basal appendages; branchial plumes 3, tripinnate, with several simple extrabranchial appen- 
dages; head small, tentacles rather short, lobiform, somewhat flattened; foot narrow, rounded in front. 

Labial armature made up of rows of separate imbricated hooks. Radula narrow, the rhachis 
naked; first pleural tooth large and broad, its inner margin denticulate, the remaining one much 
smaller, subtriangular. Buccal crop sessile. 

Glans penis armed. 



148 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

19. Ancula pacifica MacFarland. 



Ancula pacyica MacFarland, op. clt., p. 53. 

Body slightly compressed, smooth, limacifonn, liitrhcst in front of the Ijranfhifc, tapering posteri- 
orly to the tip of the long pointed tail, anteri. .i ly >1. .jiiii'.' hss rapidly to the high rounded head (pi. xxx, 
fig. 23). General color clear, translucent yc-ll..\\ ish w hitr, a narrow median line of orange on dorsum 
extending from between tlie rhinophores td thr liranrhiir, and continued behind the branchial plumes 
along a S'lii.'lit ( iv-l In thi- tip ..f the tail, ('i)on each side along the indistinct dorso-lateral margin a 
similar (iran-.- lin'- i\tiii'liii- I'nim the rhinophores to the extrabranchial appendages, continued 
between thnr Kasi- and |irMl(inj,'cd for a very short distance behind the last one. 

Head (pi. xx, fig. S9) bluntly rounded, no frontal veil, the tentacles short, slender, bluut, and 
slightly flattened. 

Rhinophores nonretractile, large, the clavus perfoliate, with 9 yellowish leaves, which are oblique 
behind and horizontal in front. The stalk of the rhinophores as long as the clavus, cylindro-conical, 
its base with two long finger-like processes nearly as long as the whole rhinophore, directed obliquely 
forward and outward, tipped with orange. The distal end of the rhinophore projects beyond the 
clavus as a slightly enlarged truncate C3'linder (pi. xxx, fig. 2.3). 

Branchial plumes 3, nearly equal in sine, bipinnate, in part tripinnate, nonretractile within 
sheaths, a single median anterior plume and a lateral one on each side, the main subdivisions tipped 
with orange. Immediately behind the bases of the plumes and free from them is the small cylindrical 
anal papilla, the renal pore situated near its base on the right side and in front. Borne on the dorso- 
lateral margin on each side of the branchial plumes are 4 blunt, club-ahaped processes, dilated above, 
contracted at the base, the upper third of each light yellow, tipped with orange. In one individual 
the number of these extrabranchial appendages was reduced to 3 on each side. 

Foot narrow, the .sides nearly parallel, tapering posteriorly to the tip of the slender tail, the ante- 
rior end abruptly rounded. 

Dimensions of the largest individual taken: Length 16 mm., breadth 2 mm., height 3.5 mm. 

Pharyngeal tube very short, pharyngeal ))ulb small, 1.5 mm. long by 1.5 mm. high, inclusive of 
crop, and 1 mm. broad, the sucking crop spherical, prominent, connate. 

Labial disk convex, nearly circular, armed with a strong spinous armature, the "prehensile col- 
lar" of Alder and Hancock, broadest below (0.1.50 mm.), narrowing laterally and incomplete above. 
The elements of the armature (pi. xx, fig. 90) are light yellow in color and arranged radially with 3-6 
plates in each row in the lower part. The fundamental shape of these elements is the same, a broad 
<'urved base with posterior bifid extremity, in front rounded, the upper surface arched and gradually 
rising into a blunt hook direitted outward. The innermost teeth have strongly curved bases, the outer 
ones less so, the outermost teeth smallest. Toward the upper part of the ring the teeth become very 
small, are reduced to the innermost row and have the hook directed sharply outward (pi. xx, fig. 91); 
the larger ones below are less oblique. The distal end of the hook is minutely serrulate, the denticles 
thus formed being much smaller and more numerous than in ^L criatata (4-5, Bergh ) . The largest plate." 
of the labial armature measure about 0.252 mm. in length, the tip of the hook 0.012-0.015 mm. wide. 

Eadula narrow, colorless, the teeth in 35 rows increasing in size markedly from front to back of 
radula, the most posterior teeth being twice the size of the most anterior ones. 

Rhachis narrow, bearing a single quadrangular median plate, slightly broader behind than in 
front (pi. XX, fig. 92) and occasionally giving indications of being made up by the fusion of a pair of 
plates in the median line. In the first 8-10 rows of the radula these median plates are absent, but 
are constant in the remaining portion. They are not produced artificially by the breaking off of th. 
basal ])ortion of the first pleura} as indicated by Bergh for A. cristaia (1880, 1. c). Length of avera." 
median plate 0.018 mm., its width 0.012 mm. 

The pleural teeth are 2 in number, the first one large, with an irregular transver,se base and a 
concave, triangular vertical body placed slightly oblique to the median line of the radula. The inner 
margin is thickened, bears 11-17 recurved sharp denticles, and terminates above in a strong hook 
( pi. XXI, fig. 93 ) . The height of a first pleural tooth from the middle region of the radula is 0.084 mm. 

The second [ileural teetli are triangular, thicker below, thin above, terminating in a strong apical 
hook. 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 149 

Glans? penis (retracted) with an armature of extremely small hooks along its canal for O.r. mm., in 
about 15 rows, the indivi<lual hooks 0.004 mm. high. 

Habitat: On hydroids and bryozoa in tide pools near Pacific Grove; rare. But eight individuals 
have thus far been taken. Graceful and slow in movement, rather active in continement, frequently 
swimming at the surface. 

Type no. 181280, U. R. National IMuseum. 

Geuns 16. HOPKINSIA .Alac-Farland. 
HopUnsia MaoFarland. op. cit., p. 53. 

Form of body elongate-oval, very much depressed; the notieum thickly set with long papilhe, 
simple or occasionally forked; pallial margin not set off from the sides of the body but sloping 
gradually down into the foot without any distinct boundary, anteriorly continued into a broad velar 
expansion formed by the fusion of the labial tentacles in front; rhinophores nonretractile, perfoliate, 
Ijranchise several, separate, simply i^innate plumes, arranged in a horseshoe-shaped arc; the foot 
broad, its margin thin, undulating, in front deeply emarginate, behind forming a short, broad, blunt 
tail. Head broad, its tentacles very broad and thin, auriculate at the outer posterior angles, in front 
united into a veil with undulating margin. 

Labial armature a ring of very short, thickened rods. 

Radula very narrow, the rhachis naked; the first pleural tooth long, erect, hooked, the outer one 
flattened, horizontal, denticulate. 

The genus Ifopkinsia is perhaps more closely related to Idalia than to any other of the Goniodo- 
ridinie. Tliat it forms a valid genus distinct from the latter I have not the slightest doubt, having com- 
pared the Mediterranean representatives of Tdalia with it in detail. As to external features a compari- 
son of figures 24 and 25 of plate xiv with the excellent figures of Alder and Hancock (Monog. Brit. 
Xudibi-. Moll., Fam. I, pis. 20 and 27) or of Bcrgh (Ueber die Gattung Idalia, Arch. f. Naturgesch. 
xi.vii, 1, 1881, pi. VIII, figs. 1 and 2) shows most striking differences in the general body form which 
serve to distinguish the genera at sight. The body is very low, not high; the dorsum wide, not 
narrow; the sides of the body very gently inclined, not abruptly sloping; the pallial margin indis- 
tinguishable, not conspicuous; the tail short and rounilcd. net long and lanceolate; the dor.sal papillaj 
and the undulating marginal veil of the head and inodilicil tcnta.li.s are all different. Details of the 
internal anatomy, notably the pharyngeal and repniilu(ii\r a|.paiatus, strengthen the conchision. In 
an extended morphological study of this genus, which 1 have in preparation, I hope to take up the 
question of its relationships in detail. 

This new genus is dedicated to Mr. Timothy Hopkins, through whose generous appreciation the 
foundation of the Hopkins Seaside Laboratory was rendered possible. The type of the genus is the 
following species. 

20. Hopkinsia rosacea MacFarland. 

[PI. XXXI. liKs. J4, 2.'S; j.l. XXI, ligs. 97-103.] 
Ikipkiima rnsarm MacFarland, op. cit., p. .i4. 

General body outline elongate-elliptical (pi. .\x.xi, fig. 24), sometimes elongate-oval or almost quad- 
rangular (pi. XXXI, fig. 25), the ends abruptly rounded. Body firm, fragile, the many spicules rendering 
it almost calcareous, much depressed, the dorsum but slightly arched above and sloping gradually 
outward to the thin margin of the foot, there being no trace of a pallial margin nor ridge marking the 
boundary between back and sides. 

Foot (pi. XXXI, fig. 25) broad, abruptly rounded behind into a broad and short tail, in front deeply 
incised by a broad, triangular notch, the margins of which are slightly thickened, the remaining 
margin of foot and tail thin and undulating. 

Head broad, its tentacles very broad, united in front, forming a veil-like expansion with undu- 
lating margin, the rounded posterior angles slightly auriculate and free from the anterior outer margin 
of the foot for but a short distance. The mouth a longitudinal slit. 

Dorsum thickly set everywhere with long, gently tapering, soft papillje (pi. xxxi, fig. 24), many 
reach'og a length of one-half to two-thirds that of the whole animal. The tips of these papilUe are 
usually pointed and simple, but in nearly every individual branching forms may be found. The 
branching may Vie limited to a bifid apex, or the branch may arise along the side. In many cases this 
branching is due to a fusion of two or more papilla. ( pi. xxi, fig. 97) . PapilUe most abundant on lateral 



150 BULLETIN OF THK lUTRKAU OF FISHERIES. 

Iiortioiis of ilorsiiin and in I'mnt of rliinophores, more sparsely soattered on the mid-dnrwal rcgicm 

Khinopliores perfoliate, cylindro-conical, nonretractile within slieaths, of which no trace is present. 
Thickest below, the smooth, tapering shaft passing gently upward into the conical clavus (pi. xxi, 
tig. 98). In front the rhachis of tlie clavus is smooth, behind and laterally are borne about 20 
slightly ohi;(|ne [■latc;^, the pairs ijicclinLi: behind at averyobtu.se angle. The upper plates extend 
farther aniun. I the .hiMis ihan the l.i«,i niies, the extent on the sides and in front decreasing regu- 
larly from aUovr .I.ih nwai^l, th.^ l..\\i-st liciiig Init slight posterior ridges. Clavus nearly three-fourths 
the total lengtli of tlie rlunophure, thi' w IimI,. ni-.jan not being as long as the surrounding dorsal papillie. 

Branchial plumes 7-14, entirely sipaiaie al the bases, arranged in a wide semicircle or an- 
approaching honseshoe form, the ends .lirect.-.l .ihUijuely backward (pi. .\xxi, fig. 24). The plumes 
are nearly erect, simply pinnate and free ironi spii-ules. 

Anal opening small, inconspicuous, situated at the center of the arc of branchise. Renal opening 
very minute, rounded, situated at the right and slightly in front of the anal opening and about 1 mm. 
distant from it. 

Re] ■roductive oi)enings inconspicuous, on right side far forward, on a line with the bases of the 
rhiniiphcires, immediately below the outermost row of papilla>. 

Color e\ei ywliere a beautiful deep rose pink (pi. .xxxi, fig. 24). 

Length of larm- iii(li\ iilual 29 mm., width 1(5 mm., and height of bo<ly alone 5 mm. Length of 
longest d(jrsal papilla- is mm. 

In alcoholic material the pseudo-peritoneum is white, in living specimens slightly pinkish. The 
blood gland is single, large, broad, and thin, in general outline quadrangular. It fits closely in behind 
the central nervous system, extending down in lobules between the underlying organs. Length 
3 mm., width 2 mm. 

The pharyngeal bulb is short and thick, being almut I'.l mm. in length by 2 mm. in width and 
the same in height, or, including the sucking crop, '■> mm. in height. At the lower posterior border 
the radula sac projects as a slightly curved, cylindrical process with rounded extremity for a distance 
of about l.r> mm. On the dcjrsal surface of the pharyngeal bulb is borne a strong ellipsoidal suckinL' 
crop, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide and 1.5 to 2 mm. high, attached at its extreme anterior end by a very 
short narrow petiole. Its walls are very thick and muscular and are lined with a strong cuticula. 

The lal)ial disc has a thick cuticula bearing a I'lng of short thickened rodlets in very close arrange- 
ment (pi. XXI, fig. 99). The rodlets are circular to elliptical in outline, narrowest at the outer and 
inner margins and increasing in width toward the middle of the band. Width of the labial armature 
0.4 mm., diameter of widest rods 0.01 mm. 

liadula narrow, the teeth in 16 rows. Rhachis extremely narrow, iiakid. Pleural tooth (pi. xxi, 
figs. 100, 101) large, erect, long, flattened, its base triangular, broad, thickened ifbove, in length one- 
third to one-half that of the whole tooth, the shaft flattened, blade-like, in cross section the shape of 
a saber blade, its posterior border straight, beveled, sharp, the anterior border thickened, curved and 
rounded; at the distal end is borne a small posteriorly curved blunt hook. In the older teeth of the 
anterior end of the radula this hook is often broken off (fig. 100) and the whole tooth is more slendei- 
than those from the posterior portion (figs. 100, a, 101). Total length of average pleural tooth 
0.63 mm., length of blade 0.339 mm., length of hook 0.036 mm. The single uncinal tooth (pi. xxi, figs. 
100, r, 102) is much smaller, thin, depressed, nearly horizontal, triangular in form, the anterior 
lower edge emarginate, tlie posterior one more or less pointed and often divided into a series of 
irregular denticles (fig. 102). This tooth is quite variable in form and is easily overlooked. Length 
O.OMI t.i (1.096 mm., greatest width 0.076 mm. 

Ksiiphagus narrow, about 0.5 mm. in diameter by 5 miu. in length, passing obliquely downward 
and backward in the median line to the anterior lower end of the visceral mass, where it dilates into 
the stomach, which is almost entirely inclosed by the liver, into which it sends numerous large diver- 
ticula. The pyloric end narrows into the intestine at the anterior upper end of the visceral mass, 
which describes an abrupt loop forward to the right in contact with the superior surface of the anterior 
genital mass, and then courses directly backward to the anus as a thin-walled tube, 1 mm. in diameter 
at its anterior end and rapidly tapering to a diameter of 0.5 mm. for the greater part of its total length 
of al)out 10 mm. 

The liver is about 7 mm. long by 3 mm. wide by 25 mm. high, depressed, its upper face convex, 
the lower flattened, the i)osterior end slightly conical, rounded, the upper anterior margin occupied by 



I 



OPISTHOBRANCHIATE MOLLUSCA FROM MONTEREY BAY. 151 

the loop of the stomach. Its whole anterior and nearly all of the lateral faces are closel}' invested by 
tile pink hermaphroditic gland with its thick jiinkish lobules. 

The narrow hermaphroditic duct passes (ilili.|ncly downward from the upper anterior border of the 
ovotestis for a distance of aliout 2.."i nun , w iiii ;i diameter of 0.4 mm., dilating into the large sausage- 
shaped ampulla. Thesilvery gray heriiiaplir< .clitic ampulla (pi. xxi, fig. 103, amp.) lies upon the upper 
and central portion of the anterior genital mass, extending forward to its anterior end, is 3 mm. in 
length, and has a maximum diameter of 1 mm. At the anterior margin it divides into the spermatic- 
duct and the oviduct, the first of which passes immediately into the enormous white prostate gland (pi. 
XXI, fig. 103, pr. (/I.) overlying the whole inner face of the anterior genital mass and forming fully one- 
half of its bulk. The prostate gland describes a loop backward and then cioubles forward in a broad 
fiattened dilation of 4 mm. in length by 2.5 mm. in width, its distal anterior end giving origin to the 
narrow \'as deferens (fig. 103, r. d.), which, after a short irregularly coiled portion, passes directly out- 
ward and forward into the penis. The retracted penis (fig. 103, p.) is about 2 mm. long, its distal 
end (the glands) bluntly conical, 0.3 mm. in length, and bearing an armature of minute hooks in the 
last 0.24 mm. of its canal. The oviduct passes directly into the anterior margin of the nidamental gland, 
and close to its point of entrance appears the uterine duct (fig. 103, «. d.), about 0.2 mm. in diameter, 
coursing backward for 2.5 mm. into the spermatotheca, receiving the slender duct of the spermatocyst 
just before entering it. The spermatocyst (fig. 103, sp. c.) is small, elongate-oval, 1 mm. long by 0.5 
mm. broad, and lies upon the mid-dorsal surface of the genital mass at the anterior border of the sperma- 
totheca. Its duct is very slender, being but slightly longer than the cyst itself. The spermatotheca 
(fig. 103, sp.th.) is voluminous, flattened, spherical in form and aljout 2.3 mm. in diameter, and occu- 
pies the upper posterior face of the anterior genital mass. At its anterior face it receives the uterine 
duct and gives off the vaginal duct very close to its entrance. The latter is a narrow, nearly straight 
tube about 3 mm. long by 0.2 mm. in diameter, which courses obliquely outward and forward to the 
short vagina (fig. 103, rag.), which is nothing more than its dilated outer extremity. 

This beautiful species has been observed at all times of the year, in about equal numbers, under 
shelving stones between tide marks all along the coast from Monterey to Point Lobos. It has also 
been taken by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell at San Pedro. The eggs are laid in the usual spiral form, the 
band being narrow and of the same color as the animal. The brief summary of its morphological 
characteristics here given is amply sufficient to show its nonconformity to any of the genera of (ic^mici- 
doridinw as yet described. A more complete study of the genus is in preparation. 

Type no. 181275, U. S. National ^[useum. 

Family E. CORAMBID.E. 

Corambidit Bergh, Syst. d. Nudibr. Moll., i>. la'i, l.scji;. 

Body doridiform, oval, depressed. Notajum somewhat convex; i)erinot;eum wide, flattened, 
rounded in front, deeply incised in the median line behind, everywhere projecting beyond the foot. 
Rhinophores retractile into sheaths, the posterior side of which is longitudinally cleft; the clavus 
cylindrical, simple, bearing a wing on each side — somewhat rolled backward. Branchiee of few, sep- 
arate, sinijily pinnate leaves on the under side of the posterior mantle margin on each side. Anus 
postcro-iuedian l.c-twccii pcrin.ct.i'nin and foot, the renal pore above and at its right. Head concealed 
by mantle, small, pn i.lii, ,d lai.ially into triangular tentacles. Sides of the body very low; on the 
right anterior side the ^rcnital papilla with three openings. Foot narrower than the back, rather 
wide, emarginate in front, rounded behind. 

Pharyngeal bulb with two prominent ridges below in the buccal cavity. Iladula rather narrow; 
the rhachis naked; pleural with a larger denticulate tooth and a few (4) external hooked teeth. 
Buccal crop connate to the pharyngeal bulb. 
Glans penis unarmed. (?) 

Family F. DORIDOXID.E. 

Doridoxifke Bergh, The- Danish Ingolf Expedition, ii, no. 3, 1900, p. l.i. 

Form of body as in Doridida?, Init without dorsal Ijranchia; and with laterally placed anus. 
Rhinophores as in Uorididie. 

Pharyngeal bulb strong, mandiljles very strong. Radula with a large median tooth, pletn-a; 
multi-dentate. 



PLATE XVHI. 
ArchiHoris montereyensU (Cooper) Bergh. 
¥ui. 1.— Outer pleur» of fourteenth row. x VIO. (Camera lucida.) 
Fig. 2.— Inner pleurae of eighth row. x 120. (Cam.) 

Fig. 3.— Inner face of twelfth pleural tooth of fourth row. x 120. (Cam.) 

F;g. i,—v. d., vaginal duct; sp. th., spermatotheca; sp. c, spermatocyst; u. d., uterine duet, x 10. (Caui.) 
Fig. 5. — Ventral view of anterior end of animal, life size. 

Anisodoris nobitOs (MacFarland). 
Fig. 0.— Ventral view of anterior end of animal, life size. 
Fig. 7.— Outer pleunt!. ,■: 83. (Cam.) 
Fig. 8.— Pleurse from middle of row. x 52. (Cam.) 
Fig. 9.— Inner pleura; of eleventh row. x 83. (Cam. ) 

Fig. 10.— Outer face of innermost pleural tooth of seventh row. x 83. (Cam.) 
Fig: 11.— Inner face of large pleural tooth from middle of row. x 52. (Cam.) 

Discodoris heatki MacFarland. 

Fig. 12.— Ventral view of anterior end of animal, x 4. 

Fig. 13. — inner pleurse of thirteenth and fourteenth rows, x 14fi. (Cam.) 

Fig. 14.— Inner face of typical pleural tooth. x83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 1.5.— Labial armature flattened out. x 30. (Cam.) 

Fig. Iti. — V. dej'., vas deferens: pr., prostate gland; sp. d., spermatic duct; or., oviduct; /(. a., hermaphroditic ampulla; li. 

hermaphroditic duct. 
Fig. n.—vag. d., vaginal duct; sp. th., spermatotheca; sp. c, spermatocyst; u. d., uterine duct. 

Rostanga pulehra MacFarland. 
Fig. 18.— Inner pleurfe of 3 rows slightly displaced, a, innermost pleural tooth, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 19.— Isolated pleural teeth seen at various angles, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 20.— Outer pleural teeth, a, thirtieth tooth; 6, front view of an outer tooth; r, ';../■, di.slal ends, and e. side view 

outermost teeth in row. x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 21.— Labial armature from above, a, anterior margin, x 400. (Cam.) 
Diaulula sandiegensis (Cooper). 
Fig. 22.— Five innermost pleura, x 83. (Cam.) 
Fig. 23.— Si.-c outermost pleura;, x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 24.— Front view of pleural tooth from middle of row. x 120. (Cam.) 
Aldisa sanguinea (Cooper). 
Fig. 25.— Bases of nineteenth to thirty-second pleural teeth, x 120. (Cam.) 
Fig. 26.— n, distill end of thirteenth pleural tooth; 6, basal ends of four pleural teeth, x 146. (Cam.) 

Cadlina marginalc. MacFarland. 
Fig. 27.— Hooks of labial armature, x 400. (Cam.) 

Fig. 28.- a, rhachidian tooth; b, first pleural teeth of nineteenth row: x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 29.— Twelfth pleural tooth, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 30.— Outermost pleurae, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 31.— Outermost pleurae, fifty-third row. x 400. (Cam.) 



■^r^^^w-^4^ 




PLATE XIX. 
Cadliimjiiiriwmciilnfii Min-Farland. 
Fig. 32.— Ventriil view of animal, x 2. 

B'lG. 33.— Elemenf* of labial armature isolated, x 400. (Cam.) 

f'iG. 34.— Rhachidian, a. and first pleural teeth of thirteenth to fifteenth rows, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 35.— Rhachidian teeth of seventh and eighth rows, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 36.— Inner face fourteenth to seventeenth pleurae, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 37.— Outer face of a. nineteenth, and h, outermost (twenty-third) pleurse. x 400. (Cam.) 

D'>riup:iib-fulva MacFarland. 

Figs. 38, 38a. -/i. rf., hermaphrodite duct; h.amp., hermaphroditic ampulla; sp. d., spermatic duct opening into the ovi 
lying p. estate gland, which is indicated by the dotted line; »7). c, spermatocyst; sp. th.. spermatotheca; w. <;., uterii 
duct. 

Fig. 39.— Hooks near base of glans. x 120. (Cam. ) 

Fig. 40.— Hooks at margin of opening of glans. x 120. (Cam.) 

JEffires albf/punctalits MacFarland. 

Fig. 41.— Upper mandible, a, anterior margin, x 36. (Cam.) 

Fig. 42.— Innermost pleural teeth of sixth row. x 146. (Cam. ) 

Fig. 43.— Four outer pleurie of fourteenth row. a, outermost, x 146. (Cam.) 

Fig. 44.— Fifth and sixth pleura; of sixth row. x 146. (Cam.) 

Laila I'ockmUi MacFarland. 

Fig. 1.5.— Ventral view of anterior end of animal, showing head, tentacles, .sub-pallial ridge (a) and marginal papillae. ■ 
Fig. 46.— Inner portion of sixtieth and sixty-first rows of radula. a, first pleural tooth; b, second pleural tooth; c, (/, thii 

and fourth lateral teeth, x 260. (Cam.) 
Fig. 47.— First and second pleural teeth, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 48. — Three rhachidian plates (spurious teeth), x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 49.— e-n, third to twelfth lateral (uncinal) teeth, x 400. (Cam.) 
Fig. 50.— Hooks of glans penis armature, x 260. (Cam.) 

THoplm carpcnteri (Stearns). 

Fig. 51.— Thirteenth row of radula. x 36. (Cam.) 

Fig. .52.— Uncinal teeth, the seventh to fourteenth uneini, inclusive, being omitted, x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 53.— Outermost (twelfth and thirteenth) pleurae in front and side view, x 52. (Cam.) 

Pig. 54.— Rhachidian plates of eighteenth row. x 52. (Cam.) 

Fig. 65.— Labial disc, x 9. (Cam.) 

Triopha maculata MacFarland. 

Fig. 5.5(1.- First to fourth pleur;e of tentli row of radula. x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 56.— Uneini of tenth row of radula. x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 57.— Rhachidian plates, a, of left median series; h, of lateral series, x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. ,5S.— Fourth pleural tooth, inner face, x 83. (Cam.) 

Fi<i. .59— Labial disk, x 8. 

Triopha (jrimdis MacFarland. 

Fig. 60.— Rhachidian plates of tenth transverse row of radula. n, plate of left median series; (>, of lateral series. ■ 

(Cam.) 
Fig. 61.— Left median rhachidian plate of fourteenth row. x 60. (Cam. ) 
Fig. 62.— Plural teeth, a, first; 6, eighth, x 60. (Cam.) 
Fig. 63.— Uneini of tenth row. x 60. (Cam.) 
Fig. 64.— Isolated hooks of glans penis armature, x 260. (Cam.) 



PobKcni aim MaeFurland. 

Fig. 6ft.— Ventral view of anterior end of animal. 

Fig. 66.— Outer face of mandible.s. x 36. (Cam.) 

Fig. 67. — Inner face of mandibles from behind, x 36. (Cam.) 

Fig. 68.— Longitudinal median section through front of mandibles along line a-h of figure Oe. • 60. (Cam.) 

Fig. 69.— Fourth row of radula. x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 70. — Uncinal plates, the outermost rudimentary, x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 71.— Armature of glans penis, x 400. (Cam.) 

Fig. 72.— Front view of cutting edges of mandibles, x 3'1. (Cam.) 

Acanthodoris hudsoni MacFarland. 

Fig. 73.— Ventral view of anterior end of animal, x 2. 
Fig. 74.— Side view of labial armature, x 36. (Cam.) 

Fig. 7ft. — Side view of blade-like processes at ventral portion of labial armature, x 120. (Cam.) 
Fig. 76.— Dorsal view of blade-like processes of labial armature, x 146. (Cam.) 
Fig. 77.— Inner face first pleural teeth of second and third rows, x 83. (Cam.) 

Fig. 78. — Outer pleura; shown in their relative position to the tip of the first pleural tooth, x 212. (Cam.) 
Fig. 79.— Isolated hooks of labial armature, x 263. (Cam. ) 

Fig. so.— v. d., vaginal duct; gl, its glandular portion; a., its proximal loop: sp. th., .spermatotheca; .ip. c. spermator\-i 
u. d., uterine duct. 

Acanthodoris brnnnea MacFarland. 

Fig. 81.— Labial armature obliquely from in front, with ventral blade-like proces.s. x 52. (Cam.) 

Fig. 82.— Dorsal view of blade-like process, x 120. (Cam.) 

Fig. 83. — Elements of labial armature, a, in side view; b, pointed hook; c, blunt hook. 

Fig. 84. — First pleural teeth of ninth and tenth rows, x 83. i. Cam. ) 

Fig. 8.5.— Second pleural tooth, x 212. (Cam.) 

Fig. 86.— Third pleuraltooth. x 212. (Cam.) 

Fig. 87.— Outer pleural teeth, a, third: b, ninth, x 212. (Cam.) 

Fig. 88.— Reproductive organs from above, rag., vagina; p., penis; t: def., vas deferens; h. amp., hermaphroditic ampulla; 

sp. th., spermatotheca; sp. c, spermatocyst; n. d., uterine duct, x 10. (Cam.) 
Fig. 88tt. — Relations of vaginal duct ('■«<;.), uterine duct (w. d.), spermatocyst {sp. c), and spermatotheca {sp. th.) from 

below. X 10. (Cam.) 



lacilira MacFarland. 



Fig. 89.— Ventral view of head of animal. 
Fig. 90.— Elements of labial armature, x 212. (Cam.) 
Fig. 91.— Upper end of labial armature, x 212. (Cam.) 
Fig. 92.— Median plates of radula. 



PLATE XXT 



1 of radula from above. 
riL- obliquely from abovt 
HL- from within. ■ 400. 



)uter 


margii 


212 


iddle 


of radi 


la inne 


(.0 


(Cam 






60 (lam ) 


aw 


260 


(Can. 


.1 .\e 


260 


(Cam 



Fig 104 — I ' ' ' M I- 111 ml Kliiiioiihori. in Iroiit r» 

Fir IOt — / 1 ! I 1 1 ir I ti\i organs in part p peniis om/>., ampulla of vas deferens: caa., vagii 

tjj I I r lid uterine duct ^6 (Cam.) 

f» lOb — / I 1 1 \ Mr il \ lew of anterior end of body. 

FKt 107 — / M 1 111 Doisal \ ipw of oral tentacle 

Fig ids — / ; / ^t irn \ tntral \ lew of anterior tud of bod\ : a, dorsal view of oral tentacle. 

I entral outline view of anterior end of body. 
<1 ^iiii,!*- 1 Inmt ol branchitp 

I 52 (Cam ) 

11 im front ';> (/i., spermatotheca: «p. c, spermatocyst; j)r. 
I \as deferens la*?., vagina, x 14. (Cam.) 
I m (anterior genital mass) from front, sp. (A., spermatothi- 

II 1 // ^asdpferens amp ampulla nf viisdcferens; p.. penis; 7!iri.!7;..ni. 

01 glans penis armature ^390 (Cam.) 



lit. 

H(. 
Fk. 


lOJ — 
110 — 
I'l- 
112 — 


/ 




111 \ 
iliii 


Fi(, 


pro^ 
113- 


J 




1 


l-K 


114 — 


.rcrmatocNst j, ,1 pros 
al gland v 7 (Cam ) 
ikiiM Mitgumca (Cooper) 


Part 



All of the figures of plates xxn to xxxi, with the exception of figures 4, 19, and 22, were painteil 
from life by Mrs. Anna B. Nash, formerly artist of the Hopkins Seaside Lalioratory. Figure 4 was 
painted from life by Mrs. Olive H. MacFarland. Figures 19 and 22 were redrawn from incomplete 
color sketches. 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 



*is;^'^^^r5->^^!ft:jss^^f5>^'^ 



M 






IDORIS NOBILIS MACFARLANO 






''r^'^-'!r:-.^' 






SODORIS NOBILIS MACFARLAND 



V^ 




I 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 



J'f',- 






' vi-/:v .:/ 









^ <* 



:^x 






S. B. F. 1905 





BULL. U. S. B. F. 1! 




AND 11. CADLINA MARGK 
Ventral view, 2.8 times 
Detail of dorsum great 



Macfarland 



X 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 



PLATE XXVI 




BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 



4, t- ^A Ti^^N/.r^.p ^ 



'<k ^' 



---\.,:,, - -^r^' 






^^_ 

%. 



\ 






\^S' 



% t 



fL* 









^^F.4^ffk»^.»^, 




MOEN A CO., LITH. 



S. B. F. 1906 



PLATE XXVlll 





BULL. U. S. B. F. 1906 




AND 21. ACANTHODORIS BRUNNEA MACFARLAND 
Dorsal view, 6 times natural size 
Detail of dorsal papilla, greatly enlarged 




22. POLYCERA ATRA MACFARLAND 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1906 




BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 





i 



COXTRIBUTIOXS TO THE BIOLOGY OF THE GREAT LAKES. 



HIRUDINEA AND OLIGOCHiETA COLLECTED IN THE 
GREAT LAKES REGION. 



By J. PERCY MOORE, Ph. D. 

153 

B. B. F. 19uri— 11 



t 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIOLOGY OF THE GREAT LAKES. 



HIRUDINEA AND OLIGOCHiETA COLLECTED IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION. 



J. PERCY MOORE, Ph. D. 



HIRUDINEA. 



The operations of the tieUl parties directed by Prof. Jacob Reighard in connec- 
tion with the biological survey of the Great Lakes \'ielded a large number of 
carefullj' preserved and labeled leeches, the detailed study and identification of which 
have required considerable time and furnished interesting data on variation that can 
be more profitably utilized elsewhere than in this report. The bulk of the collection 
comes from the western end of the lake, where a few specimens were collected in 
the vicinity of Put-in Bay during the .summer of 1898, and a great many at the same 
place, at other points about the Bass I.slands, at Sandusky, and along the Canadian and 
Ohio shores during the following summer; in the latter sea.son also smaller collections 
were taken at Erie, Pa., and other places in eastern Lake Erie. As no systematic 
collecting seems to have been done in the small lakes, ponds, and creeks in which the 
large, jawed leeches abound, no representatives of the family Hirudinidte are included; 
nor was tiny attempt made to gather the fish leeches, and the single vial containing 
Ichthyobdellidai unfortunately met with an accident that prevents the determination 
of its contents." On the other hand, the shore collecting was very thorough, and the 
families Glossiphonida; and Herpobdellidte are probably represented by every species 
found in such situations in Lake Erie, and in most cases by many beautifully pre- 
served specimens. Several carefully executed water-color sketches from life, 
prepared by Mrs. H. S. Jennings, which are herewith published, and some notes on 
the living colors accompany the collection and furnish valuable data. The determi- 
nation of .some of the .species of Glossiphonidaj is especially difficult and requires 
the most minute study of both internal and external features of their organization 
in all stages of growth and development, at different seasons, and under different 
nutritive conditions. 

While this and other large collections studied in recent years have materially 
advanced the writer's knowledge in this direction, nuich yet remains to be done 
before the limits of variation and the correlations of characters can be finalh' defined 

<i A later systematic examinatum ol the food tishes of Lake Erie shows that they are remarkably free from leeches. 
♦ 155 



156 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

for .some of our species. Owing to the considerable attention that leeches of this 
family from the eastern and northern states have recently' received, it is not sur- 
prising that but a single species has been added to those previous!}' known, and it 
has not been thought necessary to include detailed descriptions of any others, though 
a key is added which will serve for typical examples, at least. Complete descrip- 
tions with figures, some of them colored, will be found in a report on the leeches of 
Minnesota prepared by the writer and soon to be published by the Natural History 
Survej' of Minnesota. Some additional information will be found in Castle, North 
American Fresh- water Rhynchobdellidffi (Bulletin Museum Comparative Zoology, 
l'.)O(t), and Moore, Hirudinea of Illinois (Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory of Natural 
History. 1901), and in the papers therein cited. A full catalogue of the localities 
at which each species was taken is given, the station number l)eing included in 
parentheses and followed by such data as the labels afford. 

Key ti> the .ijiecies of leerhes conlnnied in this collection. 

I. Mouth a small pore in the disk of the anterior sucker from which a muscular pharyngeal ])robo8cis 
may be protruded; eyes all situated close to the middle line, 
a. Complete somites of 3 annuli, with the secondary furrows altogether wanting or only very slightl}- 
developed. 
6. Genital pores separated by a single annulus; eyes simple, 1 pair, widely separated. 
c. A brown chitinoid plate and underlying gland situated on the dorsum of somite VIII. "" 
d. Body capable of great extension; no I'.istinct cutaneous papillae; color pale, pink, gray,%r 
brownish; gastric ciBca small and variable in number, never more than 6 pairs. 

Glossiphonia stagnalis (p. 157). 
cc. No nuchal gland nor plate. 

e. Body greatly elongated, slender and nearly terete, without cutaneous papillae and very 
transparent, owing to the nearly complete absence of pigment; gastric ca;caonly 1 pair. 

Glossiphonia nepfieloidea (p. 158). 

ee. Body relatively broad and flat; cutaneous papilUe absent or in 1 to 5 rows, which may 

be very small or very large and often double; deeply pigmented, usually longitudinally 

striped or with metameric white spots on the neural annuli; gastric ceeca always 6 

pairs, of moderate size and simple form Glossiphonia fusca ( p. 158) . 

66. Genital pores separated by 1 annulus; 3 pairs of simple eyes grouped in twos in a more or less 
triangular figure. 

/. Body very thin, broad, and flat; no distinct cutaneous papilte; integument transparent 
and pigment, nearly absent; gastric cseca 6 pairs, of moderate size and nearly or quite 

unbranched Glossiphonia heteroclila (p. 159). 

666. Genital pores separated by 2 annuli; 3 pairs of simple eyes in 2 nearly parallel rows. 

(/. Body relatively broad and short; cutaneous papillse low and rounded, no median 
series; usually deeply pigmented and having a pair of narrow dark longitudinal lines 
reaching from the eyes to the posterior end; gastric cseca 7 pairs, of moderate size 

and slightly branched Glossiphonia complanata (p. 159 ) . 

6666. Genital pores separated by 2 annuli; a single pair of compound eyes more or less completel\- 
united in a single pigment mass; gastric caeca 7 pairs, of large size and much branched; 
salivary glands compact. 

h. Somites I to V distinctly widened to form a discoid "head." 

I. Somites I and II biannulate; dorsum marked by 3 strong papillated keels. 

Placohdella montifera (p. 160). 
hh. Anterior suuiites (I to Y) not especially widened. 

j. Body very much depressed; the cutaneous papillae low and smooth; integu- 
ments opaque, and the color a conspicuous pattern of some shade of olive 



HIRCCINEA AND OLIGOCH^TA OF THE GKEAT LAKES REGION. 157 

green ami yellow, below longitudinally striped; a2 nmre closely united to (il 
than to a3 on all anterior somites; a3 without trace of a secondary furrow; size 

large Placobdella paralitica ( p. 1 59 ) . 

jj. Much depressed, with very inconspicuous, low and smooth papillsp; integu- 
ments translucent and not deeply pigmented, usually striped longitudinally 
below; the union of al and a2 not especially conspicuous; the annulus 
(i3 with a distinct incomplete cross furrow on all complete somites; size 

medium Placobdella picta (p. 159). 

jjj. Much depressed, the back with very numerous papilte, the largest of which 
are very prominentand rough; integuments translucent; colors a mixture of 
browns, greens, and yellows founded on a much broken longitudinal pattern, 
often longitudinally striped below; <(3 not subdivided and the dorsal and 
ventral furrows not accurately meeting; size la,rgti. Placobdella rugnsa( p. 160). 
jjjj. Moderately depressed, with more or less numerous and roughened papilke; 
integument.s translucent; colors variable, much as in the last, but lirighter 
and with more dark pigment on the neural annulus and a niore constant 
median dorsal dark stripe, interrupted by 5 or 6 pale spots; differs from all 
(jther species of this key in the several pairs of accessory eyes which follow 

the compound ones; size medium Placobdella hollensis (p. 160). 

jjjjj. Not greatly^depressed, rather slender anteriorly; cutaneous papilke usually in 
a median and one paired series, small, acute, and pale yellow or brown; 
color pattern chiefly longitudinal brown and green stripes, interrupted 
by light areas; a very conspicuous and constant pale band across the 
entire width of somite VI; differing from all similar foregoing species in 
the circle of .small papillse on the margin of the caudal sucker; size 

small PlacoMella plmln-a ( p. 160) . 

ii'i. Complete somites of 6 unequal annuli formed by the subdivision of the 3 primary rings. 

h. Three series of prominent dorsal papillse; caudal sucker large and mobile, with a 

circle of about 60 marginal papilla? and glands Ictinolnlella annectens (p. 160) . 

II. !Mouth relatively large, o('cupying the entire cavity of the anterior sucker; the pharynx not forming 
a protrusible proboscis; eyes partly situated on the sides of the head; somites of 5 annuli. 

I. Annulus 66 not ob\ iously enlarged and subdivided. 

m. Eyes 3 pairs; male pore at XII ?»2/a2; female pore at XII 65/66; the 
vas deferens forming a loop reaching forward of the atrium to gang- 
lion XI .■ Erpobdella punctata (p. 163). 

II. Annulus 66 distinctly longer than the others and subdivided into two. 

n. Eyes 3 pairs; male pore at XII 62/«2; female pore at XII/XIII; the 
atrial cornua inconspicuous and passing abruptly into the vas 
deferens which lacks the anterior loop . ..Dinxi microstoma (p. 163). 
nn. Eyes 3 or 4 pairs; genital orifices as in ?»; the atrial cornua promi- 
nent and the vasa defereutia without anterior loops. 

Dinafervida (p. 163). 

GLOSSIPHOXID.€. 
Glossiphonia stagnalis (Linmeus). 

Abundant everywhere in shallow waters, but especially so at Erie, Pa. Examples from Sandusky, 
Ohio, bearing young to the middle of August. {PI. x.x.xii, tig. 2.) 

(90h) Lemna Pond, South Bass Island, Ohio, July 5, 1899. 

(95a and 96a) Xorth Bass, Swamp, Put-in Bay, Ohio, July 21, 1899. The commensal ciliate 
tliat lives attached to the nuchal gland of this species occurs in particularly luxuriant colonies on 
these specimens. 

(Ill) Pond near Hatchery, South Bass Island, Ohio, August 18, 1898. 

(Ilia) Middle Bass, Ohio, North Swamp, July 24, 1899. 

(115) South Bass Island, Ohio, swamp near East Point, August 24, 1899. 



158 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(125a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, July 28, 1899; a single unuHuiilly lar^e example. 

(127) Shore of South Bass Island, Ohio, September 10, 1898. 

(179a) East Harbor, Ohio, near Lakeside, August 4, 1899; from flaj leaves. 

(192a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, August 7, 1899; from wild rice. 

(209a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, August 9, 1899. 

(268a) Erie, Pa., north shore, ..n l.._'s. An-iist 14, 1899. 

(313a) Long Pond, Erie, Pa., .\ulmi-i 1"., ivin. 

(.365a) Long Point, Canada, Au^nist I'l, Is'.ci. 

(380a) Long Point, Canada, August 21, 1.S99; 1 specimen taken from a rock bass. 

'459a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, from East Swamp, August 28, 1899. 

Glossiphonia nepheloidea (-Graf). 

This species, which is fully descriVjed by Castle under the name of G. elongata, is represented by 
))ut 3 sjjecimens from (67) Put-in Bay, Ohio, August 12, 1898 (under rocks); (266a) Erie, Pa., Grave- 
yard Swamp, August 14, 1899 (from stmies ami rocks). Two examples from the latter locality are 
very greatly elongateil. 

Glossiphonia fusca Castle. 

The earliest name given to any of the varieties included under this species is Clepsine papiUifim 
lineala Verrill, but as the prior Hirudo lineata Midler is almost certainly Glossiphonia complanata, au'l 
R. Blanchard has shown that the closely related G. triserinlis R Blanchard differs in the position "l 
the male genital pore, Castle's name becomes the earliest available. G'. /»,*«« is the most variaV)le ni 
our Glositiptionia', and the extremes are so unlike that were they alone in hand no hesitation would In- 
felt in arranging them in two or three distinct species, and it is possible that further study may lea 1 
to the recognition of two. The large number of specimens, amounting to between 200 and 300, belon.;- 
ing to the present and other collections that have been carefully studied show that the extremes in 
color pattern, papillation, size of salivary glands and gastric cfeca, length of the stalks of the nephridial 
funnels, and the degree of development of the ccelomic sinuses are connected by a more or less com 
plete series of gradations. It has not yet been found possible to fully correlate the occurrence of the^i- 
and other characters, but three well-marked types or varieties may be distinguished: One, having the 
nearly uniform ground color and metameric white spots of the typical /(wca as described by Castle, 
includes most of the smaller nonpapillated individuals; another has a sharply defined longitudinally 
striated pattern (pi. xxxii, fig. 5) with 1 or 3 rows of small, usually deeply pigmented papillie like thf 
form figured by Graf under the designation of Clepsine b; some of the smaller and most of the medium 
sized specimens are of this variety; in the largest examples the body tends to become more elongateil, 
flatter, and thinner, and most of the brown pigment becomes concentrated in five or seven row^sof exceed- 
ingly large papillw, many of which are double. The eyes are relatively farthest apart, the first pair <jt 
gastric ca?ca small or absent, and the coelomic spaces best developed in the small, typical /msco, while tlie 
opposite extremes in these features are likely to occur in the largest and most strongly papillated form> 
In all of the three or four examples of each variety sectioned the stalks of the nephridial funnels art- 
longer in the lineata than in the fasca type, but not noticeably different fron those of the strouijly 
papillated variety. All three forms are well represented in the collection and are separated, thouL'h 
perhaps arbitrarily, in the following list: 

TYPIC.\I. FL'SC.\ TYPE, 

(103) Sandusky Bay, Ohio, August 18, 1.S9.S. 

(268a) Erie, Pa., north shore, August, 1899; from logs near shore. 

(269a) Erie Bay, Pennsylvania, August 14, 1899. 

(314a) Boat Harbor, Erie, Pa., August 16, 1899; from C'ratojihyllum. 

(343a) Long Point, Canada, August 18, 1899. 

(457a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, August 28, 1899. 



[RUDINEA AND OLIGOCH^TA OF THE GREAT LAKES KECJION. 159 



LIXEATA TYPE. 



(180a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, near Lakeside, August 4, 1899; from fiags. 
(209o) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, August 9, 1899. 

Huron, Ohio, August 10, 1899. 

(2ti9n) Erie, Pa., north shore of Erie Bay, August 14, 1899. 
(307a) Erie, Pa., boat landing, August 16, 1899; iwm Sagittaria. 
(314n) Boat Harbor, Erie, Pa., Augu.?t 16, 1899; from Cemtophyllum. 
(327a) Long Point, Canada, August 18, 1899. 
(365n) Long Point, Canada, August 21, 1899. 

(4o6!(, 459i(, 460n) Rondeau Harljor, Ontario, East Swamp, August 28, 1899. One specimen onl\ 
4 mm. long has the longitudinally striated pattern very strongly developed. 



ILL.^TED TYPE. 



(200a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, August 8, 1899. 

(32.5a, 343a) Long Point, Canada, August 18, 1899. 

(457a, 460a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, East Swamp, August 28, 1899. 

Glossiphonia complanata (Linmeus) Johnston. 

A common species. (PI. xxxu, fig. 4.) 

(40a, 109o) Middle Bass Island, Ohio, North Swamp, July 24, 1899. 

(92a) North Bass Swamp, Put-in Bay, Ohio, July 21, 1899. 

(125a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, July 28, 1899. 

(178a) East Harbor, Sandusky, Ohio, near Lakeside, August 4, 1899; from flag leaves. 

(326a) Long Point, Canada, August 18, 1899. 

(365a) Long Point, Canada, August 21, 1899. 

(380a) Long Point, Canada, August 23, 1899; from rock bass. 

(439a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, August 28, 1899; East Swamj). 

Glossiphonia heteroclita ( Linna-us). 

This species is either rare in Lake Erie or, on account of its small size and pale color, was over- 
looked. It was collected in small numbers at but three localities. 
(268a) Erie, Pa., August, 1899; from logs on north shore. 
(327a) Long Point, Canada, August 18, 1899. 
(459a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, August 28, 1899; from I^ast Swamp. 

Placobdella picta (Verrill). 

Taken only in the -western end of the lake. The length and distinctness of the median light 
stripe vary greatly. (PI. .\xxii, fig. 3.) 

(33a) South Bass Island, East Swamp, July 10, 1899. 
(91a, 92a) Put-in Bay, Ohio, North Bass Swamp, July 21, 1899. 
( llOa) Middle Ba.ss Island, Ohio, Middle Swamp, July 24, 1899. 
(109a) Middle Bass Island, Ohio, North Swamp, July" 24, 1899. 
East Haven, Sandusk\-, Ohio. 

Placobdella parasitica (Say). 

Nearly all of tlie examples of this species were taken from snapping turtles; one very large one in 
the bottom tow (39a). 

(9a) South Bass Island, Ohio, Lemna Pond, July 5, 1899. 

(39a) Put-in Bay, Ohio, July 15, 1899; bottom tow. 

(77a) Put-in Bay, Ohio, July 17, 1899. 

(97a) North Bass Island, July 20, 1899; from carapace of turtle. 

(135) Put-in Bay, Ohio, Squaw Bay, September 13, 1898. 



IGO BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

(137a) Sandusky, Ohio, East .Harbor, July 28, 1899. 

(345<(, 346a) Long Point, Canada, August 19, 1899. 

(440(0 Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, East Swamp, August 28, 1899. 

Placobdella rugosa ( Verrill). 

This common and varial)le species is widely distributed an<A occurs either free or parasitic on fislien 
and turtles. 

(8«) South Bass Island, Ohio, Lemna PoJid, July 6, 1899. 

(10(() South Bass Island, Ohio, Lerana Pond. 

(44) South Bass Island, Ohio, August 16, 1898; on sticks near hatchery. 

(92a) Put-in Bay, Ohio, North Bass Swamp, July 21, 1899. 

(2I0a) West Harbor, Ottawa County, Ohio, Augusts, 1899; on Plaivirhis. 

(267o) Erie, Pa., Graveyard Swamp, August 14, 1899. 

(343a) Long Point, Canada, August 18, 1899. 

(380a) Long Point, Canada, August 23, 1899; from rock bass. 

(403a) Long Point, Canada, September 24, 1899. 

Huron, Ohio, August 10, 1899. 

Placobdella hoUensis I Whitman). 

A single specimen colored exactly on the pattern of liraf's figure and with typical annulation and 
eyes was taken at East Swamp, Rondeau, Ontario, August 28, 1899. 

Many examples of this species are provided with cutaneous papilla almost as large and rough as 
those of /-*. rugosa, and it is often difficult to assign examples to one or the other species. Generally 
the eyelike character of the anterior dorso-medlan sensillse is sufficient and this species is seldom so 
broad and flat, nor is the lack of agreement of the dorsal and ventral furrows so evident as in P. rugoia. 

Placobdella montifera nom. nov. 

This is the sjiecies known in my paper on the Hirudinea of Illinois as Ileiiiiclepsis carinala (Ver- 
rill). The resemblance to one species of HemUiepsis is entirely superficial and the name carinata has 
been already used by Grube for a species of this genus, requiring that a new one be coined. In the 
character of its papulation, the incipient subdivision of its annuli, and the papillse of the posterior 
sucker, which are very small and number 110 or more, this species approaches Actiitobddla. The form 
of the broadly expanded head is, however, distinctive of it among the known species of leeches of 
North America. 

(379(() Long Point, Canada, Avigust 28, 1899; from rice grass. 

(403-0 I^ong Point', Canada, September 24, 1899. 

Placobdella phalera (Graf). 

Several specimens of a small leech which is rather doubtfully referred here conform closely with 
tiraf's account of the arrangement of pigment, reserve cells, and other features of P. phalera. Two <«f 
the most striking characters 6i the species are the strongly developed band of reserve cells, apjiearing 
on the surface as a white or pale-yellow stripe, which extends entirely across the neck at somite VI, 
and the serrated margin of the posterior sucker, which has a circle of small papillse as in AcliiinhilcUa 
anneclew, but lacks the definite agirreu-ati'l u'lan^N. 

(178a) Ea-st Harbor, near LakeM^li-, (i|,i,,. AiiL'u:^t4, 1899; from flag leaves. 

(196a) East Harbor, Sandusky, nhi,,, Aii-nst 7, 1899. 

(324a) Long Point, Canada, August 16, 1897. 

Actinobdella annectens sp. nov. (text tigs. 1 and 2). 

Most interesting of the leech collections is a specimen, fortunately well preserved, of a new species 
of Actinobdella which, together with an example of A. inequianmilala described in the Report on the 
Leech Fauna of Minnesota, clearly shows that this genus belongs to the Glossiphonidte and not to the 
Ichthyobdellidse as I was erroneously led to suppose from a knowledge of the superficial characters alone 



HIRUDINEA AND OLIGOCHiETA OF THE GREAT LAKES KEGION. 



KjI 



of the type. ^lach is yet lacking in our linowledge of the organization of these interesting leeches, l)ut 
it is hoped that a complete account of their anatomy can soon be published. At the present lime it 
seems evident that AcUnobdella approaches Placobdella most closely, especially in the character of the 
reproductive organs, gastric cseca, and sense organs, while it differs from that genus and resembles 
Ghssiphonia in the possession of diffuse instead of compact salivary glands. The fact that certain 
species of Placobdella, notably P. phalcnt and P. montifera, possess small marginal papillje on the caudal 
sucker is a further indication of relationship which may eventually necessitate a generic grouping 
somewhat different from that here adopted. 

A. anneclens, like A. inequiannulata, is a small blood-sucking glossiphonid, the type of which is 
9 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, and about 1 mm. high. The general form is nmch like that of Glossiphoimi 
fusca but considerably more slender; the body is strongly convex above, flat below, the region of the 
gastric caca about half round; the head end, with the sucker and mouth, have the typical glossi- 
phonid form; and the thick, prominent, hemispherical caudal sucker measures 1.2 mm. in diameter 





and its pedicle is contracted and centrally attached, indicating great mobility in this region. Tlie 
marginal papillse of the caudal sucker form a ready means of distinction between this species and 
.1. iDcijukinnulata, for whereas the latter possesses about thirty very prominent papilla?, .1. anneclens 
has about sixty much smaller ones. They are unfortunately much contracted, but are clearly con- 
tinuations of radiating ridges on the ventral surface of the sucker and have the same structure and 
relation to compact aggregated glands as in the type species. These glands form a conspicuous ring a 
short di.stance from the margin of the sucker, the dorsal surface of which they elevate into a circular 
ridge. In correspondence with the smaller and more numerous papillje these glands differ from those 
of A. inequiannulata, and at places the continuity of the ring is interrupted by the absence of several 
together. 

A single pair of very large and conspicuous eyes are situated on somite III, with their pigment 
cups in contact and united in the middle line and reaching into IV. Immediately behind the eyes is 
a large aggregation of reserve cells extending over the middle portion of somites IV and V and 
margined by pigment cells. A similar patch occurs on annuli VI a3 and VII al, and others are 



162 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

distributed much as in Placobdella plialera. The position of the genital pores is quite as in Placobdellu, 
the male orifice being situated between somites XI and XII and the female between the second and 
third j)riniary annuli of XII. The anus is behind XXVI. 

The metameric .sensilla? are very obscure on tlie ventral but easily distinguished on the dorsal 
surface; they present quite the arrangement typical of the family. Dorsal cutaneous papill* are also 
well developed from somites XIII to XXV'I inclusive, and the larger ones may be traced faintly ante- 
rior of the genital somites as far forward as VI As in A. inequiammlnla the strictly median series is 1j\ 
far the most conspicuous and dominant one and is represented on the complete and typical somites liy 
a large papilla on the annulus ^3 and a somewhat smaller one on 65. On XXIII these papilla; suddenly 
become reduced greatly in size and by XXV have disappeared, while rather prominent dorso-median 
papillaj are coincidently developed on each side and" continue to XXVI. Dorso-lateral papillse on 63 
are nearly as constant but much smaller as far back as somite XXVI, and on many of the typical 
somites a corresponding but still smaller papilla occurs in a more median position on hb. It will be 
noticed that in the arrangement of the papilla", as in so many other characters, this species stands 
between -1. inequiannulatn and Phirohil,lhi iiimili/rni and F. phalera. 

In the manner of subdivision ni t\ jiical s niiitrs into annuli this species closely follows the type of 
the genus. The first primary annulus i al i i-^ always much smaller than «2 or «3, and Is completely 
sulidivided into two short equal or nearly equal rings (61 and 62); the primary neural annulus (a2) is 
divided into a larger anterior ring (63), which bears the papillse and metameric sensilhe and a much 
smaller posterior ring (64); the third primary annulus (a3) is similar in size and mode of subdivision 
to tlie second, and its larger anterior annulus (6.5) bears the papillse, while the small 66 is naked. 
Somites VII to XXII are complete, although a3 is already much smaller than o2 even on XXI, and on 
XXII the furrow 6.5/66 is not quite complete. On XXIII all secondary furrows are nearly absent and 
a3 is a small simple ring. On XXIV al is barely separated from <i2; XXV and XXVI are typically 
biannulate, and several obscure annuli in the caudal pedicle represent postanal somites. The annula- 
tion of the anterior incomplete somites is very clear, and shows that elaboration has progressed farthiT 
in this species than in .4. inequianmdata. Somite VI has al undivided, V is triannulate with a2 soim-- 
what enlarged, IV is biannulate with the furrow al/a2 indicated, III is a broad, practically undivided 
annulus, and II and I are simple and undivided. (See figs. 1 and 2.) 

A few features of the internal anatomy may be noted. The probocis is slender and, as retracted 
in this specimen, reaches from XI to VIII. The salivary glands are of the diffuse type and open into 
the oesophagus in X or XI; they are greatly developed and densely packed by the sides of the alimen- 
tary canal as far forward as the anterior part of somite VIII. Exactly similar glands are develoi)ed 
in large numbers along the sides of the body to somite XXIV, but it is impossible to determine 
definitely in the entire leech to what extent these are salivary or clitellar and cutaneous glands. There 
are seven pairs of well-developed branched gastric cieca arising in somites XIII to XIX, inclusive, 
arranged as in PlucohdeUa, though not so large and completely branched as in the broad flat species of that 
genus. The first pair have slender anterior lobes which reach forward by the sides of the reproductixe 
organs to the anterior end of XII; the seventh pair reach backward beside the intestine to XXIII, 
with five lateral lobes in somites XIX to XXIII. The narrow and posteriorly somewhat tortuous 
intestine bears the usual four pairs of cseca crowded into three somites (XX to XXII). Although con- 
forming to the general type of the reproductive organs of Placobdella, the male afferent ducts are more 
elongated and slender than in most species and reach to a sperm sac situated on the boundary between 
XII and XIII, being thus less compact and more open in arrangement than in most species of Plaroh- 
della. The greater part of the sinus system was worked out and found to conform in most respects to 
what is found in the Glossiphonida; generally, one important characteristic being that the submargi- 
nal circular sinus of the posterior sucker is connected with the axial sinus behind the anus by 1.5 or 
16 radiating canals. The type specimen (no. 5228, V. S. National Museum) is from station 346a, Lon-r 
Point, Canada, August 18, 1899, and was taken with P. parasitica from a snapping turtle. The colors 
are lost in alcohol. 



HIKUDIKEA AND OLIGOCHJiTA OF THE GREAT LAKES KEGION. 168 

HERPOBDELLlD.f. 

Erpobdella punctata ( Leidy). 

Abundant throughout the lake region. (PI. x.xxii, fig. 1.) 
(5(() South Bass Ishmd, Ohio, pond near hatchery, July 6, 1899. 
(7((, 8'(, 9a) South Bass Island, Ohio, Lemna Pond, July 6, 1899. 
(33n) South Bass Island, Ohio, East Swamp, July 10, 1899. 

(43) South Bass Island, Ohio, August 17, 1898; shore. 
(45) Put-in Bay Island, Ohio, Squaw Bay, August 15, 1898. 
(67) Put-in Bay, Ohio. August 12, 1898; under rocks. 

(S9<(, 90a) North Bass Island, Ohio, swamp, August 22, 1898. 

(111(0 Middle Bass Island, Ohio, North Swamp, July 24, 1899. 

(115) South Bass Island, Ohio, swamp near East Point, August 24, 1899. 

(118) South Bass Island, Ohio, August 22, 1898. 

(127) South Ba.ss Island, Ohio, September 10, 1898; shore. 

(135; Put-in Bay, Ohio, September 13, 1898. 

(136n) North Bass Island, Ohio, swamp, July 21, 1899. 

(19.5a) North Bass Swamp, Ohio, July 21, 1899. 

(266(i) Erie, Pa., Graveyard Swamp, August 14, 1899; on stones ami flags. 

(36.5n) Long Point, Canada, August 21, 1899. 

(403(() Long Point, Canada, August 24, 1899. 

(438a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, East Swamp, August 28. 1899. 

Dina fervida (Verrill). 

Quite as plentiful as E. punctata, but apparently most abuadant at the eastern end of the lake. 

(PI. xx.xii, fig. 6.) 
(60) South Bass Island, Ohio, Lemna Pond, July 6, 1899. 

(44) South Bass Island, Ohio, pond near hatchery, August 16, 1898. 
(124a) Sandusky, Ohio, East Harbor, July 28, 1899. 

(191a) Sandusky, Ohio, East Harbor, August 7, 1899. 

(219a, 220a) East Harbor, Ottawa County, Ohio, near Lakeside, August 4, 1899; on flags. 

(266a) Erie, Pa., Graveyard Swamp, August 14, 1899; from stones and flags. 

(271a) Erie, Pa., north shore, August 17, 1899. 

(312a) Erie, Pa., Long Pond, Augustn5, 1899. 

(317a) Erie, Pa., August 16, 1899. 

(333a) Long Point, Canada, near boat landing. August IS, 1899. 

(342a) Long Point, Canada, August 16, 1899. , 

(365a) Long Point, Canada, August 21, 1899. 

(437(7, 438a) Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, East Swamp, August 28, 1899. 

Dina microstoma :Moore. 

In striking contrast to the abundant Dina ftrrida this species was found singly at but two stations. 

East Harbor, Ottawa County, Ohio, August 5, 1898; on Chara. 

(266a) Brie, Pa., Graveyard Swamp. August 14, 1899; on stones with D. fervida. 

II. OLIGOCHiETA. 

ThLs report i.s based upon collections nnide on Lake St. Clair in 1893, and on the 
upper end of Lake Michigan and the .small lakes south of the Strait of Mackinaw 
in ISW by a party sent out by the Michigan tish commission, and bj- the biological 
survey of Lake Erie under the auspices of the United States Fish Commission in 
1899. Both parties were under the direction of Prof. Jacob Reighard, by whom the 



Ih4 BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF FISHERIES. 

lu.iterial was sent to me for deteniiination. Most of the work in l.SD.S was done in 
the immediate vicinity of New Baltimore, at the northern extremity of Lake St. 
Clair, and so far as relates to the group of animals under consideration by Prof. 
II. B. Ward, who furnishes some careful notes and drawings of several species. A 
preliminary report on the field operations has been published as Bulletin Mo. i of 
the Michigan fish commission (Lansing, 1894), in which will be found some account 
of the physical and biological conditions of the region. The Oligochsta were origi- 
nally sent to Dr. Eisen, who made a preliminary examination and brief report, 
but has been prevented from completing his studies. Dr. Eisen's list, published 
in the above-mentioned bulletin, is as follows, the name included in parenthesis fol- 
lowing each of Eisen's determinations being, so far as can be determined, the corre- 
sponding name in the present report: Genus related to Thamnodrihis {Sparganophilus 
eixeni); newgenusof ljn\\\hvic\x\\Ai% [Tlunodrilns inconMnns)', twospeciesof Stylaria 
{S. lacusfris and S. fosnularis); BohemUla sp. (not found); Pristina {P. Jeidyi); 
Xdidiiiiii (not found), and Chxtoyaster {€'. diaplmnus and C. llmsei). The collections 
in Lake Erie were made chiefly in the vicinity of the Bass Lslands, Sanduskj', and 
other points at the western end of the lake, though a few Oligochaeta were taken at 
Erie, Fa., and at points on the Canadian shore. 

As most of the 15 species included in the two collections are well known either 
in this country or Europe, no descriptions of them are given in this paper, but after 
the name of each there is inserted a reference to one of the best easily accessible 
published descriptions, in nearly ever}' case well illustrated. A key has been added, 
however, for the discrimination of the species, and the characters given are suflicient 
in most cases to separate them with considerable certainty from related species 
inhabiting the same waters. A full list of the localities at which each species was 
taken is given, the parenthesized number referring in each case to the station, and 
the data that follow being transcripts of the labels. Of the 15 species enumerated, 
1(1 belong to the strictly aquatic family NaididiB and probably i-epresent the majority 
of those likely to occur in this fauna. Several additional species of the ^Eoloso- 
matidse and Lumbriculidfe and many of the Tubificidre are likel}' to be met with in 
the watei's of the Great Lakes, while many Lumbricidse and other earthworms have 
already been recorded from the bordering states. 

Kcfi to species of bligochscta reported npoii. 

n. Size small; reproduction chiefly by means of serial asexual buds; sexually mature individuals 

rarely found; digestive tract simple; always strictly aquatic. 

b. Central nervous system imperfectly developed, intimately connected with epidermis throughout; 

internal metamerism incomplete owing to the absence of some or all of the dissepiments. 

(^Eolosomatidse. ) 

r. In addition to capillary setse the posterior bundles at least contain alternating shorter, straight, 

curved, or bifid sette; prostomium broader than peristomium; integumental oil drops usually 

with a yellow or green tint Jikilosoma tenel/raruni (p. 166). 

bij. Central nervous system complete, the brain, at least, quite distinct from the epidermis; dissepi- 
ments completely developed; forked setse exclusively present in ventral bundles. (Naididse. ) 
(!. Prostomium distinct and more or less prominently developed; somite III not enlarged and 
the pharynx small and much shorter than tlie cesophagus; number of somites not greatly 
reduced; ventral sette normally present on all somites behind the peristomium. 
e. Prostomium produced into a papilliform or tentacular process. 



HIRUDINEA AND OLIGOCH^TA OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION. 165 

/'. Dorsal seta; beginning on somite III, partly capillary, partly acicular in each bundle; 

prostomial process a short papilla Naidium sj>. (p. 166). 

//'. Dorsal seti« beginning on somite II, all capillary and those on III greatly elongated ; 
except in the first two bundles the dorsal set« are roughened with minute spines; 

prostomial process a long, slender tentacle Prislina leidyi (p. 166). 

fff. Dorsal setse beginning on VI, exclusively capillary and smooth, and those on III not 
materially longer than the others; prostofnium without lateral lobes and tapering 

regularly into the slender elongated tentacle Sti/laria /ossidaris (p. 167). 

ffff. Like S. fossularis, except that the prostoraium is provided with a pair of lobes, from 

the cleft between which the tentacular proboscis arises Slylaria lacustris (p. 167). 

ee. Prostomium rounded, without any produced process. 

g. Dorsal set» bundles present on all somites except the first five. 

h. Dorsal setie exclusively capillary, those on VI much longer than the others; 
integumental sense papillae of large size and metameric; no expanded caudal 

plate Slai'ina gracilis (p. 167). 

hh. In addition to the capillary setae dorsal bundles contain some that are curved and 
bifid or simply acicular, those on VI not longer than the others; no expanded 

caudal plate iWiis elinguis (p. 166). 

hhh. Dor.saV bundles composed of both acicular and capillary seta; not especially 
elongated on VI; the caudal somite broadly expanded into a plate bearing 

marginal ciliated branchial processes Dero limosa (p. 167 ) . 

gff. Dorsal sette totally absent from all segments. 

!. Form elongated as in Nais, the prostomium well developed; only 2 or 3 setse in the 

ventral bundles Schmardaella JUifm-mis (p. 168 ). 

dd. Prostomium rudimentary and not distinct from peristomium; somite III much enlarged for 
the accommodation of the large pharynx, which equals or exceeds the (jesophagus in 
length; number of somites small, about 15 for the single zooid; ventral setfe totally want- 
ing from somites III to V and dorsal setae absent from all somites. 

j. Length of living animal 10 to 15 mm.; the oesophagus short but distinct; habit 

free living Chsetogaster diaphanus (p. 168). 

jj. Length of living animal 2 to 4 mm.: the oesophagus very short and indistinct; 

usual!}- jjarasitic on water snails ChxlogaMer limnxi ( [). 169) . 

Size moderate or large; reproduction normally by the sexual method alone; alimentary canal often 
complicated by the development of a crop, gizzard or other organs; aquatic, semiaquatic or 
terrestrial. (Lumbriculidie, Tubiflcidie, Glossoscolecidse, and Lumbricidae. ) 

k. All setse hooked and bifid distally, more than 2 per bundle in the preclitellar 
segments at least; a single pair of spermiducal funnels in X, 1 pair of sperma- 

thecae in X ; prostate glands elongated Lim nodridus gracilis (p. ] 69 ) . 

kk. All setae hooked and slightly bifid distally and arranged on all somites in 2 dor- 
sal and 2 ventral pairs; 2 pairs of sperm funnels in somites IX and X; 5 pairs 
of spermathecse in XI to XV or XII to 'S.Vl . . Tliiiiodrilus incoratans (p. 169). 
kkk. Set« simple-pointed but slightly ornamented, arranged in pairs as in kk; 
prostomium continuous with peristomium; clitellum extending from XIV 
to XXVI; male pores on XIX; 3 pairs of spermathec^ in VI, VII, and 
VIII; a pair of large glands in III; no muscular gizzard. 

SparganophilM eiseni (p. 170). 
kkkk. Seta as in iii, but entirely without ornamentation; prostomium dovetailed 
into peristomium from which it is separated at the sides by grooves; 
clitellum beginning on XXV, XXVI, XXVII, or XXVIII, and ending on 
XXXIII, XXXIV, or XXXV; male pores on XV; 2 pairs spermatheca; 
in IX and X; gizzard well developed Helodrilus caliginosus (p. 171). 



Ihb BULLETIN OF THK UURP:AU OF FISHERIES. 

.^•OLOiOMATIl)^. 
^olosoma tenebrarum Vejdovsky. 
jEolosoma tenebrarum Vejdovsky, System u. Morphologic der Oligochaeten, p. 21. 1884. 

Three specimens in the Lake St. Clair collection agree closely with this European species which 
has been recorded from Illinois by Professer Smith. They are, however, very small, varying from 1 
to 3 mm. in length. According to a note furnished by Professor Ward they were, when alive, semi- 
transparent grayish, with sparse greenish yellow oil drops. They were taken from the surface of a log 
at New Baltimore, Mich., on August 2, 1893. 

X.\1DI[).€. 
P Naidium, sp. Ward. 

Professor Ward's notes mention a species of Naidium collected in the bottom t:iw at various times 
between August 8 and 25, 1893, at New Baltimore, Mich., but the specimens can not be found in the 
material furnished to me. The description is as follows: 

"Length, 1.785 mm. to 2.95 mm.; diameter, 0.25 to 0.35 mm.; metameres, 14 to 26. Setae in 4 
rows; the dorsal beginning on the third, the ventral on the second metamere; the dorsal hair like, 1 
long, up to 0.546 mm., and 3 or 4 short, 1 or rarely 2 of which may equal half the length of the long 
one; ventral setse, 5 to 7, hooked and very unequally bifid at the end and doubly bent internally. 
Head abruptly rounded in the smaller, furnished with a small papilliform proboscis in the larger 
examples, with numerous sensory hairs but no eyes. Oesophagus short; intestine beginning at second 
metamere, grayish on account of the presence of numerous light yellowish oil drops 2 /< in diam- 
eter, a dark band across the anterior end of each intestinal sacculation. No sexual organs nor traces 
of geinmation." 

Sketches of 2 ventral sette and of an entire worm with small proboscis accompany the note. 

Pristina leidyi Smith. 
Prislijin Iriiliji Smith. Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, vol. iv, 1896, p. 397. 

This species is represented in both collect inns by almut 25 specimens which agree closely with 
Smith's description, though in all of them tin- sit.i ^.i the lii,-t LMorsal fascicles lack the spines present 
on all others, a distinction not mentioned in tlu' original .Itsiiipti.in. In the second bundle some of 
them often have a length of 5 or 6 times the diameter ot the body. The budding zone occurs at XIII 
or XIV. 

Besides those taken at New Baltimore. Mich., on several occasions during August, 1893, a few 
specimens occur with other naids in the material from each of the following Lake Erie stations: 
Lemna Pond, South Bass Island, Ohio (18f(), July 7, 1899; swamp near East Point, South Bass Island, 
Ohio, August 2, 1899; Sandusky, Ohio, West Harbor (207a), August 8, 1899. 

Nais elinguis Miiller. 

Nais elinguis, Vejdovsky, System u. Morphoiogie iler Oligochaeten, p. 28, 1844. 

All of the examples of Xdix in the collection are tentatively and with much doubt referred to this 
species. Although taken at a number of stations, but 1 or 2 usually much broken and distorted 
examples occur in each lot, and these differ considerably in appearance. Some, for example, have 
cous|iicniiusl\ |.iL;iiiciitc(l eyes and otlieis [insscss little or no pigment. Ward has labeled some of the 
New I'.alliiii.iii- ^|H'ciiii(.|is .N'. ,/,.,, /ins anil Sinitli has recorded this species as abundant in Illinois. 
Their aleiiiiliiaiion lias liccn pciinittcd In ouiwciuili my doubts. The dorsal set« of every specimen 
exaiiiineil carefully differ in form from those figured by Vejdovsky and other.s. The few budding 
specimens have the growth zone at XVII to XIX and the fully formed bud has about 21 segments. 
No sexual individuals were detected. 

Specimens were taken among algfe in association with Slylaria lacustris at New Baltimore in July, 
1893, at Bound Lake July 16, 1894, and at the following stations in Lake Erie: East Harbor, August 5, 

1898, in Chara; (36a) Squaw Bay, July 12, 1899, among bryozoans; (38o) Put-in Bay, Ohio, July 10, 

1899, bottom tow; (207a) Sandusky, Ohio, West Harbor, August 8, 1899; (212a) Sandusky, Ohio, 
August 8, 1899, from Utricularia in East Harbor. 



HIRUDINEA AND OLIGOCH.ETA OF THK GREAT LAKES REGION. 167 

Slavina gracilis (Leidy) Vejdoveky. 
Kais riraciUa Leidy, Journal Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila., ser. 2, vol. ii, 18S0. p. -13. 

The few examples by which this species is represented in the collection are in very poor condition 
and much distorted and obscured by the mucous tubes in which they are enveloped, and which have 
been hardened and much shrunken by the alcohol. There can be no doubt that they belong to Leiily's 
species, but the distinction of this from ,S'. appendiculata ( Udeken) Vejdovsky is not so clear. Sensory 
papilhe are well developed and on each somite are arranged in a circle of large ones in the set* zone, 
and another of alternating smaller ones, both provided with sensory hairs; the anus is surrounded by 
4 or 6 papillfe. 

Birgeboro, August 19, 1893, 1 specimen; Lake St. Clair, unlabeled vial, 1 specimen; and Round 
Lake, July 16, 1894, 2 specimens, with A7((s. 

Dero limosa Leidy. 

Da-o Umom Leidy, American Naturalist, vol. xiv, 18S0, p. ■1'22. 

This well-known naid appears to be abundant throughout the entire region covered by these 
collections. The position of the budding zone is very variable, being found as far forward as XX in 
small, and as far back as XXXVIII in large individuals, while the total number of segments varies 
from 36 to 76 in gemmating examples. 

New Baltimore, Mich., August 19, 1893, abundant among algcc; Lake St. Clair, unlabeled bottle, 
numerous; Lemna Pond, South Bass Island, Ohio (18n and 78((), July 7-15, 1899, plentiful; swamp 
near East Point, Ba.»s Island (117), August 27, 1898, numerous; Sandusky, Ohio, West Harbor (207a), 
2 specimens; Squaw Bay, Put-in Bay Island, Ohio (36a), 1 specimen among bryozoans, July 12, 1899. 

Stylaria lacustris (Linnicus) Lsmarck. 
■'itylaria laeusiris, Vejdovsky, System u. Morphologie der Oligochieten, p. 30, ls84. 

This also is an abundant species, particularly in the Lake St. Clair region, but in Lake Erie 
appears to be less plentiful than the next. Among the material from station 17 in Carp Lake is one 
sexually mature example with well-marked clitellum and genital seta;. Most of the specimens, how- 
ever, bear buds in various stages of development. Although the resendslance of our specimens to 
descriptions based on European examples is remarkably close, the ventral set» are constantly more 
strongly hooked than Vejdovsky's figures indicate, and there are other slight differences. 

Stylaria liieiistris was taken at the following stations in and about Lake St. Clair. Birgeboro, 
August 19, 1893, about 15 specimens with Cluttoyasler diaphaims; New Baltimore, August 24, 1893, with 
other naids common among algie in bottom tow (Professor Ward furnishes some excellent drawings of 
sijecimens from this lot); Fox Lake, a large number; also taken in the Birge bottom tow net at 
Crooked Lake (stations 3 and 5), Burt Lake (9), Mullet Lake (11 and 13), Carp Lake (17 and 18), and 
Bear Lake (20). Lake Erie localities are Put-in Bay (37a and 38a), July 10, 1899, bottom tow, plen- 
tiful; East Harbor, Sandusky ( 182a), August 4, 1899, several with S. fosm'laris; Sandusky, Ohio (212a), 
August 8, 1899, two specimens; Erie, Pa., boat landing, August 16, 1899, numerous; same date and 
locality (315a and 316a}, several, with a large number of X. fo.v.sa/aris. 

Stylaria fossularis Leidy. 

Stylaria fossularis Leidy. Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. v, 1852. p. 287. 

Although students of the Oligochseta have generally failed to discriminate between this species 
and S. lacnstriK, the two are in reality perfectly distinct and are easily separated, as was done by Leidy, 
by the form of the prostomium (fig. 3), which in this species is prolonged medially into the base of 
the proboscis and lacks altogether the lateral lobes which are so conspicuous in .S'. lacustris. The Lake 
Erie material is beautifully preserved and permits a detailed study of the specimens, which correspond 
exactly with those occurring in the neighborhood of Philadelphia. In the preserved state the brain 
is 2J times as wide as long, v.-ith a nearly straight anterior margin and a pair of prominent poste- 
rior lobes separated by a deep median emargination. Almost all of the specimens are in process of 



168 



BUL' ETIN OF THE BUKPJAII OF FISHERIES. 



stolonization, and the budding zone is situated with remarkable constancy at XXXIV. No sexually 
mature examples were found, but the large buds of some from Lake St. Clair appear to be nearing that 
condition, and at least one has genital setts distinctly 
developed on V. 

This species was taken at New Baltimore on August 
8, 1893, among weeds, at Round Lake July 16, 1894, on 
the bottom, Burt Lake (9), Mullet Lake (13), and at an 
unknown station in Lake St. Clair. It occurred at San- 
dufiky on August 4, 1899, and very abundantly at the boat 
landing at Erie, Pa., with S. lacustrU on August 16, 1899. 

Schmardaella filiformis (Schmarda) Michaelsen ?. 

Schmardaetla flliformis, Beddard, Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magel- 
haensischen Sammelreise, Naididse, p. 5, 1896. 

The most important result yielded by this collection 
of Oligochseta is the addition of Schmardaella to the 
North American fauna. Whether or not the few im- 
perfect specimens represent a new species is uncertain, 
and though it seems probable that this will eventually 
prove to be the case our knowledge of both the type 
and this species is so very incomplete that a definite 
opinion can not be ventured, and it seems test for the 
present to record the specimens with this explanation 
under the above name. S. filiformis, the type and only 
and Chile, and was descrited by Schmarda and later 




FIG.3.— Sfytaria/ossMfaris, dorsal view of anteriorseven 
somites, showing form of prostomlum, brain, etc. 



in Ecuadi 



known species, has been foun 
by Beddard. 

The 3 specimens in this collection, which have neither buds nor sexual organs, were all taken 
among Chara stems dredged at New Baltimore on August 20, 1893. They vary from 5.3 mm. to 
6.5 mm. in length and have from 46 to 52 segments. The prostomium is prominent 
and rounded; the anterior 2 or 3 somites somewhat enlarged. Dorsal set<e are 
totally absent, the ventral on all somites considerably enlarged, their length equal- 
ing two-thirds or more of the body diameter (fig. 4). In the largest specimen 
many of the fascicles of the middle region contain 3 setie, the majority having but 
2, while in the smaller ones very few have 3. All are strongly /-shaped, with a 
small but distinct nodulus a little beyond the middle, the tip strongly hooked and 
bifid, with the 2 prongs strongly divergent, of equal length, and the terminal one 
half as thick as the accessory. On the first 3 or 4 somites the setse are more slen- 
der, though, owing to the variability of the latter, this may have little significance. 
The ventral lip of the anus is slightly longer than the dorsal, and bears a pair of 
small papillfe. Notwithstanding the absence of the dorsal setse Schmardaella is 
clearly not closely related to Chictogasler. So far as it can be made out the alimen- 
tary canal is much like that of Nais. The brain seems to approach the form of 
Dero limosa, but is narrower. Schmarda figures a worm of 15 segments, and shows 
3 setfB per fascicle, while Beddard states that there are but 2. Nothing whatever 
is known of the genital organs. 



Fig. 4. — SchmardacUa 
filiSormis, a fascicle 
of three setae from 
middle of body. 



Chsetogaster diaphanus (Oruithuisen) Oersted. 
Chsetogaaler diaphanus, Vejdovsky, System u. Morphologie der Oligochaeten, p. 37, 1884. 

Many specimens of this beautiful annelid in a state of active bud formation are found in both 
the Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie collections. Lake St. Clair, August 19 and 22, 1893, bottom, among 
algse, several; Round Lake, July 16, 1894, several; Lake Erie (38a) July 7, 1899, many; East Harbor, 
Sundusky, Ohio (182n), August 4, 1899, 2 specimens; Sandusky, Ohio, August 4, 1899 (212a), 1 
specimen. 



HIRUDINEA ANU OLIG()CH.ETA OF THE GREAT LAKES RfXilON. 169 

Chaetogaster limnsei v. B:i r. 
Chselogaster limniei. Wilcox, American Xattiralist, vol. xxxv. 19ul, p. ;iu5. 

The American examples of this species differ from the European in a number of minor points 
which will probably require their eventual separation. Some of these differences have been alluded 
to in Miss Wilcox's excellent description of the species. It is common about Philadelphia and was 
well known to Dr. Leidy, by whom some excellent manuscript drawings were left, and has been 
recorded by Professor Smith from Illinois. 

Many, both of parasitic and free-living individuals, are included in this collection from the follow- 
ing stations: New Baltimore, Mich., August 14, 1893, several from Amnicola limom; Charlevoix, Mich., 
August 6, 1894, from Limnsea stagnalis, many; Middle Bass Island, Ohio, North Swamp, July 21, 1899, 
(105a), a large number. 

LUMHKICILID.I. 

Thinodrilus inconstans Smith. 

Thinodrilus incomtans Smith, Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, vol. IV, 1895, p. 292. 

In most respects these specimens agree exactly with Smith's description, but one example sec- 
tioned has both anterior and posterior sperm sacs, the former beginning at the septum VIII IX and 
reaching to VII, the latter beginning at X /XI and extending to XIV. The paired male orifices are in 
X and there appears to be a small eversible penis, though it is retracted in all specimens. Five pairs 
of very small spermathec;e occur in XII to XVI. None of the examples is mature. 

About a dozen of the largest examples are contained in an unlabeled vial belonging to the Lake 
St. Clair collection, and a few fragments each occur in vials labeled (126) South Bass Island, Ohio, 
near East Point, September 10, 189S, and (32a) East Swamp, South Bass Island, Ohio, July 10, 1899. 

TUBIFICID.€. 

Limnodrilus gracilis sji. nov. 

Form verj- slender and elongated, the length reaching ~r> mm. ; clitellum on XI and XII, but only 
very slightly developed and none of the examples with enlarged genital region; number f)f somites, 
140 to 175; prostomium flattened, moderately long. 

Setse anterior to X, 4 or 5, sometimes 3 or 6 per bundle; posterior to clitellum usually 2, occasion- 
ally 3, and in the posterior fourth of the body only 1, in each bundle. On X the dorsal liundle usually 
contains 3, the ventral 2 seta, and the glands which are associated with 
the seta; bundles of all anterior somites are on this one better developed 
than elsewhere. On XI ventral setie are usually absent altogether, their 
place being occupied by the male genital orifices, while the dorsal bundle 
is composed of 2 or 3 setae. All setje are hooked and bifid and have the 
form shown in figure 5. Those on the genital and posterior somites have 
the same shape as the others, but the latter are somewhat smaller. 

None of the specimens is nearly mature, but the reproductive organs 
are sufficiently well developed to indicate their characteristic features 
(fig. 6). Spermathecie, 1 pair in X, of fairly large size, reaching verti- 
cally nearly to the dorsal wall of the body. They are of simple clavate 
fiirm and, although the upper end is considerably inflated and has much 
thinner walls than the lower half, there is no clear distinction between duct 

and pouch. The external opening is in line with the ventral setae, is Fig- b.—Limuodrilus grac. 
simple and without glands or other special features. The spermathecje 
are filled with elongated spermatophores having clear centers. Testes, 
1 pair, attached on each side near the posterior base of the septum IX/X, long, slender, rising freely 
into the dorsal part of the body cavity and reaching backward to the spermathecre. Male efferent 
organs are not fully developed. Their deeply funnel-form crelomic ends are in X, with the mouth 
opening directly clorsad. The vas deferens jierforates the septum X XI in line with the ventral seta 
B. B. F. l»j— 12 




170 



BULLETIISI ()K THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



close to the body floor, forms in XI a sinuous loop or two leading dorsad by the side of the intestine 
and expands into a fusiform receptaculum, the anterior end of which bears a prominent prostate 
gland usually drawn out into two slendpr lohes. A short ductus leads to the atrium which is 
cylindrical and about three tinus :i- hiiu :i- tliirk. From the ventral body wall the atrium rises to 
the side of the intestine. Penis -lii.tiL -iiii|ili'. smooth, and chitinous; the penis in retracted condi- 
tion apparently about 5 or 6 times its diuuiuiuf and of uniform thickness. Paired external pores in 
line with spermathecal pores and smaller than they. 

The septum X/XI is produced caudal through XI as a single median (or perhaps a pair of closely 
approximated), sjierm sac havins tlic form of a narrow tube, into which the lateral vascular arches 
of X enter. The s(|ituiii X I XII is >iiiLilarly pushed back into a certainl)- unpaired tubular ovisac, into 
which both the sin-i m smi- an.l tlir \as(iilar arches enter, the latter much looped and folded. In the 
specimens sectioned the cuiiiljinc-d spenn and ova sacs reach only to the posterior end of XII, and 
while the former is crowded with spermatozoa the latter contains no ova. Similarly to the testes, the 
ovaries are attached to the posterior face of septum X/XI just laterad of the point of passage of the 
vas deferens. They are much longer than the testes and loop across the upper part of the body cavity 
several times. The interior of the egg strings is a granular mass with little or no trace of cell bound- 
aries or nuclei and appears to be formed of disintegrated ova. Whether or not these egg strings are 
entirelv free from the ovaries is uncertain. 




XI XII 

hG. 6.— Diagram of the principal reproductive organs contained in tlie tenth, eleventli, and twelfth somites of Linmo- 
drilus gracilis, as seen from the side; (, testes; sp, spermatheca; /, sperm funnel; v, v, vas deferens; p, prostate gland; 
r, receptaculum seminies; at, atrium containing penis and penis sheath and opening externally at cf ; or, ovary, largely 
cut away, only the base remaining; ss, sperm sac; and os, ovisac, both represented as continued beyond somite XII. 



Brain about as broad as long, with thick masses of ganglion cells and very shallow anterior and 
posterior emarginations. Vascular arches of the first seven somites very long, branched, and complexly 
folded, forming a conspicuous system of integumental vessels. Large hearts in VIII and IX. 
Chlarogogue cells begin in VIII. 

This species was found at several stations (4.31n, 432a, 477a) among reeds about the shore of 
Rondeau Harbor, Ontario, during the latter part of August, 1899, and at Norwood, Mich., was 
dredged in 13 fathoms on August 8, 1894. The former is the type locality, and the type specimen is 
no. 5227, U. S. National Museum. 

GLOSSOSCOLECII).^. 
Sparganophilus eiseni Smith. 



Sparganopiiihts eiseni Smith. Bulletin Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, vol. iv, 1S95. p. 142. 

This species was found at Lake St. Clair August, 1894, 2 small specimens taken on the bottom 
with the Birge net; bank of Round Lake, Charlevoix, Mich., July 20, 1894, two immature specimens; 
High Island Harbor, Beaver Islands, Michigan, trawled in Chara, 1 large example; Squaw Bay, Put in 



HIRTIDINEA AND OLIGOCH^TA OF THE GREAT LAKES REGION. 171 

Bay, Ohio, August 12, 1898 (67), under a rock, 1 small specimen; Long Point, Lake Erie, Canada, 
August 23, 1899 (382), two very small si)ecimens referred doubtfully to this species upon the basis of 
Bete characters; Rondeau Harbor, Ontario (-H8a)i August 30, 1899, 1 specimen. 

LUMBRICID^. 
Helodrilus caligrinosus (Savigny) jMichaelsen. 
Hdodrihis raligi7wsus, Michaelscn, Das Tierreich, Oligochaeta. p. 482, 1900. 

Nine specimens of this species were taken near Port Clinton, Ohio, on the bank of the Portage 
River on August 12, 1895. The clitellum begins on XXVI; on one specimen on XXV. In all other 
respects they are normal. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

The figures on this plate were drawn and colored from living examples taken at Put-in Bay during 
the survey of Lake Erie. The figures are numbered from left to right: 1 to 3 above, 4 to 6 below. 

Fig. 1. Erpobdella j)unchita (Leidy) Moore. A young example. The pink color on the margin is 
due to a wave of blood passing through the lateral vessel. X 4. 

Fig. 2. Glosniphonia stagnalig (Linnpeus) Blanchard. A nearly full-grown example. The luichal 
gland is scarcely evident in the figure, and the stomach and intestine (containing little or no lilood) 
are pale yellow. X 8. 

Fig. 3. Placohdella picUt (Verrill) Moore. A small and pale specimen, with the branched gastric 
eseca very distinct. X 4. 

Fig. 4. Glo:<sij'lii)iiin riiiN/i/aiKila (Linnseus) Johnston. A small and lightly pigmented example, 
with the dark paramedian lines very little developed. X 10. 

Fig. 5. Glo.ii<ipliniii,( fiisi'ii Ca.stle. A full-grown example of the lined variety, with the stomach 
and intestine partially tilled with blood. X 15. 

Fig. 6 IHna fervida (Verrill) Moore. A nearly full-grown pale specimen, with three pairs of eyes 
and an additional one on the right side. The red color is due to the blood, seen through the trans- 
parent tissues. Fully extended. X 3. 



BULL. U. S. B. F. 1905 




E ERIE LEECHES 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES FOUND IN THE ARCHIPELAGO, WITH A 
PROVISIONAL CHECK-LIST OF THE FISHES OF OCEANIA 



By DAVID STARR JORDAN AND ALVIN SEALE 



' '>-" " V^^: 




THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES FOUND IN THE ARCHIPELAGO, WITH A PROVISIONAL 
CHECK-LIST OF THE FISHES OF OCEANIA. 



By DAVID STARR JORDAN aii.l ALVIN SEALE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The islands of Samoa, known also as the Navigator Islands, or Schiffer Insel, lie 
in the South Pacific Ocean in latitude 14-" south and loug-itude 172'^ west. Thej^ are 
volcanic in character, each of the larger one.s rising in a high ridge, with .extinct 
craters, now ver_y heavily wooded. The almost constant rains tend to make these 
forests very dense, feeding swift, clear sti'eams, which carry a large volume of water 
considering the slight length of their courses. Each island is surrounded by a broad 
coral reef, the outer parts bare at low tide, with a narrow, shallow channel between 
the inner part and the shore. This reef is interrupted in certain regions, known as 
the "iron-bound" coast, where the lava rocks cease abruptly beside deep water. It 
is also interrupted at the mouths of certain streams, which liy their fresh waters kill 
the coral and make a channel through the reef. 

Of these islands the westernmost, Savaii, about 45 miles long l)y 30 miles broad, 
is the largest and the most recent geologically. Upolu, -40 miles bj^ 15 miles, is near 
it in size and position. On the north side of the latter island is the broad V-shaped 
Bay of Apia, which can scarcely be called a harbor, as it is filled up b^' the reef with 
the exception of a deep and tortuous channel opposite the mouth of the i-iver Vaisigano, 
a considerable stream, perhaps the largest on the islands. Upolu and Savaii are now 
under the German flag, with the capital at Apia. On the west side of the Bay of 
Apia is the long, narrow peninsula of coral sand, known as Mulinu'u, the residence 
of Mataafa, chief of Samoa, and the former residence of the kings of the islands. 
To the west of Mulinu'u is the shallow Ba^^ of Vaitele, and to the eastward of Apia 
is the larger Bay of Vailele. Into Vaitele Ba}' flows Gasegase River. Into the Ba}^ 
of Apia flows the Vailema stream and the Vaisigano River, while to the eastward 
Vaivasi River runs into the Bay of Vailele. 

The next island in size and importance is Tutuila, 20 miles long by about 4 miles 
liroad, which lies about a deep crater, with the two high peaks of Matabas and Peoa 
adjoining it. The crater has a narrow opening at one side and forms the landlocked 
harbor of Pago Pago, the best in Polynesia, about 2.5 miles long and 1 mile wide, 
with everywhere a broad rim of coral reef. There is a small stream near the head 
of the harbor, and there arc springs along the side. 

17.5 



176 HULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OB^ FISHERIES. 

The oldest island is Manua, still farther to the eastward, nearly circular, and 
about 10 miles across, and there are also about six smaller islets, none of which was 
examined by us. The islands of Tutuila and Manua are now under the flag of the 
United States. 

In the summer of 1902 investigation of the tish and tisheries of this archipelago 
was made under the auspices of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries." The work was 
conducted chiefly from Apia and Pago Pago; and during the comparatively short 
time devoted to it, rich collections, numerous as to species and individuals, were 
obtained, and many species new to science were discovered. 

The coral reefs of the South Seas literally swarm with fishes. The larger species 
live in the deeper channels, passing in and out with a display of brilliant colors. 
The smaller species, as Pomacentridse, Blenniidae, Chajtodontidue, live on the surfai c 
of the reefs and are segregated in pools as the tides recede. Manj' of these reef 
fishes show marked protective coloring, having the hues and markings of the reef 
itself. Still others show what may t)e termed defiant coloring, their hues of blue, 
scarlet, yellow, and green being in vivid contrast to the rocks about them. Nowhere 
are these reef tishes more brilliant than in Polynesia. It is not easy to explain the 
reason for these vivid hues, nor for the elaborate and striking markings which 
accompany them. It is clear that protective coloration is needless, for these species 
are exceedinglj^ active and when disturbed move through the water like animated 
lightning; but whj^ such a riot of color should exist is not evident. There is appar- 
ently no advertising end to be served, and the idea that recognition has a high value 
to the species has never been received with favor by naturalists. In the record of 
the voyage of Captain Cook is the following account of the fishes of the atoll called 
Palmerston Island: 

At one part of the reef which bounds the lake within, almost even with the surface, there was a 
large bed of coral, which afforded a most enchanting prospect. Its base, which was fixed to the 
shore, extended so far that it could not be seen, so that it appeared to be suspended in the water. 
The sea was then unruffled, and the refulgence of the sun exposed the various sorts of coral in the 
most beautiful order; some parts luxuriantly branching in the water, others appearing in vast variety 
of figures, and the whole greatly heightened by spangles of the richest colors, glowing from a number 
of large clams, interspersed in every part. Even tliis delightful scene was greatly improved by the 
multitude of fishes that gently glided along, seemingly with the most perfect security. Their colors 
were the most beautiful that can be imagined: blue, yellow, black, red, &c., far excelling anything 
that can be produced by art. The richness of this submarine grotto was greatly increased by their 
various forms, and the whole could not possibly be surveyed without a pleasing transport, accompanied, 
at the same time, with regret that a work so astonishingly elegant should be concealed in a place so 
seldom explored by the human eye. 

The fish fauna of Upolu and Tutuila is entirely the same, nor is there evidence 
of any divergence from the fauna of Tahiti, Tonga, and other islands of similar 
character. It is largely identical with that of the East Indies, from which nearly all 

a This e.tpedition was under the direction of Dr. David Starr Jordan, who was as-sisted in the work by Prof. Vernon 
Lyman Kellogg and Mr. Miohitaro Sindo, of Stanford University for the Bureau, and the volunteer service of Prof. Robert 
Edgar AUarditL-, of Staiifnrd ruiversity, and Kniu'lit Stair Jordan. 

Acknowli <ljiiii 1)1- Ml 11 -n -111 Hi . .■! Ml! 1. ill- 1, iiiil- 111-.- due to the governor of Samoa, Dr. Schnee, and to Mr. H. J. 
Moors, of A I 1 11 M ' ' - i I - li i.ijiit at the station.and his officers and assistants, through whom 

the U. S. ^nii! ' - ■! i i ■ i i i. i ■ ^i ;it the disposal of the investigating party; to Mauga, chief of 

Tutuila, ami i. 'I nn in-iili 'i i ii A |i i i lu' -ii- ii " li"-' i "I' n -t many small reef fishes were obtained; and to various Samoan 
assistants, chiif among: s\ hum were Tiiua, Vniula. Musila, and Salewale. of .\pia, and Afele, of Pago Pago, whose services 
contributed much to the success of the work. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. ll( 

of its elements are clearly derived. But a number of East Indian species fail to 
extend their range thus far to the east, very many of them not ranging beyond the 
island of Papua or New Guinea. A few large species are confined to the islands of 
Polynesia, and manj^ of the small ones, especially those living in crevices in the 
coral, seem to have originated in Polynesia. It is a general rule of distribution that 
with any given species the one nearest related will be found in neighboring waters, 
but not in the same waters. This indicates that in general species have a basis in 
geographical separation. But the Samoan species of Eriota, Eniieapterygms, Sala- 
rid.s, and the like seem to foi'm exceptions to this rule. Here closely related species 
live in tiu> suinc rrujon. PitIiujis these i'mnis tirieinatc in saltations vv '' mutations"'. 
More likely the is,,lati<in of dilleiviil .oral iiia>M'^ i> siillieienl t.. invx ,"nt the migration 
of individuals, and Ikmicc to favor the M'ieetioii of lliiet nations uiuIim- varying condi- 
tions, thus producing distinct species in regions not far separated. As most of these 
little fishes are less than an inch long and local in their habit, this is possible. The 
conditions illustrate the remark of Dr. Elliott Coues that "migration holds species 
true; localization lets them slip." In other words, a species splits up into minor 
groups if its range is divided by barriers preventing free movement of individuals. 

Tiie previous collections of fishes from Samoa have been relatively few. The 
earliest recorded species, from Apia, was named DUigramina gihhosum by Hombron 
& Jacquinot in their ichthyology of the " Voj-age au Pole Sud" by Dumont D'Ur- 
ville, published in LS-il. 

Later, 1868 to 1870, the gigantic trading house of "Cfesar Godeffroy und Sohn" 
of Hamburg made Apia the center of its operations. Among other workings of this 
firm was the establishment at Hamburg of the Godefl'roy Museum and the publication 
for a time of a " Journal des Museum Godeffroy," in which the natural historj' of the 
South Seas was elaborately treated. Among other papers on this subject, the " Fische 
der Siidsee" of Dr. Albert Giinther (1873) is especially noteworthy. This is based 
primarily on a series of colored life sketches of the fishes of Hawaii, Tahiti, Samoa, 
and other islands, made by Mr. Andrew Garrett in the several years of his residence 
in Polynesia. - In this paper descriptions are given of most of the fishes then known 
from the South Seas, with excellent colored plates of a large proportion of these. 
Unfortunately, the Godeti'ro}- firm fell into financial embarrassment, the publication 
of its journal was suspended, and the "Fische der Siidsee" was never completed, 
ceasing abruptly in the family of Lahrida^. 

From the Godefiroys a considerable number of fishes had been earlier sent to the 
Museum of Vienna, where, about 18t)8, the}' had been described by Dr. Rudolph Kner 
and Dr. Franz Steindachner. Still later. Rev. S. J. Whitmee, a missionary resident 
on the island of Savaii, sent to the British Museum a large and well chosen collection 
from Savaii and Upolu. A part of this collection has been used by Dr. Geoi'ge 
Albert Boulenger in the preparation of the first volume of his Catalogue of Fishes of 
the British Museum. Outside the percoid group, however, this collection remains 
unstudied. A small collection also was made about 1876 by Dr. Streets, of the United 
States Navy. It was described in the Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum, volume 
VII, in 1877. A few species in the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia, 
collected by Mr. Caldwell, have been recorded by Mr. Henry W. Fowler. 



178 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



At the time of our visit at Samoa the following species. Itj4 in mini})er. wcr 
known from the Samoan Islands; about six were not taken by us; and in i'e<;iird to ; 
few there is some question of correctness of identification. The nomenclature in tlii 
list is that adopted in the present 



LIST OF SPECIES KNOWN FKOM SAMOA PKIOR TO 1902 



Fistularia petimba. 
Macrorhainpliosus brevispinii 
Liza cajruleomaoulata. 
Liza troscheli. 
Polydactylus plebeius. 
Holotrachys lima. 
Holoceiitrus ruber. 
Holocentrus punctatissimus. 
Holocentrus diadema. 
Holocentrus microstomus. 
Holocentrus opercularis. 
Holocentrus la'vis. 
Megalaspis ci>rdyla. 
Caranx forstcri. 
Scomberoides sanctijietri. 
TrachinotuB ovatus. 
Trachinotus bailloni. 
Pempheris oualensis. 
Epinephelus merra. 
Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. 
Epinephelus socialis. 
Epinephelus sonnerati. 
Cephalopholis argus. 
Cephalopholis miniatus. 
Variola louti. 

Paracanthistius ruaculatus. 
Kuhlia marginata. 
Amia novemfasciatii. 
Amia savayensis. ' 
Mionorus grreffei. 
Apogonichthys variegatus. 



^sispinus. 
iagranima. 
■iuntalis. 
tatiis. 



Euelatichtl 

PlrrtnHiyn 
Plertorhyil. 

Priacaulliu. 
Scolopsis trilineata. 
Scolopsis lineata. 
Xystiema gigas. 
Gnathodentex aurolineat 
Terapon jarbua. 
Monotaxis grandoculis. 
Kyphosus waigiensis. 
Lethrinella miniata. 
Lethrinus mu;usi. 



Lethrinus ramak. 

Pharopteryx melas. 

Pharopteryx nigricans. 

Ujjeneus vittatus. 

Mulloides samoensis. 

Pseudupeneus barberinus. 

Pseudupeneus indicus. 

Pseudupeneus nioana. 

Poraacentrus nigricans. 

Pomacentrus lividus. 

Chromis c<eruleus. 

Dascyllus aruanus. 

Abudefduf sordidus. 

Abudof.luf.licki. 

Alui.l.-f.lul nniucellatus. 

Ahiidcfdnt nmabilia. 

Abudefduf leucopomus. 

Abudefduf zonatus. 

Abudefduf bonang. 
Labrichthys cyanotsenia. 

Labroides diniidiatus. 

Cheilinus digraunnus. 

Cheilinus trilobatus. 

Pseudocheilinus hexatrenia. 
Hemigymnus melapterus. 
Anampses melanurus. 
Anampses diadematus. 
Stethojulis casturi. 
Stethojulis renardi. 
Stethojulis strigiventer. 
ThalasBoma schwanefeldi. 
JMonodactylus argenteus. 
•Platax orbicularis. 
Cha'todon ulietensis. 
C'lKi'tddonlineolatus. 
('h:rt..d,,ncitrinenus. 
Cli,rt..d,,nsenieion. 
Cli.itiMidu unimaculatus. 
t'li.i tiiilon quadrimaculatus. 
Ili-iiinrhus monoceros. 

Holocanthus diacanthus. 
Holocanthus bicolor. 
Holocanthus nicobariensis. 
Siganus marinoratus. 



Hepatus matoides.^ 
Hepatus aterrinms. 
Hepatus lineatus. • 
Hepatus nigricans. 
Hepatus achilles. 
Hepatus guttatus. 
Zebrasoraa veliferum. 
Ostracion punctatum. 
Balistapus aculeatus. 
Platycephalus variolosus. 
Sebastopsis guamensis. 
Scorpsenopsis gibbosa. 
Pterois radiata. 
Deudrochirus brachypterus. 
Mapo fuscus. 
RhinogobiuB neophytus. 
Awaous geni vittatus. 
Awaous ocellaris. 
Zonogobius semidoliatus. 
Paragobiodon echinocephalus 
Amblygobius phahena. 
Valenciennea violifera. 
Asterropterix semipunctatus. 
Klcntris fusca. 
H>pseleotris guntiieri. 
Psi'udogobiodon citrinus. 
Gobiodon ceramensis. 
Periophthalmus barbarus. 
Soleichthys heterorhinos. 
Parapercis tetracanthus. 
Enneapterygius minutus. 
Enneapterygius hemimelas. 
Petrc iscirtes tapeinosomus. 
Petniscirtes atrodorsalia. 
Petroscirtes longifilis. 
Alticus evermanni. 
Alticus sebje. 
Alticus variolosus. 
Alticus alboguttatus. 
Alticus periophthalmus. 
Salarias edentulus. 
Salarias fasciatus. 
Exallias brevis. 
Antennarius drombus. 



The fish fauna of the Samoan Islands is one of the richest on the globe. In oiii 
short stay we obtained 475 species, of which 'J2 seem to be new to science. Tht 
following is a list of these new forms. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



179 



Himantura I'ai. 
Gymuothorax talofa. 
Echidna trossula. 
Anarchias allardicei. 
Anarchias kuighti. 
Rhinamuriiena eritiina. 
Zenarchopterus vaisiganij- 
Anchovia evermaniii. 
Aiichovia apiensis. 
Myripristis sanguineus. 
Corythroichthys sealei. 
Corythroic'hthys waitei. 
Corythroiclithys mataafii . 
Microphis torrentius. 
Atherina uisila. 
Decap)terus lundini. 
Caranx gilberti. 
Amia exostigma. 
Araia doryssa. 
Foa vaiulw. 
Foa )o. 

Apogonichthys isostigma. 
Ambassis vaivasensis. 
Ambassis lafa. 
Pseudupeneus moana. 
Cluorististium susunii. 
Pomacentrus eclipticus. 
Poinacentrus vaiuli. 
Abudefduf taupou. 
Abudefduf metallicus. 



uIST OF 92 SAMOAN SPECIES BELIEVED TO BE NEW. 

Triiuma 



Chroinis iomelas. 
Ilalifhu'res diedalma. 
Platygloff-us flos-corallis. 
Callyoilon fumifrons. 
Callyodon kelloggi. 
Callyodon maorit-us. 
Callyodon iiyrrliurus. 
t'all\-n.!(iii nilicrriniua. 
tally. i^Mii ciytluicus. 

Callyodon zcjnularis. 
Callyodon abaourus. 
Callyodon latax. 
Callyodon cyanograminus. 
Callyodon ultramarinus. 
Callyodon lazulinus. 



:itnH 



Dei 



us saiisaulele. 
Sebastaiiistes la.itak'. 
iSynchii'oims lili. 
Eviota afelei. 
Eviota suiaragdus. 
Eviota sebreei. 
Eviota pruinosa. 
Eviota zonura. 
Eviota distigma. 
Eviota prasites. 
Eviota lierrei. 
Drombus tutuihf. 
Valenciennea violilera. 



siura 
Glossogobius v 
Vailima stevensoni. 
Vaiinosa tVmtinalis. 

]\IaiH.,Tassirri,s. 

I!liiiiog,,l,ius,'orallinnf.. 
Rhiuogobius muscaruni. 
Cha'iiogobius erythrops. 
Vitivola saLiitta. 
Kclli.-L'i'lla I'anlinalis. 
1 lil.TclcniiiH phaenna. 

Sicyoplerus taua/. 
Hypleurochilus vaillanti. 
Alticnw evennanni. 
Alii. -us iiinsilM. 
Ahi.-nstl.ala-luus. 
.Malarias alkinsoiii. 
Salarias garmani. 
Salarias sindonis. 
Salarias bryani. 
Blennins tonganus. 
Petrosdrtes azureus. 
Petroscirtes xestus. 
Enneapterygius hudsoni. 
Enneapterygius pardochir. 
Enneapterygius tusitalfe. 
Enneapterygius tutuiki?. 
Enneapterygius cerasinum. 



All of the specimens are from the reefw; we had no means of fishing in the open 
sea. In general, we had four methods of collecting: First, the use of dynamite, by 
which nearly all our large fish were taken. Second, the use of poison in the pools 
on the reef at low tide; the poisons used were commercial chloride of lime and 
sulphate of copper, the first much to be preferred, and thus were obtained hundreds 
of small fishes, notably Pomacentridte, Gobiida;, Blenniidre, and eels. Third, the 
use of the seine along the shores, whereby the herring and other shore fishes were 
taken. Fourth, the employment of divers to liring up coral heads, which when 
l)roken yield many specimens of Eiuota, Enneapte'rygiux^ and the smaller eels. The 
larger fishes, Callyodon excepted, have been described long since, but most of the 
little fi.shes taken from the corals arc new. This method of collecting has never been 
practiced by other naturalists in this region. 

In the present paper are given the field notes of Professors -Jordan and Kellogg, 
the descriptions of new species, with other notes, and enough of sjmonymy to 
complete the references given by Dr. Giinther in his '"Catalogue of Fishes of the 
British Museum" and his "Fische der Siidsee", and those given by Dr. Boulenger 
in volume i of his edition of the British Museum Catalogue; and of those given by 
Jordan and Evermann and by Dr. Gilbert in their recent reviews of the fishes of 
Hawaii. Synonymy is given in general only when our studies have added .something 
to the record given by these authorities. Type localities are shown in the synonymy 
in heavy-face type. 



180 



BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF FISHERIES. 



The colored plates are in some cases a revision of field sketches by Dr. Jordan: 
the others were made from specimens that had not faded. Some of the sketches an- 
not quite accurate in certain details of scales and tin rays, but the shades of coloration 
are very well shown." 

The area represented in this list comprises Hawaii, Polynesia, Melanesia, and 
Micronesia. It excludes New Zealand, Torres Straits, the Arafura Sea, and the 
islands to the westward of Waigiu and to the southward of the Louisiades: but the 
eastern coast of New Guinea is included. All the species we find recorded from 
these regions are embraced in the list. There are doubtless numerous omissions, 
and there are man}' nominal species which will be eliminated when the region is 
full}' explored. 

Of these regions, the fauna of Hawaii is nmch the most distinct from that of 
Samoa. With most of the same genera, the species of shore fishes in Hawaii ar( 
very largelj' distinct from those of Polynesia. This is due to the long separation nl 
Hawaii, and perhaps to the westward direction of her ocean currents, while those of 
Samoa and Tahiti trend eastward. The very extensive fauna of Melanesia is 
essentially that of the East Indies, with the loss of some species, and the incursion 
of ver}' man}' others from Australia. The fauna of Micronesia differs little from 
that of Polynesia. 

The islands whose fish fauna is considered may be classified as follows: 



;Molok 
Maui. 
Lanai. 



French Frigate Shoal. 

Laysan. 

Midway. 

Johnston. 



Fanning It^lands: 

Palmyra. 

Christmas. 

Thornton. 
Marquesas Islands: 

Nukahiva. 
Paumotu Islands: 

Gambier Islands (Mantra 



Pitcairn. 
Tahiti, or Society 

Tahiti (Otaheite) 

Eaiatea (Ulietea) 

Huahine. 

Billingshausen. 
Cook Islands: 

Rarotonga. 
Anstral Islands: 

Tubuai. 



Samoa, or Navigator Islands: 

Savaii. 

Upolu. 

Tntnila. 

:\Iarina. 

Rose. 
Tonga, or Friendly Islands: 

Tonga tabu. 

Kermadec Islands: 

Raoul, or Sunday. 
Fiji Islands: 

Viti Levu. 

Vanua Levu. 

Ovalau. 

Levuka. 

Kandavu. 

Kanathia. 



a The colored drawings for the most part were made by Kako Morita; the uneolored sketches are the work of Chloe 
Leslie Starks, W. S. Atkinson, R. L. Hudson, and Sekko Shimada. 

The authors express their indebtedness to Dr. Charles H. Gilbert for assistance of various sorts, and to Mr. Albert C. 
Herre, of Stanford University, for help in sorting and determining various fishes; to Mr. William E. Safford.of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, for aid in the determination of the native names; and to Dr. Barton Warren Evermann for 
assistance of various kinds, especially in proof reading and in seeing these pages through the press. 



THK FISHES 



New Hebrides: 

Banks Group. 

Espiritu Santo. 

Fall' (Vate). 

Aneiteuni. 

Tanna. 

Erromango. 
Loyalty Islands: 

Xew Caledonia. 
Santa Cruz Islands: 

Vanicolo (Vanikoro). 

Tioopia. 
Solomon Islands; 

Guadalcanar. 

Shortland. 

Alu. 

Bougainville. 

New Georgia. 

San Cristobal. 



Bismarck Archipelago: 

Admiralty Islands. 

New Hanover. 

New Ireland (New Mecklenberg). 

Duke of York Group. 

New Britain (New Pomerania). 

L'Echiquier Islands. 
Papua, or New Guinea: 

Waigiu. 

Misol. 

Eawak. 

New Guinea. 

D'Entrecasteau.x Islands. 

D'lTrville Islands. 

Percy. 

Normanby. 

IMoresby. 

Lonisiades. 



Phrenix Islands: 

Howland. 

Sydney. 
EUice Islands: 

Rotumah. 

Nurakita. 

Funafuti. 
Gilbert Islands: 

Makin. 

Apamaiia. 
Marshall Islands: 

Jaluit. 

Bonhani. 

Radack Islands. 



Caroline Islands: 
Kusaie ( Strong < 
Yap. 



■ Oualan). 



Royalist. 

Pingelap. 

Ulea (Wolea). 
Ladrone Islands ( ^lariana) : 

Guam. 
Bonin Islands: 

Marcus. 
Palau Islands (Pelew). 



SYSTEMATIC LIST OF SPECIES. 



Family BRAXCH1(IST0M1D.€. 

AMPHIOXIDES Gill. 

1. Amphioxides pelagicus i ( iiuitluT i. Deep waters of Hawaii. 

EPIGONICHTHYS Peters. (Asi/rmnetrim Andrews.j 

2. Epigonichthys caudatus (Willey). Louisiades. 

Asymmeirim ramfatum Willey, Quart. J<iiir. Mic. Sou. IS'.tt;, '219. Loulsiade 

Family SCVLLIUKHIMD.F;. 

CATULUS Smith. 

3. Catulus spongiceps Gilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 



182 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Family HEMISCVLLlU/f.. 
HEMISCYLLIUM Miiller & Henle. 

4. Hemiscyllium ocellatum. (Gmelin). New (iiiinea (Maclcay ); Australia. 

5. Hemiscyllium freycineti (Quoy & Gaitiianl) . AVaifjiii. 

Sei/ltiumfrciirineli(lnoy & Gaimard, Voy. Uranie, 1V2. 1S24, Waigiu. 
Scyttium malaisiamim Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, 94, pi. li, 1830, Waigiu. 

OBECTOLOBUS Bonaparte. (CroKSorh'aiu.i "SXuWvr 6z TIenle. ) 

6. Orectolobus barbatus (Gmelin). New Guinea (Macleay); Australia; Japan. 

7. Orectolobus dasypogon (Bleeker). Waigiu; Alu. 

Crossorhinus dafijpogon Bleeker, Arehiv Neerl. 1867, 400, with plalc, Waigiu. 
If this species is really different from the Australian 0. harhaldK, it is probable tliat Japan 
well as Melanesian specimens belong to it. 

Fariiih (;I\(;LVM()ST()MATII)/K. 
NEBEITJS Ktippell. 

8. Nebrius concolor Ruppcll. New (iuiiieii ( Macleay ) ; Indian Seas. 

OINOLYMOSTOMA Miiller & Henle. 

9. Ging-lymostoma ferrug-ineum (Lesson). New Ireland; Waigiu; India. 



Si-iillium J'enugiin iiiii Lesson, Vi 


jy. Co 


quille, n, TO. IS'J 


Ginrjlijmostoina mulkri Giinther 


, Cat., 


vni, 408, 1S70. 



Family C.\RCHARI1D^. JfaHe; Tanlfa. 

GALEUS Rafinesqne. 

10. Galeus japonicus Mullcr & Ilenle. Laysan; Japan. 

GALEOCEBSO Miiller & Henle. 

11. Galeocerdo tigrinus Midler i>c Henle. Hawaii; .\ustralia; Japan. 

TBI3:N0D0N Miiller & Henle. 

12. Trisenodon obesus (Riijipell). Aneiteum; Ea.st Indies. 

PBIONACE Cantor. 

13. Prionace glauca (Linnicus). Hawaii; warm seas. 

CABCHARIAS Rafinesqne. 

14. Carcharias melanopterus Quoy & i iaimanl. Malie itlimmtu. Waigiu; Thornton I. ; Christmas I. ; 

Washingtonl.; Hawaii; Samoa. 
This species, known at once by the jet l>lack tips to its tins, is the commonest shark in the chan- 
nels between the reefs of Samoa. 

15. Carcharias phorcys Jordan ct Evermann. Hawaii. 

16. Carcharias iusularum Snyder. Hawaii. 

17. Carcharias nesiotes Snyder. Hawaii; Laysan; French Frigate Shoals. 

18. Carcharias sorrah Miiller & Henle. Solomon Is. (Seale); East Indies. 

19. Carcharias maou (Lesson). Paumotu Is. 

s,jii(iliis maoii Lesson, Voy. Coquille, ii, 91, pi. 1, 1830, Paumotu Is. 

20. Carcharias pleurotsenia Bleeker. New Guinea (Bleeker) ; East Indies. 

HYPOPRIONODON Gill. 

21. Hypoprionodon macloti (IMviller i^- Henle). New <";uinea (Bleeker); East Indies. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 183 

Family SPHYKNID.€. 

SPHYENA Kafinesque. 

22. Sphyrna zygsena (Linnieus). M<tlit-i-litli<i<i. Samoa; Hawaii; Fiji; New Guinea; warm seas. 
Tlie common hammerhead is abundant at the reefs of Samoa, as also at Hawaii. Two specimens 

preserved from .\pia. 

Famiiv ALOPIID^. 

ALOPIAS KafineBque. 

23. Alopias -v-iilpes ((imelin). Hawaii; warm seas. 

Family L.\M\ID^. 

ISUROPSIS Gill. 

24. Isuropsis g-lauca (Miiller & Henle). Hawaii; tropical Pacific. 

CARCHARODON Smith. 

25. Carcharodon carcharias (Linmens). Hawaii; warm seas. 

Family SUU.XLIU.^. 
SQ,1TALUS Linnaeas. 

26. Squalus mitsukurii .Ionian & Snyder. Hawaii; Japan. 

ETMOPTERTJS Rafinesque. 

27. Etmopterus villosus Gilbert. Deep waters of Hawaii. 

CENTROSCYLLIUM Miiller & Henle. 

28. Centroscyllium ruscosum Gilbert. Deep waters of Hawaii. 

ISISTITTS Gill. 

29. Isistius brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard). South Pacific, off Fiji; Brazil; Guinea. 

Family RHIN0B.\TID.4-:. 
RHINOBATUS Bloch & Schneider. 

30. Bhinobatus granulatus Cuvier. New Guinea; Bougainville Is. ; East Indies. 

31. Rhinobatus thouini Miiller & Henle. Hood Bay, New Guinea (Maclea)'). 

32. Bhinobatus joram Montrouzier. Louisiades. 

Rhlnohatus joram Montrouzier, .\nn. Soc. Lyons. 18.56, 220, Woodlark I. (Louisiades I. 

Family DASYATIU.€. 

DISCOBATIS Macleay & Macleay. 

This genus is near Urolophus, but has no fin on the tail. The skin is smootii, tlie disk circular, 
the veutrals entire, and the teeth small. (Not Discobatus Garman 1880, a Japanese genus.) 

33. Discobatis marginipinnis Macleay & Macleay. Admiralty Is. 

Disriihatix ;nrtr;;/ni>i'7in/s Macleay & Macleay, Proe. Linn. Soc, N, S, W, 188.5, 67i;. pi. 46. 
DASYATIS Rafinesque. 

34. Dasyatis sclera Jenkins. Hawaii. 

35. Dasyatis lata Garman. Hawaii. 

36. Dasyatis hawaiiensis Jenkins. Hawaii. 

37. Dasyatis kuhli (Miiller & Henle). New Ireland; East Indies. 

38. Dasyatis trig-onoides (Castelnau). New Caledonia. 

I:iuia iXn,tr}/goii) tniionoides Castelnau, Proe. Zool. Soc, Vict, 1873, 121, New Caledonia: a sting ray with the spine 



184 BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF FISHERIES. 

TiENIURA Muller & Heule. 
Tail long, with a raylesH fold of >^kin belnw. 

39. Tseniura lymma (Forskal). New Guinea (Maeleay): Eas?t Indies. 

40. Tseniura atra Maeleay. Xew Guinea (Maeleay) . 

HIMANTURA Dumeril. 
Tail very long, without fold. 

41. Himantura fai Jordan & Seale, new speeies. Fal. Samoa. 

Snout -t.iSd to base of tail; eye 2.7.5 in interorbital sjjaee, which i.s equal to snout; length of nas^al 
opening 2.75 in interorbital. 

Body broadly pentagonal, the i^nout very broad but somewhat pointed; disk wider than long 
(14.50 inches wide, ]1..501ong): length of di^^k 'A.?>0 times in the long whip-like tail; teeth not large, about 



V' f 




species Type 



13 oblique series on upper jaw and 23 oblique series in lower; upper buceal tUqi with tine fringes; 
width of mouth 1.7.5 in snout; distance between lower gill-openings equal to distanee from first to fifth 
opening; length of ventral fins slightly less than inteiorliital space; tail without fold of any kind, its 
lower surface smooth, the upper surface with seattcicil small piickles (spine removed by fisherman 
from type); a row of 10 large spinules in front of spine: sc\cii small spines on median line of disk at 
its highest joint; a few scattered minute s]iiciili--' sc :iicily showing through the skin near these spines 
and on interorbital region, otherwise disk jxriictly Miniotli. 

Color in spirits, back a uniform drab, top of tail dusky, under surface of disk uniform white, under 
surfai-c of tail light brown. 



THK FISHES OF SAMOA. 185 

One specimen, type no. 51712, U. S. Natiunal Museum, from Apia, Samoa. Length with tail 47 
inches. The color in life was i)lain lirown, n.it vrry dark, white below, with no reddish shades and 
nn ocelli. The species is allied to Hhiiiinlnn, namal, but the latter species has the disk considerably 
narrower. 

42 Himantura uarnak ( Forskal ). New Ireland; Fast Indies. 

43. Himantura granulata ( Macleay ) . New Guinea. 

Tri,,,,m ,,„i,i„lut„s ■Slaclmy, I'roc. Liim. S"C. N. S. W. lss:i. .i9S, S. E. New Guinea. 
HYPOLOPHUS Dunieril. 

44. Hypolophus sephen (Fnrskall. Ni-w liritain: Fast Indies. 

F:iiiiily AETOB.^TIIU:. 
AETOBATUS Blainville. ( Miiliuhnlix Midler &. Henle. ) 

45. Aetobatus punctatus Olacleay c>i Macleay). Admiralty Is. 

.\[,lli,,l,,il,!< iiH„,l„l,i.^ .Miic'li-iiy ,'.• M.-ic'li'.iy. I'r..,-. l.iiiii, ,s,„-. N. S. \V. ISSi;. CT.i. pi. 4l'., %. 1, Admiralty Is. 

STOASODON Cantor. {A,'loh.ith Miiller & Henle, not of Blainville.) 

46. Stoasodon narinari ( iMiphrasen I. Hawaii; l.aysan; Fast Indies; West Indies. 

Family MOBL'LII).^:. 
MOBULA Rafinesque. 

47. Mobula japonica Miillcr I'i Henle. Hawaii; Japan. 

48. Mobula draco (Giinther). Misol. 

liir.rohaliK ilmrn Gfintlier, Voy. Ciiraca.i. 412, 1S73. 

Family CHIM.-ERID.4-. 
CHIMa:RA LinnffiQS. 

49. Chimsera purpuresceus Gilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii; Japan. 

Family ELOPn).€. 
ELCPS Linn8eu3. 

50. Elops saurus Linujeus. Hawaii: Sanupa; Xcw (Juinea; warm seas. 

MEGALOPS Lacepede. 

51. Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet). Tahiti; Guam; Tubuai; .Samoa; Papua; Fiji; New 

Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 
Megalops macioptcrus Bleeker, Ned. Tydsclir. Dierk. ISOU, 2X4, East Indies. 
This widely diffr.sed sj)ecies is common at Samoa, inhabiting the river mouths and brackish pools 
in the shores. Most of our many specimens from Apia were taken in a pool in the village just east of 
the mouth of Vaisigano River, this i>ool being alternately tilled by rain and by the surf in storms. 
None of these .specimens is more than a foot long. Theycorrcsiiond perfectly to the Megalops macrop- 
lerus of Bleeker, which is plainly the original Cliijini <iiiii-iii',nl, s of Broussonet. We much doubt 
the validity of any of the species detached from Meyala/is rui,riii<ii:l,'s by Bleeker. In any case, the true 
ciijiniioifh''<, from Tahiti, is Bleeker's innrm/'/cnis. 

Family CHIROCFXTKHhi. 
CHIEOCENTRTJS Cuvier. 

52. Chirocentrusdorab (Forskal). Ncw<;uinca; New Britain; Fast Indies. 

B. B. F. 190.T— 1.3 



186 BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF FISHERIES. 

Family CHAMI).€. 
CHANOS Cuvier. 

53. Chanos chanos (Forskal). Hawaii; New Caledonia; Samoa; New Guinea; tropical Pacific. 
Common along the shores inside the reefs of .'^anioa. 

Family ALBLLlDili. 
ALBULA Gronow. 

54. Albula vulpes (Linnteus). Tahiti; Ton^a; Hawaii; New (iuinea; warm seas. 

Family CLUPEID^:. 
ETRTJMETTS Bleeker. 

55. Etrumeus micropus (.Schlegel). Hawaii; Japan. 

STOLEPHORUS Lacepede. (SpraleUoidcx Bleeker.) 

56. Stolepliorus delicatulus {r.enni-tt). AVAi. Samoa; East Indies. 

Aliout 20 specimens of this fragile little tish were taken inside the reefs of Ajiia and Pago Pago. 
Color in life, deep sky blue, sides silvery. 

DTJSSTJMIERIA Ctivier & Valenciennes. 

57. Dussumieria acuta Cuvier I'v Valrncicnnes. New (iuinea (Macleay); P2ast Indies. 

COEICA Gray. [Clupeoities Bleeker.) 

58. Corica papuensis Ramsay & Ogilby. New Guinea. 

Corira papuensis Kamsay & OKilliy, I'm,-. Linn. Sot-. X. S. W. ISSr,, 1!). Strickland River (New Guinea). 
SARDINELLA Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
(.lwWy(/as(tT Bleeker; Sardinia Poey.) 

59. Sardiuella sirm (Forskal). Tamoana; Pelupehi. Samoa; East Indies. 

Clup"' i:i;ii« il N. ne \VirbeIthiere,77,taf. 21, fig. 1, :835, Red Sea. Gunther, Cat., vii, 425, Zanzibar, Batavia. 

SanUu: lileeker, Tijds. Ned. Ind., vn, 265, Manado; scales 45. 

Wehaxr iiiiiiirii.ii> specimens of a large sardine from the shores about Apia. It agrees closely 

with Giinther's account of Chipea sirm, and must be the fish thus called by Giinther. It has only a 

single dark spot behind the gill-opening, and the species with a .series of .such spots along the side 

(leiogasler and punctata) must be different. It is, of course, an excellent food-fish. 

Life colons of a specimen from Pago Pago, deep blue above, somewhat streaky along rows of 
scales, abru]itly silvery below; a small spot behind gill-opening; tips of jaws dusky; fins small, dusky 
abo\-e. 

HARENGULA Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

(Kijimla, Rogenia, and (lupcnin Cuvier & Valenciennes; Paralosa Bleeker.) 

60. Hareng-ula commersoni (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Pelnpdu. Vanicolo; Samoa; East Indies. 

I?) Chiiu (1 ini liiinira Cuvier, Rfegne Anim., cd. I, vol. II, p. 31S, l-I"; no de.scription; obscure reference to LaciSpM.-. 
Cliipiniiin .„)n«,,iF„ii,rnvicr& V.nlcnoipnncs, Hi,st. Nat. Poiss., .\x, 3.50, 1M7, Pondicherry. 

Clui«. ■!.'■: < '/.;'..• I H-. i.M ,VV;ilc nri, iin,- m | ,., 'i t. , 3,52, 1847, Vanicolo. 



One liiH- .-pii iimrii was taken al Aj.ia. Life colors, caudal lobes jet black; back blue, blackish 
streaks along the rows of scales above, sides silvery •white. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



187 



61. Harengula gibbosa (Bleekcr). Fiji ((nintluT) ; East Indies. 

62. Hareng-ula chrysotaenia (Bleeker). Tahiti; East Indies. 

63. Harengula vanicoris Jordan & Seale, new name. Vanicolo; Papua; East Indies. 

Al'iiit^'t tnflfmura Cuvicr it Valenciennes, op. cit., 441, 1H47, Vanicolo, New (Juinea, .\mboina; not C'lapea vielanura 

Family I)()ROSOMATII).+:. 

ANODONTOSTOMA Bleeker. 



L.arrk Is.: New llano 



uinea (Maeleay); East Indies. 



64. Anodontostoma breviceps I I'eter> 

( 7,.,(,.,>SH,W„. r/.v7,» I'.'Irrs, B.-rl. M..11. l.sTf,. S4.s. New Ha 

65. Anodontostoma chacunda ( Ilaniiltiui-I'.urlian 

KONOSIRUS Jordan & Snyder. 
Last ray of dorsal lilanientous, as in Dunixouia. 

66. Konosirus thrissa (LinniPiis). New Guinea; East Indies: (,'liina. 

( ■lialiu^sus iiasiis | Bloch) Cuvicr & Valenciennes. 

Family FXC.K.MLID.J:. 
ANCHOVIA Jordan & Evermann. 

67. Anchovia purpurea (Fowler) . Hawaii. 

68. Anchovia apiensis .Tordan & Seale, new Hi)eeies. Ncfii. Samoa. 

Head 4..50 in body (to base of caudal), depth 5, eye 3 20 in head, snout 4.50, mterorbital scarcely 
equal to eye; dorsal i, 13; anal i, 20, scale-i 34, maxillary elongate, 5 in length of hea<l 




Fig. 3. — Anchovia aiticnsis Jordan & Seale, 



Body oblong, compressed; snout produced, conical; mandible 1.45 in head; maxillary extend- 
ing to posterior angle of preopercle; minute, teeth in jayys, palatines, vomer, and pterygoids; gill- 
rakers 1.20 in eye, 30 on lower limb; insertion of dorsal nearer base of caudal than tip of snout by 
a distance equal to width of eye, its longest' ray 1.20 in head; length of pectoral less than depth of 
body, 1.75 in head; insertion of ventrals oc|iialIy ilistant between origin of pectorals and origin of anal; 
origin of anal under posterior third of .ln-iiI, its lu~r 1 ,|u;il 1.. ,lNi;iii(v from anterior margin of eye to 
posterior margin of opercle; caudal fork.-,|, its l^li. s ciual to lin^^th of head; caudal peduncle rather 
deep, 2.20 in head; scales deciduous, the middle nnv ol Ix-lly with spines. 

Color in spirits wliite, the scales with silvery reflections, more or less punctulate with minute black 
dots on upper surface; cheeks and iris with gilt reflections; a dusky blotch on upper part of orbit, and 
on nuchal region; slight dusky shading along base of dor.sal, anal, and upper base of caudal; caudal with 
a slight wash of dusky; other tins white. Life colors white, pale olive on back; a silvery lateral band. 

Type no. 51720, U. S. National Museum, from Apia; length 3 inches. Of this small species, we 
have about a dozen fine specimens from the shores inside the reef at Apia. 



188 



BTTLLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FI8HEKIES. 



69. Auchovia evermanni . 



Samoa. 



llfud 4 in leiigtli; depth 4. .51); uye [i.lo in liead; snout 1.75; dorsal i, l.i; anal i, 30; scales 34; 
interorbital space equal to eye; maxillary equal to depth of fish, 4.50 in length. 

Body elongate, compressed; scales large and deciduous; belly trenchant, the scales of middle row- 
each ending in a sharp spine; snout projecting, conical; origin of dorsal midway between tip of snout 
and base of caudal, its longest ray equal to distance from middle of eye to posterior margin of opercle; 
pectoral inserted low and extending to base of ventrals, the length 1.50 in head; ventraLs 2 in head, 
their origin nearer pectoral than base of anal; origin of anal posterior to base of dorsal, its length equal 
to head; caudal deeply forked, the lobes equal to length of head; numerous small teeth on the 
pterygoids, palatines, vomer and jaws; maxillary extending to posterior angle of preopercle, and 
bearing a single row of fine teeth; gillrakers scarcely equal to eye, 23 on the lower limb. ' 




Color in spirits, silvery, darker above, with a bluish wash ; a golden wash on cheek ; a dusky blotch 
on upper margin of orbit; fins all yellowish white, the caudal with an indistinct tip of dusky on end 
of lobes. In life one specimen had an orange blotch behind gill-opening above, dorsal and caudal 
chiefly light orange-brown, no silvery lateral band. 

Five specimens, from Apia; type no. 51719, U. S. National Museum, 5 inches long. In all these 
specimens the depth is 4.66 to 4.75 in the length, instead of 4 times, as stated liy Bleeker and ( nintlicr 
of Anchovia haiama, the nearest known species. 



Thii 



specie 



named for Dr. Barton Warren Evermann. 



70. Anchovia scratchleyi (Ramsay & Ogilby). New Guinea. 

Eiujraulis scratchleyi Ramsay & Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1886, l.s, Sti 

71. Anchovia enchrasicoloides (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay 



land River i Ne 

East Inilies. 



Family AULOIMD.Ji. 
CHLOEOFHTHALMUS Bonaparte. 

72. Chlorophthalmus proridens Gilbert & Cramer. Dirp waters of Hawaii. 

Family SYNODONTJD.i. 
SYNODUS Bloch & Schneider. 

73. Synodus varius Lacepede. Hawaii; Samoa; New (iuinea; Fiji; Mangareva (Seale) : 
.\ lew specimens of this widely diffused specie.* were taken at Samoa, on the shore with 

74. Synodus kaianus Gimther. I leep seas of Hawaii; .\rafura Sea. 

TRACHIN0CEPHALT7S Gill. 

75. Trachinocephalus myops For.^ter. Hawaii; warm seas. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 189 

SAURIDA Cuvier. 

76. Saurida gracilis (Qui ly it (iainiiircl). Hawiiii; Samoa; \e\v Guinea; Solomon Is. (Seale). 
Two specimens were taken in the seine at Apia. They are more deeply colored than Hawaiian 

examples, but are not otherwise different. This species is common about Hawaii. 

77. Saurida grandisquamis Giinther. Louisiades; Australia. 

78. Saurida tumbil I Bluch I. Vanicolo; Waigiu; East Indies. 

Family BK.XCHYPTEKOID.i. 
BRACHYPTEROIS Giinther. 

79. Brachypterois antennatus (iilhert. Dreji sea« of Hawaii. 

Family MVCT0PH1I).4':. 
DASYSCOPELUS Guather. 

80. Dasyscopelus asper (Richardson). New Ireland. 

81. Dasyscopelus stellatus (Bennett). Open Pacific. 

.vc.,;)./i(,s .•:l,tl,itu.i KfiilR-tt. Whaling Voyage, II, 288, open Pacific. 

82. Dasyscopelus pristilepis Gilbert & Cramer. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

83. Dasyscopelus spinosus (Liitken). Deep seas of Hawaii. 

• NANNOBRACHITIM Giinther. 

84. Nannobrachium nigrum ( iilbiTt. Deep h^ea'' i if Hawaii. 

MYCTOPHUM Rafinesque. 

85. Myctophum fibulatum (iilbert & GraiuiT. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

86. Myctophum margaritatum Gilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

87. Myctophum lutkeni (iilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

88. Myctophum evermanni (iilliert. Deep seas ni Hawaii. 

RHINOSCOPELUS Lutken. 

89. Rhiuoscopelus oceanicus .lordan A Evermann. Deep seas to the southwai'd of Hawaii. 

DIAPHUS Eigenmann. [ .Ethoprora Goode & Bean.) 

90. Diaphus urolampus ( iilbert & Cramer. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

91. Diaphus chrysorhynchus ( Jilhert & Cramer. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

92. Diaphus adenomus Gilbert Deep seas of Hawaii. 

CENTKOBRANCHUS Fowler. 

93. Centrobranchus choerocephalus Fowler. Deeji seas of Hawaii. 

94. Centrobranchus gracilicaudus Gilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

NEOSCOPELUS Johnson. 

95. Neoscopelus alcocki Jordan l\: Staiks. Di'ep si-as of Hawaii; ,Iapan. 

Family M.\L R()LICn).€. 
ZALARGES Jordan & Starks. 

96. Zalarges nimbarius Jordan & Stai-ks. ( ([len sea between Hawaii and Seattle. 



190 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Family C.OXOSTOMID.J:. 
CYCLOTHONE Goode & Bean. 

97. Cyclothone rhodadenia ( iilbert. Deep seas (jf Hawaii. 

98. Cyclothone canina (filbert. Deeji seas of Hawaii. 

GONOSTOMA Rafinesqne. 

99. Gonostoma elongatum (uinther. Deeji water off New (niinea. 

Gmiin^liima liiiuijalum Gumlii-r, ClmlUTiger Ropt.. l.stl. 1.SS7, New Guinea, 

Family ST()MII[).4;. 
STOMIAS Bisso. 

100. Stomias boa Risso. !\Ii(l-Pacific; Mediterranean. 



IVtLTS, Kerl. Mc 



101. Astronesthes lucifer < iilliert 



■6. 846, 149° 26' W., mid-Pacifie. 
ASTRONESTHES Kichardson. 
. Deep seas of the Pacilie. 

Family l!)l.\CAXTHiI).4i. 
IDIACANTHUS Peters. 



102. Idiacanthus fasciola Peters. Open Pac 
Idiacanthus fasciola Peters, Berl. Moii. 1876. .siii. nc 



103. Sternoptyx diaphana Her 

104. Polyipnus nuttingi <;ill>ei 

105. Argyripnus ephippiatus i 

106. Arg-yropelecus heathi (iil 

107. Diplophos pacificus (iuiitl 

108. Lestidiuni nudum Gilbert. 



if Hawaii. 



north of New Guinea, 1° if>" S., 136° W. 

Family STERXOPTYCHU).*. 

STERNOPTYX Herrmann. 

iiiann. Deep sseas of Hawaii; deep seas. 

POLYIPNUS Giinther. 

Deep seas of Hawaii. 

ARGYRIPNUS Ganther. 

liDiert L*; t'rauicr. Dee]) .sea> 

ARGYROPELECUS Cocco. 
lert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

DIPLOPHOS Giinther. 
t-r. Mid-Paeilic. 

Family PAKALEPID/E. 
LESTIDIUM Gilbert. 
Deeji seas of Hawaii. 
NEOSUDIS Castelnau. 



109. Neosudis vorax Castelnau. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 191 

Fiimilv HALOSAURID.tE. 
ALDROVANDIA Goode & Bean. { Halosauropsis CoWett.) 

110. Aldrovandia kauaiensis (iilliert. Dci'i) waters of Hawaii, Kauai I. 

111. Aldrovandia proboscidea (iill>ert. Deep .seas <]f Hawaii. 

112. Aldrovandia verticalis ( iilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

Family PLOT()SII).€. 
PLOTOSUS Lac^pede. 

113. Plotosus anguillaris Bloch. Jpoa. Samoa; Waigiu; New Guinea; Solomon Islands (Seale); 

Asia; East Indies. 
I'hilusus ikapi/r Lesson. Vuy. Cociuille. Zool. ll. 132, pi. 31, fig. 3, 1830, Waigiu. 

This little catfish is occasionally taken in shallow water inside the reef at Apia. The yellow 
stripes on the sides are very faint or wanting in our specimens, which otherwise do not seem to differ 
at all from specimens from Nagasaki. "We therefore place the species of the South Seas {Plotoma 
Ikcipor, described first from Waigiu) in the synonymy of Plolosus anguUlaris. 

Color dark olive, mottled, white below; sides with scarcely a trace of pale stripes; fins dusky, 
esiieeially on the edges. Young individuals- more distinrtly marked, with two white stripes. 

CNIDOGLANIS Gunther. 

114. Cnidog-lanis macrocephalus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea (Marleay); Timor. 

TACHYSTJRUS Lacepede. 

115. Tach.ysurus graeffi (Kner & Steindachner). 

Alius yra-Jfi Kner & Steindachner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1807, 28, Samoa. 
This species is described from Samoa. Perhaps the specimen is not Samoan, but came from the 
East Indian region, where catfishes of this type are abundant. 

116. Tachysurus armig^er (De Vis). New Britain. 

Arias armigrr lie Vis, Prix-. Linn. Six-. N. S. W. issl, 151, New Britain. 

GALEICHTHYS Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

117. Galeichthys frogrgatti (Ramsay & Ogilby). New(iuin(-a. 

Ariiisfrowi'illi Rainsay & Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ISXil, r\ Strickland River (New Guinea). 

118. Galeichthys latirostris (Macleay). New Guinea. 

Alius l.ilinisliis Ma.-l.-MV. IT...-. Linn. Sac. N. S. W. 1884, 276. 

NETUMA Bleaker. 

119. Netuma spatula ( Ram.say & Ogilby). New Guinea. 

Ariuis spatula Kanisay Aligilby. op. cit., 16. Strickland River i New Guinea). 

120. Netuma thalassina (Riippell). New <ininea i :\Iai-leav ); East Indies. 

HEMIPIMELODUS Bleeker. 

121. Hemipimelodus dayi Ramsay & Ogilliy. Strickland River, New (Guinea. 

122. Hemipimelodus crassilabris Ramsay ^- O^ill.y. .-Strickland River, New Guinea. 

LAMBERTIA Perugia. 

123. Lambertia atra Perugia. New Guinea. 

I.amhertia atra Perugia, .\nn. Mus. Genova 1S94, .Wo, East New Guinea. 



192 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

rarnilv AXCL ILI.ID.^i. 
ANGUILLA Thunberg. Tuna. 

124. Anguilla mauritiana Bennett. Tnnti tufa' i-hiutiilo; Tuna guldla. Waigiu; Taliiti; Samoa, in 

rivers; Joliannal.; Levnka and Ovalau; Fiji ( (iCmtlier ); East Indies. 
Anguitia 7naurilkma Bennett, Proc. Coram. Zool. Soc. 18:!1, 128, Mauritius. Giinther, Cat., viii 26, Amboina, 
Ceylon, Philippine.'!, Formosa, Almorah, Johanna I. Gunther, Shore Fishes, Challenger. 1880, 58, Lake 
Waiheira (Tahiti). 
Anguitia marmorata Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. Uranie, 1824, 241, Waigiu. 
Muriemi marmorata Kner, Novara Fische, 369. Tahiti, Hongkong. 
Anguitia labrosa Richardson, Voy. Erebus and Terror, 113, 1846, South Seas. 
Murtena macutata Bleeker, Atlas, Murjenidse, 9, tab. i, tig. 2, East Indies; not of Laci-pide. 
Anguitia jokanme Gunther, Fish. Zanzibar, 124, Johanna I. 
This species is the commonest eel of the Samoan Islands, abounding in quiet waters in all the 
streams, and reaching a considerable size. We have about 20 specimens, mostly from Vaisigano River. 
The species ^aries considerably in the insertion of the dorsal, which is always well forward, however. 
The body is always finely mottled or marbled, hence the vernacular name of tuga tafailotalo, or 
"eel colored like [boiled] taro." 

Life colors of one specimen from Apia, dark brown, everywhere reticulate with darker. Another 
was mottled olive and black; dorsal and anal edged with pale. 

125. Anguilla fidjiensis Giinther. Rivers of Fiji. 

Anguilla Jicljiensis Gunther, Cat., vni, 26, 18TU, Kandavu and Nairi iFijii. 
This species, which we have not seen, is very close to AmjuiUa viauriliana, and seems within 
the limits of variation of that species. 

126. Anguilla obscura Giinther. Fiji. 

AiHiuilla obscura Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Vii't. 1871,673, Fiji. 

127. Anguilla otaheitensis Kaup. Tahiti. 
AmiuiUa nliilidtinsi.i Kaup, Aale Hamb. Mus. 17. Tahiti. 

128. Anguilla megastoma Kaup. Tuna mea. Mangareva; Aneiteum; Tahiti; Samoa; Rarotonga; 

Tubuai; Austral Is.; Nukahiva, Marquesas Is. (Seale). 
Anguitia megastoma Kaup, Apodes 30, Megareva. 

Anguilla aneitensis Giinther, Cat., vui, 34, 1870, Aneiteum. Guntlier, Shore Fishes, Challenger, 1880, 58, Lake 
Waiheira (Tahiti). 

This species is uniformly colored above, pale below, with the dorsal well forward, though less 
advanced than in Anguilla mauritiana; the teeth in very broad bands, the vomerine band narrower 
than the maxillary bands. We have two specimens from the Vaisigano River at Apia. Tiaup's 
type is said to come from Megarava, which is evidently a misprint for Mangareva, one of the 
Gambler Islands. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, yellow brown, belly and dorsal yellow; fine yellow dots on 
lateral line. Much paler and more yellow than Anguilla auMralis. Dorsal tin more advanced. 

129. Anguilla sidat Bleeker. Samoa; New Zealand. 

Thesi)ecies seems to differ from Anguilla australis in having the maxillary extending beyond the 
eye, the vomerine teeth also extending backward almost as far a-s the maxillary teeth. We have one 
large specimen from Samoa answering to the description nf tins species. VVere it not for the much 
longer maxillary we should think this the adult of An'inllh: inishnlix. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, plain dark tiniwii, vi'llow below; dorsal grayish dusky. Dor- 
.sal posterior. 

130. Anguilla australis Richardson. Samoa; New Zealand; East Indies. 

Of this species we have half a dozen young from the streams ( Vaisigono, Gasegase) about Apia. 
They seem to agree perfectly with Anguilla australig, having the dorsal inserted a little before vent and 
the vomerine band of teeth considerably shorter than the maxillary band. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 193 

Family SVXAPHI (BRANCH ID.i;. 
SYNAPHOBRANCHlffS Johnson. 

131. Synaphobranchus brachysomus ( iillifit. Ilffp ;^eu> nf Ihiwaii. 

Family LEIT0CEPHALII).4:. 
LEPTOCEPHALDS Gmelin. 

132. Leptocephalus marg-inatus Valeiic-ieniies. Piisi soiiisulii. Hawaii; Samoa; New Guinea; 

East Indie.-. 
Tlii^ conirer eel, eonanon throughout the Paeific, is abundant both at Samoa and Honolulu. It is 
ea.«ily known by the black blotch on the pectoral tin. We have S examples from Samoa. 

CONGRELLUS Ogilby. 

133. Cong-rellus bowersi Jenkins. Hawaii. 

134. Congrellus ueo-guinaicus (^Bleeker). New (.uiinea. 

135. Congrellus fijiensis Ogilby. Fiji. 
Cmti/rdlusjijiaisis Ognby. Pro?. Lin. Soc. N.S.W. 1898,288, Fiji. 

136. Congrellus gruttulatus (Giinther). Samoa; Fiji. 

()ne specimen from .\pia. Life colors, light olive, with dark cross-shades; pectoral plain; vertical 
(ins with Ijniad dark edge; an oblique olive shade before eye. 

137. Congrellus sequoreus Gilbert & Cramer. Deeji seas of Hawaii. 

PROMYLLANTOK Alcock. 

138. Promyllantor alcocki (iiibert e^ Cramer. Keeji seas of Hawaii. 

METOPOMYCTER Gilbert. 

139. Metopomycter denticulatus ( ;illii-rf. 1 p seas of Hawaii. 

VETERNIO Snyder. 

140. Veternio verrens Snyder. Hawaii. 

Family MIH.-FNFSOCID.E. 
MURa:NESOX McClelland. 

141. MurEsnesox cinereus ( Forskal ). Hood Bay: New (iuinea; Fast Indie.?. 

Family MVK'II).+;. 
MtrRa;NICHTHYS Bleeker. 

142. Muraenichthys macropterus Bleeker. New Caledonia; Fast Indies. 

MYEOPTEBURA Ogilby. 

143. Myropteruia laticaudata Ogilby. Fiji. 
.V;/TOj./ti«m/n//raiu/u(o Ogilby, Pnic. Linii. .«oc N. s. W.. J,S97. 247, Fiji. 

Family .\EMICHTHVIU.€. 
NEMICHTHYS Richardson. 

144. Nemichtliys scolopaceus Richardson. North of Papua in deep water; open seas. 
.Vt iiiirlilhys scolopaceus, Peters, Berl. Mon. 1870, 849, nortli of Papua in deep wati-r. 



194 BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF FISHERIES. 

SEKRIVOMEK Gill & Ryder. 

145. Serrivomer beani (iilln-it. ])wii .^i-at^ cif 1 lauaii. 

STEMONIDIUM Gilbert. 

146. Stemonidium hypomelas <iil)iert. Dim;'], sias dl llauaii. 

NEMATOPRORA Gilbert. 

147. Nematoprora polygouifera (iilbfrt. Ik't-p i^fas nf Hawaii. 

Family OPHICHTHVlIl^. 

SPHAGEBRANCHUS Blocb. 

148. Sphagebranchus flavicaudus Snyder, ilaui, Hawaii. 

DALOPHIS Rafinesqae. 

149. Dalophis longipinnis (Kner & Steiiidachner). .Sainua. 

Tlii.s small species, very slender in form and having the dorsal inserted in advance of the gill- 
opening, is known to us from a very young example taken at Ajjia. 

150. Dalophis misolensis (Giinther). Misol. 

Olihic/itlii/s inisolensisGuntheT, Ann. Mug. Nat. Hist.. .\, 1.S72, J'Jtl, Misol. 

MICRODONOPHIS Kaup. 

151. Microdonophis fowleri .Jordan A: Evcrnjann. llauaii. 

152. Microdonophis macgregori Jenkins. Hawaii. 

153. Microdonophis polyophthalmus Bleeker. Hawaii; East Indies. 

This species differs from the type of Mi(:roihni(t]i]iin in havin<,' the dorsal inserted over the middle of 
the head. The body is uniformly colored. 

BASCANICHTHYS Jordan & Davis. 

154. Bascanichthys pinguis Giinther. Solomon Island;.. 

Uphiehthijs piny uis i3iUn1\\ev, \\\a. Miig. Nat Hist., .\. 1.ST2. i-&. Solomon Islands. 

CALLECHELYS Guichenot. 

155. Callechelys luteus Snyder. Molokai, Hawaiian Islands. 

156. Callechelysfilaris (Gunther). Misol. 

Ophii-hthiis fihiris Giinther, .\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist., x, 1S72, J2.i. Misol. 

LEIHRANUS Bleeker. 

157. Leiuranus semicinctus (Lay & Bennett). ' Aln'tilit iili. Hawaii; Japan; East Indies. 

Of this species we have one large specimen from Apia. Its coloration is wonderfully close to that 
of Chlevastes colubrinus, but the black bands are broader than in the latter, and most of them do not 
meet the fellow on the belly. This species is widely diffused, occurring in company with the two 
species of Clilemstes, both of which are colored remarkalily like it. 

158. Leiuranus cobra (De Vis). South Seas. 

OpIiii-Mln/s cobra De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W'., 1S.S4. 4.-,.i, South Seas. 
This species is said to have the head one-tenth of the length of the trunk. In other respects it 
agrees with Leiuranus semicinctus, with which it is probably identical. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



159. Brachysomophi 

160. Brachysomophi 



BEACHYSOMOPHIS Kaup. 
henshawi Jnrdan A Snyder. Honolulu, 
crocodolinus I r.cnni'tt I. Taliiti; ^Mauritius. 



161. Myrichthys stypurus Sinitl 

162. Myrichthys magniflcus i .\l 



MYRICHTHYS Girard. 

Swain. Johnston I. 



CHLEVASTES Jo 



ian & Snyder, 
(inani: Kast Indies. 



163. Chlevastes colubrinus (BoddaiTt 1. Samoa: 
.\ few siuM-iniens from Samoa. 

164. Chlevastes fasciatus (Ahl). Samoa; Kast Indies. 
Murxnafasciata Ahl, De Murxna et Ophichtho, 1789, 9, East Indies. 
Ophichthijscolubrinus/asciatus Giinther, Cat., viii, 81, 1870, Borneo. 
Ophichthys naja De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soe. N. S. W. 1884, 4.55, South Seas. 

This species seems to us distinct from Chlevastes colubrinus. The head is shorter, 9 to 11 times in 
the length of the trunk (7 to 8 in Chlevastes colubrinus). The black cross-bands are less regularly 



CI f i f 




formed, having backward projeetioni^, and there is in the pale interspace usually a large rounded 
black spot or ocellus. 

We have two large example.s from the coral reef at Apia. 

Family MORI.\T.UII).-E. 
MORINGUA Gray. ( Including ApliOudmh-hlhijs Kaui).) 

165. Moringua hawaiiensis Snyder. Honolulu. 

166. Moringua macrocephala Bleeker. Samoa; East Indies. 

Of this rare species, distinguished by its long head, we have one fine specimen from the harbor of 
Pago Pago. Depth4inhead; head9in totallength; pectoral minute, scale-like; gill-openings separate. 

Life colors light pinkish brown, nearly uniform; head very clear translucent rosy red; caudal more 
orange. 

This specimen was taken in salt water at the mouth of a little brook and was very tenacious of life. 

167. Moringua javanica (Kaup). Fiji; Moluccas. 



196 



BULLETIN OF THK BUKEAt! OF FISHERIES. 



imilv MLK.4-:.\lI).t. 



RHINAMURaiNA Gar 



This genus differs from Eurymi/tin 
wliich are iiroduced into long flaps. 



ing the anterior nostrils slit and dilated at the ends, 



169. 



Rhlnamuraena qusesita Garman. Marshall Is 
Uhiiiamurmia quicsUa Garman, Bull. Essex Inst, l.siig. 111,1 
RhinamursBna eritima Jordan & Seale, 



spei' 



Samoa. 



Head 



in total length, 2.65 in body anterior to vent; depth 2 in head; vent exactly midway 
between tip of snout and tip of tail; length of snout, from posterior nostril, 5.20 in head; eye 2 in 
snout; angle of jaws 2.20 in head; jaws curved and can not be completely closed; dorsal high 4.60 in 
head; anal about one-half as high as dorsal; origin of anal immediately posterior to vent; origin of 
dorsal about midway between gill-openings and angle of jaws; gill-openings size of eye; anterior 
nostrils on end of snout long, about equal to eye, terminating in an expanded disk two-thirds as wide 
as eye; posterior nostrils consisting of slightly elevated tubes situated on upper side of snout directly 




above anterior margin of eye; top of snout flat with a narrow concave groove; depth of snout at ante- 
rior margin of eye slightly less than width; forehead evenly rounded from posterior of eyes; teeth in 
lower jaw in a single row of 25 sharp, concave teeth on each side, the anterior five being enlarged: 
posterior teeth of upper jaw small and uniserial, the anterior teeth large biserial canines, three uf 
which are on the median line of vomer; a single row of blunt palatine teeth; throat with numerous 
longitudinal wrinkles. 

Life colors, light-grayish brown, paler below; dorsal dusky with a sharply defined bluish white 
edge; anal with a faint pale edge. Color in spirits earth-brown, yellowish on belly and under part of 
head, dorsal and anal with distinct white margins, that of the dorsal broader, the posterior third of 
dorsal shading into an intermarginal black area, a yellowish wash on head posterior to eye. 

This very handsome eel is known to us from a single specimen 20.15 inches long, taken at Pago 
Pago. Type no. 51717; U. S. National Museum. 

MTTB£NA Linnaeus. 
170. Mursena kailuse Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

'Zh, tigs. 1 and 2, Ja' 



prolit 



I pardalis of 



.V/(r;i«apnr(ta/isBleeker, Atlas, MurEenida, »6, 

.Sfhlest'l. a Japanese species. 
Muncna AaiVu.T Jordan & Evermann, Bull. V. S. Fish Comm., .\.\n, 1902 (1903), 166, Kailua i Hawaii), 
.irurana lampra Jenkins, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., xxn, 1902 (1903), 423, fig. 3, Honolulu. 
.Vi(ra;m kaaila Jenkins, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., xxii, 1902 (1903), 424, fig. 4, Honolulu. 
This species is rather common about the Hawaiian reefs, but was not seen at Samoa. The receipt 
o believe that the variation in the arrangement of 



speci 
of additional specimens from Honolulu fo: 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 197 

spots in this species is very great. If M. kauila and M. lampra are distinct species, we must add still 
two more to the list. The species is very close to the Japanese Munena pardalis Schlegel, and may 
prove to be a variation of the latter, as Bleeker has supposed. In Murmia Icailuse the white spots on 
the belly are larger than in the Japanese species. 

The life coloration of this species is very bright and attractive. 

171. Mursena pavonina Richardson. South Seas. 

Muriena pavoiiina Richardson, Voyage Sulphur, 110, pi. .53, ligs, 1-n, South Seas. 

ENCHELYNASSA Kaup. 

172. Enchelynassa canina (t^uoy & Ciaimanl). Hawaii; Samoa; Rawak; Waigiu. 

'/" ' ' " ' ',")">• & Gaimard, Voy. Uranie, 2-17, 1.S24. Rawak, Waigiu. 

' /" ' Kaup, Apodes, 72, fig. 65, 1851; locality unknown. Jordan & Snvder. Proi\ U. s. Xat. Mus., 

: ■ . -M. Hawaii. 
1.;/"' ' ' ' . i'/".? Jordan & Evermann, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., xxii, 1902 (1903), 165, Kailua (Hawaii). 
Of tins species 3 specimens are known besides the original type. These are the type of G. tinoleutus 
from Hawaii, a very similar specimen now before us, from Samoa, and a very large example similar to 
Kaup's type, from Hawaii. It is one of the largest of the niorays, and the most formidably armed. 

EURYMYCTERA Kaup. 

173. Eurymyctera acutirostris (Abbott). Hawaii. 

Wura-na ariitiroslris Abbott, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1860, 476, Hawaii. 

Gymnothorax acutirostris Fowler, Proc. Ac. Nat. Soi. Phila. 1900. 494, plate Is. Hawaii, same specimen. 

GYMNOTHORAX Blocli. Pusl. 

174. Gymnothorax eupterus (Giinther). Kaiml I. 
Murama euptera Giinther, Cat., viii, 122, 1.S70, Raoul I. 

175. Gymnothorax waialuae Snyder. Hawaii. 

Gymnothorax vmlalxia: Snyder, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., xxii, 1902 (1904), 520, pi. 6, 'Waialua (near Honolulu). 
This species is known from a young example taken by Professor Snyder. It is very close to the 
Japanese-East Indian species, Giimnothorax relinildris, but the arrangement of the sharply defined 
black cross-bands is different, and the interspaces lietween the bands are pale, as in Cldevanlen 
coluhrinus. 

176. Gymnothorax petelli (Bleeker). Hawaii; Samoa; East Indies. 

Muriena pildii Bleeker, Nat. Tijd.s., XI, 84, Java. Giinther, Cat., viii, 105, Java, Mauritius. 

Gi/mnolliora pctdli. Bleeker, Atlas, JIursenidse, 99, tab. x.xxii, fig. 1. 

Muni'na iiilrrrupta Kaup, Apodes, 67, fig. 51, 1854, Red Sea. 

Giimiiiilhiirax leucacme Jenkins, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., xxii, 1902 (1903), 427, fig. 7, Honolulu. 
Of this handsome species we have 7 large specimens from Pago Pago and Apia. They agree 
entirely with the accounts both of petelli and leucacme. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, dark brown, with 19 to 22 broad black cross-bars about as wide 
as the interspaces; fins barred like body; interspaces on anal whitish, some of the dark bands reaching 
the fin, others not; interspaces on dorsal pale, whitish on edge, each interspace with a large marginal 
black spot; tip of the tail white (sometimes black); angle of mouth black; belly light brown, the bands 
anteriorly not meeting across it (a dark spot sometimes between each pair of bands). 

177. Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw). Samoa; Fiji; East Indies. 

.1/.. ^Iiaw, Nat. Misc., pi. 220, aboiit 1802, Pacific. Giinther, Cat., viii, 100, Zanzibar, Java, Mauri- 

i Uur^inupiua h,in,i l.accpfedc, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 646, pi. vii, fig. 2, 1803; no locality. 

Thyrsoidea chlorostigma Kaup, Apodes, 89, 1854. Seychelles. 

Gymnothorax chlorosligma Bleeker, Atlas, 97, tab. xx.xiv, fig. 2, East Indies. 

nThis species, Enchelynassa canina, is said to be black, with 
type was only 7.5 inches long, and from the description is probably 



198 BULLETIN OF THE BUEEAU OF FISHERIES. 

Of this strongly marked species, known by its many small yellow spots, black gill-opening and 
white-tipped tail, we have one large specimen from Apia. Color in life bright brown, with every- 
where stellate spots of yellowish white, the spots round and much smaller than eye, smaller on the 
head and slightly larger and much farther apart on tail; belly, chin, snout, and throat spotted like 
the body; fins dusky-edged, spotted; tail broadly tipped with white; gill-opening black. 

178. Gymnothorax xanthostomus Snyder. Hawaii. 

179. Gymnothorax leucostictus Jenkins. Hawaii. 

180. Gymnothorax goldsboroug'hi Jordan & Everniann. Hawaii. 

181. Gymnothorax nuttingi Snyder. Hawaii. 

182. Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott). Hawaii. 

183. Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson). Samoa; Tonga; Guam; Fate and Tubuai (Scale); 

p:ast Indies. 
.Viir:niii lliiiryni.ha Richardson, Voyage SiUpliur, 111, 1845, not fig., China. Giinther, I'lit., vhi, 113, China, Pinang. 

-t. jnila. 1,11. r, .Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1900, 514, French Pass. 
Min-:> nn ,/' 'N'"/""//'i lilohardson, Voyage Erebus and Terror, 89, Tonga. 

-"" ; ;'•■•■'■ Hl.'.'k.T Nnt Tijil Nfd. hid., IV, 300, East Indies. 

I: ' l:.r. All:i-. Mniii iiidii-, 88, tab. .xxxi.x, fig. 3. 
V ' .' , -. I:; I -I' M u^.iitn, I'.nM, i.j, I ;iiam; not of Hamilton. 

Tlii- wi.li l\ iliiiu-r.l -[I, I i.< may In- known by its pale color and small whitisli sjint.-^, with the 
anterior part of the head abruptly blsckish. It is probably the species called Min:: mi lilf bv Scale. 

A small specimen from Pago Pago. Color in life light gray, mottled with light iMirplr. 1, :i\ ing the 
ground-color as pale spots; head distinctly dark purplish or blackish; iria white; LallojiL-ning and 
angle of mouth pale; dorsal colored like the body, with a broad pale edge; anal pale. 

184. Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl). Pusi gatala. Hawaii; Samoa; New Guinea; Tahiti; Rarotonga; 

Mangareva; Makatea; Shortland I. (Seale); East Indies. 

This species, readily known by its pale color and purplish specklings which gradually gather 
together with age to form dark spots, is very common throughout the South.Seas. We have about 10 
specimens of various f^i^i- I'li.iii S;iiiiMa, the largest representing the form called Gymnothorax _sidereus, 
which is the adult. '.';. ■ \ a closely allied form, seems to us a distinct species. 

Color in life of a i-p' n ii in Apia, light gray, very finely dotted and marbled with purplish 

gray, which is purplish Indwn in larger e.xamples; adult with numerous irregular diffuse transverse 
bars made up of dark spots, streaks and reticulations, these being a little denser in the bars; these 
bars composed of three lengthwise series of denser areas, which gradually with age form series of dark 
spots, the uppermost on the dorsal; top of head and snout densely speckled like the body; chin and 
throat with scattered purplish specks, which disappear on the belly, which is white; angle of mouth 
and gill-opening uncolored; anal speckled like the body, the edge less si)otted. 

In the young there are neither spots nor bars, but tlic 'jiiumd-color is covered with reticulations 
of different degrees of intensity, the fish always pale |iiii |ilish with white belly. 

185. Gymnothorax litus (Richardson). Tahiti: ^lar.inoas Is. ; Samoa; East Indies. 
M ■ Kill inlson. Voyage Erebusand Terror, 84, 1810, Moluccas. 

I,. ,- Bleeker, Atlas, MurEenidsB, in part, tab. x.xrx, fig. 1, but not description. 

M thi Kaup, Apodes, 0(), 18-54, Marquesas Is. 

II Kaup, Apodes, 70, 1854, Tahiti. 

Of ihi- -|ii ' 1,^ Hc have several specimens from Apia. It is close to Gymnothorax pictus, but is 
aiipareiiil) .li-iin. i. having the color darker, and the lower jaw and throat profusely marked with 
blackish lines. This region is faintly speckled in G. pkliis. G. chrysops seems to be the same species 
and G. nigrolineatus also may be the same. 

Color in life of a specimen from Apia, ground-color yellowish olive, darker above, thickly 
covered with ivtiiailati. uis and s|ii'i-klinL's of dark puriilish brown, darker than in G. pictus; some trace 
of irregular dark relic iilatc.i ( in-^v-sticaks on tail; fins colored like the body, as are head, throat and 
belly; lower juw and tljrnat il.i.-ely spotte<l; no black at angle of mouth nor on gill-opening; no pale 
edges to fins. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 199 

186. Gymnothorax tsenioides (Giinther). Samoa. 

Miirxna txnioides Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1S71, 674, Savaii ; Samoa i. 
This species is quite unlike any taken by us in Samoa. We liave not seen it. 

187. Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider. Samoa; Fate, Xew Hebrides (Seale); East 

Indies. 
Gymnothorax faragimus Bloch i Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 525, taf. 10.5, Tranquebar. 

Murxna lessellata Richard on, Ichth. Sulphtir. 109, pi. 55, tigs. 5-S, 1845. Giinther. Cat., viii, lOf.. Zanzibar. East Indies. 
Gymnothorax tesselhdm Bleeker, Atlas, 93, tab. xxvit. iig. 3; pi. 28, fig. 1. 
Mnrmna python Kaup, Apodes, 68, fig. 53, Africa. 
Of this East Indian species we have one small example from Samoa. It much resembles Bleek- 
er's figure of Gymnolhorar tenxellntm. Apparently G. isingteemi, with the spots separated by broad 
interspaces of the ground color, is a different species. 

Color in life of a specimen from Pago Pago, pale yellowish olive, with four rows of blackish olive 
i^pots along the side, larger than eye on body, smaller on head, very regular, a similar row on dorsal 
and anal; belly also spotted; the ground color reduced to a broad net-work around the spots. 

188. Gymnothorax polyophthalmus (Bleeker J. Samoa; Caroline Is.; East Indies. 
ytiiricHapnhinjilithnlmii Bleeker, .\et. Soc. Xed. Ind.,iii. Celebes, .x, 15, Celebes. 

Of this species, hitherto known from one small example, we have two examples equally small, from 
.\pia, and a larger one, 8.75 inches long, from Kusai Island, Caroline Group. All of them resemble 
Bleeker's figure very closely. The body is covered with many black spots on a light ground, the 
largest of them being rings with a yellow center. 

Color in spirits, light olive, almost white below, with aliDut three rows of dark olive spots as large 
as eye, each spot being ring-like with a yellowish center of the ground-color; besides these many 
small dark spots and specks; a row of ring-like spots on dorsal with many smaller specks; a row of 
blackish spots along base of anal; posterior half of dorsal and whole of anal wit*h a broad unspotted 
edge"; spots anteriorly very small; scattering spots on chin and belly; gill-opening pale; no spot at 
angle of numth. 

189. Gymnothorax stellatus (Laccpcde). Pnxi jiuU-pnle. Samoa; Xew Britain: East Indies. 
ilurs-nophissteUaliis LacSpede, Hist. Nat. Pois.s., v, pp. 622, 029, 644, 1803, New Britain. 

Miiriena fimiiriata Bennett, Proc. Comm. Zool. Soc, i, 1831, 168, Giinther, Cat., vni, 10.'*, Borneo, Amboina, Port 

}r)ir.TiialmUtttn Richardson, Voy. Erebus and Terror, .se, 1846, Borneo. 

.ItHnru'i isiii.jU.<,..:,hs Ble-ker, Verb. Bat. i;.n , x\v, >tur., 4S, East Indies. 

G!i,ni,nlhn,:,y ifh,,,l,, „„i,lcs Blocker, .\tla>. .\Iuneui.l:r, yl, tab. XXXV, fig. 1, East Indies. 
Of tlii.s strongly marked specie.'^ we liave ei'-'ht specimens from Apia._ Lacepede's ftellatuis, with 
two rows of black spots, is probably the same as the Jintbriattis of Bennett. 

Color in life of one specimen, body pale reddish olive with many purplish black spots, irreg- 
ular in form, aliout as large as eye; the oblong spots longer, the spots all narrower than the inter- 
spaces; spots arranged in about 3 rows, with a row also on dorsal fin and the lower row extending on 
anal; belly pale, unspotted; dorsal and anal with a yellowish margin, broader on anal, which is mostly 
pale; head with much smaller spots, sparsely placed; folds on neck dark, conspicuous; gill-opening 
pale; angle of uiouth with a small black spot, a whitish spot before it on the lower jaw only; chin 
and snout dark. 

190. Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker). Caroline Is.; Samoa; East Indies. 
.¥ura-«o huroensis Bleeker, Nat. Tijds. Ned. Ind., vni, 79, Buro. 

Gymnothorax burocnsis, Bleeker, Atlas, Miirffinidie, 90, tab. xi., fig. 1, East Indies, 

Of this species we have 10 specimens from Samoa and three from the island of Kusai, in the 
Carolines, collection of Mr. A. P. Lundin. The species is always very dark, with darker spots and 
markings, which vary considerably with age and shade of color. The tip of the tail is always white. 
"We identify our specimens with huroensis with a little doubt, but there is no other species with which 
we can place them. 

Color in life of a specimen from Apia, dark brown, a little paler below; dorsal fin high, with very 
obscure black bars, and liehind edged with light orange; the body also faintly liarred with darker. 
This coloration was seen in three young examples obtained from a crackeil coral head. 



200 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU t)F FISHERIES. ■ 

Color in spirits (adult specimens) very dark purplish brown, with longitudinal rows of small, 
diffuse, irregular black spots, smaller than eye, arranged in about four irregular rows; these spots 
rather larger on the tail, smaller towards the head, which is not spotted; top of head and snout dark; 
angle of mouth not colored; gill-opening not colored; fins colored like the body, the caudal with a 
narrow pale edge; throat pale, unspotted; belly darker and spotted posteriorly. 

191. Gymnothorax mucifer Snyder. Honolulu. 

Giimniithiirax niKCi/cr Snyder, Bull. L'. S. Fish Comm., x.xii, 1903 (1904), .il9. pi. .5, fig. 9. Honolulu. 
This specie.s is known from a single example from Hawaii. It strongly resemljles Gumniilhorax 
buroensis, but in the latter the upper teeth are in two rows. 

192. Gymnothorax laysanus (Steindachner). Hawaii; Laysan. 

Mur.riia Imisrnm Stfinflaohner. Dcnks. Ak. Wiss. Wien, .\vi, June 27, 1900, ]77. Laysan. 

aymn.,th..rnj- l,i,,»nn,f. .Jenkins. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., .xxii, 1902 (1903;, 425, Honolulu. Snyder, Bull, V. S. Fish 

('..uiiii.. NNii, r.i"2 , 1904), 518. Honolulu, Hilo. 
Lymd<ii,iisp<irril,nufrl,iiilis Fowler. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1900, 404, Hawaii. 
This species is occasionally taken about the Hawaiian Islands. Dr. Steindachner' s second figure 
representing a species finely speckled with white only may represent some other species. Fowler's 
parvihranchialig with white spots in about four rows seems to be identical w-ith our smaller specimens. 

193. Gymnothorax polyuranodon ( Bleeker). New Guinea ( Bleeker): East Indies. 

194. Gymnothorax hilonis Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

195. Gymnothorax tenebrosus (Richardson). Tahiti (Seale). 

Miiruim linrbram Kiehard.son, Voy, Erebus and Terror, 84, 1846; locality unknown, probably Tahiti. 

196. Gymnothorax variegatus (Quoy & Gainiard). Guam. 

197. Gymnothorax chalazius Waite. Tubuai; Austral Is. (Seale); Australia, 

(llimiiiithnrax chalazius Waite, Reo. Austr. Mus., v, 145, 1904. Lord Howe I. 
An ally of Gymnulhorax laynamis, recently taken by Mr. Seale at Tubuai. 

198. Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker). Pusi maoa'e. Samoa; East Indies. 

Mttr:nrt i.',r?'>. • n. /i i:irh!irdson, Voy. Erebus and Terror, 84, 184C, Darnley I.; not of Quoy & Gaimard, 

Jl/ar,. , ' n: . I;< r, Nat. Tijds, ^fed, Ind., xix, 241, Java, 

Giimii"' Uleeker, Atlas, Mursenidse, 9.5, tab. xxxv, fig. 2. 

Of this -^.. ( ic- ».■ Iiave five examples from Samoa from U to 4 feet in length. It is one of the 
largest eels of the South Seas, and the coloration is the same at all ages. The species is well separated 
from O. batuenm, with wliich and with several other species Dr. GiJnther has confounded it under the 
name G. JlavomarginatU!'. ^ful■:enophis griseus Lacepede seems to be G. pictus. Munvna geometrica = 
Muriena bilineata Riippell is a species of Echidna. 

Color in life of a very large specimen from Apia, brownish with blacker spots, larger behind; a 
large black spot around gill-opening. Another specimen from Apia in life was reddish brown with jet 
black spots and blotches, irregular in size but much larger than eye; about three rows on body, reduc- 
ing ground-color to broad reticulations; about 40 to 50 spots in a row, those of the upper row extend- 
ing on the dorsal, the spots rather larger than those in the second row-; those of the third row still 
smaller; belly paler, with smaller black spots; head similar, the spots small, much smaller than eye; 
angle of mouth black; gill-opening in a large black spot; wrinkles on head dark; fins spotted and col- 
ored like the body; tip of tail with a pale edge; obscure pale edging to fins behind. 

199. Gymnothorax flavomarginatus (Riippell). Piisl <jal<tla (f^potled moray). Samoa; Hawaii; 

New Guinea; Norfolk I.; East Indie.s. 
Murieiia .rtac/n,,' ■ Cmpim'.i, Atlas, 119, tab, xxx.tig. 3,1828, Red Sea. Gunther, Cat., vm, 119, Zanzibar, 

Seychelles, !'■ i- n ' ■■ : Mmid, 
Gymnothoraj- I/-I i i. .ker. Atlas, Murajnida;, 9.5. tab. xx.nii, fig. 2. lab. xxxrv, fig. 3, East Indies. 

Murimabalnnisi- 1:1. , i,, i \,ii Tijcls, Ned. Ind„ xii, 241, Batu. 
This dull-colored moray is, with Gymnotlm-ax undulatus, the most common species at Samoa, atid 
it is occasionally taken at Hawaii. It is readily known by the small dusky spots which cover the 
whole body, obscuring the pale ground color. The gill-opening is black, and there is a mere trace of 



THE FISHES OE SAMOA. 201 

a yellow edge to the vertical fins posteriorly, but hanlly a yellow margin. The fore part of the head 
is black. This is apparently the Mnmnd I'uroiiKiri/iiiiitu (if l\ii]ipell, as supposed by Bleeker. 

Color in life of a specimen from Apia,- yellow-olive, darker above, with some yellow spots; hody 
and fins with black spots; fins narrowly edged with yellow; front of head black. 

Color of same specimen in alcohol, dusky olive, paler below; everywhere with confluent mar- 
blings or spots of purplish brown, the olive ground-color appearing as small, irregular, yellow spots 
or vague streaks; head a little darker; snout and tip of chin black; gill-opening in a conspicuous black 
spot; angle of mouth black; tip of caudal narrowly edged with yellowish white, the color extending 
as a very narrow edge on vertical fins; dorsal nearly black, mottled like the body; aiial similar. 

200. Gymnothorax thalassopterus Jenki 

Gymnotlmnu- thalasmjiterus Jenkins, Bull. I'. S. Fish Cnnim., .xxii, 1902 i W03). 427, pi. n, Honolulu; not cotypes. 
This species is known from one specimen from Honolulu. In this type, as shown in Jenkins' 
figure, the dark spots on the body are almost all .separate, not confluent as in G. JhvomarginaUns. 
In all other regards the two forms seem to agree, and G. thalassopterus is probably oidy a variant 
individual of the latter species. The smaller cotypes from Honolulu mentioned liy Dr. .Jenkins are 
the ordinar3'_/?a(;omnrprmo/i(.j, the dark spots everywhere confluent as usual. 

201. Gymnothorax talofa Jordan & Starks, new species. Samoa. 

Head 7 in entire length; depth 2.3o in head; .=nout rather sharp, o in head; eye 1.80 in snout: 
length of mouth l.bO in head; gill-opening smaller than pupil; lower jaw strongly hooked upward 
toward its tip; iii the upper jaw an irregular broken .series of sharp canines on each side, slightly 



Fig. ", .—Gymnolhorax talu/a Jnrilnn i St.<irks, nCw spcck-s. Type. 

hooked backward; posteriorly an outer series of much more regular, closer-set, and smaller series 
somewhat directed backward; anteriorly and medially two vertical vomerine teeth longer and sharjier 
than the others. On the lower jaw a series of teeth similar to the outer series of upper jaw, while 
anteriorly are 4 or .5 sharp canines irregular in length; trunk 1.33 in caudal. 

Color in alcohol dark reddish brown, with whitish streaks and blotches arranged in one or two 
rows with a vague third row below, the ground-color forming dark cross-shades between the whitish 
streaks. The white markings are in fact short vertical streaks, which on the tail become narrow white 
wavy cross-bands, relatively conspicuous. Head and anterior part of trunk with a row of diffuse dark 
blotches on the cross-shades, these distinct near head, where the first one is a long wedge on the tem- 
poral region, but feding behind; angle of mouth black; a white streak from snout to vent along the 
median line; gill-opening pale; fins colored like body; caudal with a narrow yellowish edge; belly 
and throat plain brown. 

Two specimens, from Apia. The type, no. .51713, L'. S. National iluseum, is 10 inches in length. 
Tidofa is the common Samoan salutation, equivalent to the Hawaiian aloha. 

202. Gymnotliorax detaetus Bryan & Herre. Marcus I.; Samoa; Nukahiva (Seale). 
Gijiunoifiorai ddadus Bryan & Herre, Bishop Museum, n, 1903, 126, Marcus I. 
Two specimens from Apia seem to be identical with this species, although Bryan and Herre do not 
mention the markings at the angle of the mouth. 

B. B. F. WOo— 1 1 



202 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Color in alcohol pale gray, much mottled and spotted with purplish brown, the brown forming 
vague branching cross-bars or streaks, much anastomosed, covering belly also, these most bar-like 
behind; throat and chin paler; no pale edge to fins; angle of mouth l)rovvn, with a yellow spot before 
it on each jaw; jmres on jaws white; tins colored like the body. 

203. Gymnothorax rliodoceplialus Bleeker. Rarotonga (Scale) ; i;ast Indies. 
( f^'imnothorax formostts Bleeker.) 

204. Gymnothorax lineatus (Lesson). Tahiti; Oualau; Samoa; East Indies. 
Murxnophis linealus Lesson, Voy. Coquille, 127, pi. 11, flg. 1, 1K30, Oualan; poor figure. 

Mura'iia flaveoius Lesson. Voy. Coquille, 128, pi. 11, fig. 2, 1830, Oualan; smaller specimen, with a better figure. 

Muriena grisea Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen., xxn, Bali. 11, Bali; not of Lacfp&de. 

Murxna richardsoni Bleeker, Nat. Tijd.s., ni, 2S6. Bleeker, Atlas, Mursnida:, 100, tab. xlii, fig. 2. Kner, Novara 
Fische, 385, Tahiti. Gunther, Cat., vii . US, Zanzibar, Amboina, Ceram, East Indies. 

f Murxna ceramensis Bleeker, Nat. Tijds., in, 297, Ceram. 

Gynmothoraiceramensis Bleekei, Atlas, Mursenidse, 101, tab. xxxni, fig. 3. 

Mura'na scotiodon Bleekei, Verb. Bat. Gen., xxv, Mursenidae, 43, Sumatra. 

Murxna troscheli Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen., xxv, MureenidEe, 45. 

Murssna venosa Kaup, Apodes, 08, 1854, Timor. 

Thyrsoidea mnllifasciata Knup, Apodes, 87, 1854, Moluccas. 

Murama vermicularis Peters, Wiegmann's Archiv. is.n.'). 271. 

Mura-na diplodon Peters, Wiegmann's Archiv, Is.Vi, 271. 

Mur.rnn flnreHana Bleeker, Nat. Tijds., vi, 3;M, Flores. 
We refer lliree examples of a small moray fmm Apia to Lesson's lineatus and flaivolus. In this 
species the dorsal fin is very high, the body brown crossed by irregular darker lines, and there is, as 
in G. rhodocephalus and G. detadus, a dark spot between two yellow spots at the angle of the mouth. 
The individual specimens differ somewhat in color, enough to allow for the discrepancies in the poor 
figures I ublished by Lesson. The common Gymnoihorax richardsoni of the East Indies seems to be the 
same species. 

Color in alcohol light reddish brown, darker above, with dark vertical broken streaks or bands, 
very irregular in form and more or less reticulating; at intervals broadening into dark spots; markings 
a little more irregular on the tail; belly pale, unspotted or else marked like the body; head unspotted; 
angle of mouth black, with a white spot before it on both jaws; fins very high, paler than body, the 
cross-streaks on body extending on dorsal and anal; no white edgings on fins; gill-opening pale. 

Close to G. slellatus, but with the spots replaced by cross-streaks and reticulations. Also near O. 
delactus but the dorsal much higher, and the markings darker and more band-like. G. rhodocephalvs 
is also related, but in that species the cross-streaks behind ars pale. 

205. Gymnothorax ercodes Jenkins. Hawaii. 

206. Gymnothorax steindachneri Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii; Laysan. 
(;,jmnnthorax iUindm-hm-ri Sm<\&n & Evermann, Bull. U.S. Fish Comm., xxn. 1902 (1903), 166, Honolulu. 
Miutrmi jiavuiiKiniiiiata var., Steindachner, Denks. Ak. Wiss. Wien, Lxx, 1900, .514, pi. vi, Ak. 3. Laysan: not of 

Rlippell. 
Of this species we have several specimens from Hawaii. It bears little resemOiance to Gyiimu- 
Ihorax flavomarginatus, under which name Dr. Steindachner figures it. 

207. Gymnothorax gracilicauda Jenkins. Hawaii. 

This species, with a long and slender tail, is recognized in the original type only, a small speci- 
men, perhaps the young of Gi/miiolhoraj: steindachneri.- 

208. Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepede). Piisi puleptde. New Guinea; Hawaii; Samua; Tubuai; 

Raiatea (Seale); East Indies. 
? Mur.i-na marmurataa Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. Uranie, 247, 1824, Waigiu, Rawak. 
This species is very abundant throughout the South Seas. We have about S examples, large 
and small, from Apia, and many from Hawaii. 

Color in alcohol of a large specimen from Apia, dark brown with pale yellow or yellowish-white 
reticulated and undulated cross-streaks, very numerous and much narrower than the masses of ground 



a The .scanty description of Quoy & Gaimard is insufficient to identify this species. It is said to be reddish yellow 
a ring-like arrangement of markings. The teeth are said to serrated. It is probably identical with Gymnothorax i 
latus, but it might be any other of several species. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. ZOO 

color; many of these streaks formed somewhat like an inverted Y; snout dark; a black spot at angle 
of mouth; gill-opening not black; markings on head more diffuse; black folds along side of neck; 
belly j'ellowish, marbled with brownish; fins colored like body, the anal with a narrow yellowish 
margin; tip of tail with a narrow pale edge. 



209. Gymnothorax berndti Snyder. Hawaii. 

STROPHIDON McClelland. 

210. Strophidon brummeri (Bleeker). Ea-st Indies. 

RfC»r(lt'd by Du Vis, Froc. Linn. .Soe. N. ,S. W. 18.S4, -I.ST, New Hebrides. 
ECHIDNA Forster. 

211. Echidna nebulosa (Ahl). Piu^i. Tahiti; Wahia; Tmiga; Borabora; Hawaii; Samoa; New 

(Tuinea; Shortlandl.; Nukahiva (Seale); East Indies. 
This widely diffused species is very common about Samoa, where al)out 4(1 specimens were taken. 
It is relatively scarce about Hawaii. 

212. Echidna zebra (Shaw). Samoa; Hawaii; East Indies. 

This species, of a rich brown color, with narrow golden rings, is common at Samoa, where about 
.'iO specimens were taken. It is rather scarce about Hawaii. 

213. Echidna polyzona ( Richardson) . Tahiti; Nukahiva (Seale); Eastlndies. 

214. Echidna zonophaea Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

This species is close to Echidna polyzona, but with the other nominal species from Hawaii it seems 
to differ in having the ground-color broken by mottlings. It may prove identical with Echidna 
zonata. In Echidna polyzona, as figured by Bleeker, the ground-color is plain dark brown as in 
Echidna zebra, covered by rings of clear yellow. 

215. Echidna zonata Fowler. Hawaii. 

Echidna zonain Fowler, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pliilii., 1900, 496, Hawaii. 
Echidna vincta Jenkins, Bull. Q. S. Fish Comm., x.xn, 1902 (1904), 429, Hawaii. 
Echidna puhjzfma Fowler, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1900, 496, Hawaii; not of Richarrtson. 
Dr. Jenkins found this species rather common at Honolulu. AVe see no difference between the 
species calleil zonain and lincta. 

216. Echidna psalion Jenkins. Hawaii. 

This species is known from a single example, evidently very close to E. imicta, if indeed vincta 
and zonophsca and pos.sibly obscura and tritor be not all color variations of the same species, Echidna 
trilor. 

217. Echidna tritor Vaillant & Sauvage. Hawaii. 

218. Echidna obscura Jenkins. Hawaii. 

219. Echidna leihala Jenkins. Pusi ' at' alnga. Hawaii. 

Numerous specimens taken recently at Hawaii leave little room for doubt as to the identity of the 
nominal species. Echidna zonata, vincta, psalion, zonophsea, leihala, obscura with Echidna tritor. The 
variations in the bands are very great, scarcely any two specimens being alike. 

220. Echidna trossula Jordan & Starks, new species. Samoa. 
Mil in-iia nigra, Seale, Bishop Museum, 1901, 62, Guam; not of Day. 

Head 7.5 in entire length; depth 2 in head; snout blunt, 6.5 in head; eye 1.5 in snout; tubes of 
anterior nostrils scarcely as long as diameter of pupil; cleft of mouth from tip of snout to angle 3.33 
in head; teeth slightly movable except those in roof of mouth behind vomerine teeth; teeth in upper 
jaw in a single row on each side, anteriorly rather blunt and conical, posteriorly sharper and smaller; 
the one sort giving place to the other abruptly; a median row of two teeth anteriorly similar to those 
of anterior outer row; behind these and remote from them, extending back in the roof of the mouth 



204 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OK FISHERIES. 

to opposite the last teeth of the outer row, a patcli of blunt teeth usually in two rowi-, but sometimes 
ill one, or irregularly in two; teeth in lower jaw anteriorly biserial, posteriorly unisorial, re^cniblini.' 
in size and shape the outer series of upper jaw; gill-opening as long as eye; nuchal hump w.ll 
developed; preanal portion of l)ody equal in length to postanal. 

Color dark with irregular dark brown spots, each conforming to the shape of its adjoining sjMjt>, 
thickly placed over a light gray ground, leaving a fine network of the latter everywhere. 

Life colors in a specimen from Pago Pago, dark brown, fins and tail paler; surface finely dotted 
with dark points. A specimen from Apia, with head very short, had iris golden red; body brownish, 
very finely Init shar)ily dotted with darker brown; no markings. 



Firi. K—KHiiiln 



Type no. •~)1714, I'. S. Xational Museum, a specimen 6.5 inches long, from Apia. 

This species, known by the presence of fine black specks all over the body, is rather common 
about Samoa, where u dozi-n specimens were taken, at .\pia and Pa'.'O Pago. A small eel with a small 
mouth. 

221. Echidna uniformis iSeale. Guam. 

Eelildnu ntufoymis Seale, Bishop Museum, 1901, 62, Guam. 

222. Echidna delicatula Bleeker. Samoa; East Indies. 

Ei-hidna kishinninjci Jorrlan &. Snyder. Proc. II. S. Nat, JIu.s., 1901, 890, with plate, Riukiu Is. 

( If tliis species, known by the mottled purplish coloration and the anterior insertion of the dorsal, 
we have 7 e.xamples from Pago Pago. The largest of these is about 18 inches long. This species is 
well distinguished from E. amhlyodon of the East Indies, in having the insertion of the dorsal well in 
front of that of the pectoral. 

Life colors of a .specimen from Pago Pago, dark olivaceous green, fins jialer greenish, body covered 
all over with brown reticulations around black spots. 

223. Echidna amblyodon Bleeker. Marquesas Is, (Seale); East Indies. 

ANARCHIAS Jordan & Starks, new genus. 
AnarcMaa Jordan & .^tarks, new genus of JMuni'iiidn- ( A. iillanlirci). 
This genus contains small morays resembling (liiuitiiilhiini r, but entirely lacking the anal fin: the 
dorsal is developed as usual. 

224. Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks, new species. Samoa. 

Head s..') ill length; depth 2.3 to 2.7; snout slightly blunter than in .1. kniijlili, 5..i in head; eye 1..5 
ill Mioiit: lcii'_'tli nf mouth 2.7 to 3 in head. Teeth similar to those of A. knighti excejit that there is 
(iiil\ A >iii;jlc \ niiierine tooth; tube of anterior nostril less than half diameter of eye; large pores rather 
wiil.ly -ii,:iiak'<l follow along the edge of mandible and border mouth above; three of them on each 
siili- ■>! ui>iK'r part of snout, the most |iosterior one at upper edge of eye; trunk 1.2 to 1.7 in tail. No 
anal fin; no distinct caudal; no iiectoral. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 205 

Four specimens, two from Apia, two from Pago Pago. 

Life colors of a Pago Pago specimen dark clear brown, the dnrail blackish; tip of tail briglit yellow 
Sjiecimen caught in the coral by cracking the large growing heads. 

An .\pia specimen was brown, lighter beneath; tip of tail bright yellow. 

Color in spirits, everywhere a uniform dark reddish brown darker above; tij^of caudal and under 
part of manililile pale. 

Type no. .51 715, V. R. National Museum, IfiO mm. in length, from Pago Pago. 




Vir,. '.t, — Aii'irrltias allardicci Jordan tt starks, iil-w tii«_-<ics. Tvi'c. 

225. Aiiarchias knighti .Jordan ct Starks, new species. Samoa. 

Head 9.5 in full length; depth 2.1.'5 in head; snout short and moderately blunt, 7.25 in head; eye 
1.2 to 1.5 in snout; length of mouth, 3 in head. Teeth in two series in the upper jaw, the outer 
series more close-set, smaller and more regular than the inner, the inner series rather large, sharp, 
and of unequal length; anteriorly a pair of median vomerine teeth similar to those on the inner row; 
teetli of mandiljle in two rows and resembling those of upjier jaw; tube of anterior nostril half 
diameter of eye; gill-opening very small, smaller than pupil. Length of trunk contained 1.17 in tail. 



In spirits a network of dark lines covers the head and body over a ground col.ir of slaty brown. 
These in the type cover the body everywhere e.Kcept under the mandible, which is white. In the 
c'otype tlie underparts are only slightly mottled, leaving them a soiled w bite. 

This species diffei-s horn A. aUardicei particularly in having the liody ni<.ittliMi, and in having a 
slightly longer snout and mouth and a slightly larger eye. It is known from two examples taken at 
Apia by Prof. Robert Edgar Allardice and Master Knight Starr Jordan. Type, no. 5171G U. S. 
National Museum, 115 mm. in length, and the cotype, 145 mm., both from .\pia. 



206 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAT OF FISHERIES. 

SCUTICARIA Jordan & Snyder. 

226. Scuticaria tigrina (Lfsson). J'li-^i shIhsu/n. lluwuii; Sariina; Boniboni; Tonga; JoliiLston I. ; 

Tahiti; Xukahiva (SealeJ. 
This species is occasionally taken at Samoa ami at Hawaii. It is coiiinioii in the Kast Indies. We 
have 10 examples from Apia and Pago Pago. 

Life colors of an examiile from Pago Pago, livid ]iale-pinki«li lirown with black spots. 

UEOPTEKYGIIIS Riippell. 

227. Uropterygius marmoratus (LacepCde). New Britain; Hawaii; Samoa; Oiialan; Nukaliivn 

(Scale). 

This large eel, known by its finely mottled coloration and the paler color of its vertical fins, is 
occasionally taken in Samoa, whence we obtained abont It) examples. It is also sometimes taken in 
Hawaii. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, dark brown, all freckled with white above and below, the 
white tending to form reticulations around brown confluent spots. 

228. XTropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker). Pusi, Sulalulu. Samoa; Kast Indies. 

Of this species we have about a dozen specimens from Apia, the longest about 8 inches in length. 
The body in all is mottled, the caudal pale. These may be the young of Vropteriigms marmomta, as 
Giinther suggests, but it i.s not likely. We find no tube on the posterior nostrils, and so place it in a 
different species. It is possible that this species is n(jt distinct from I'roptcrijr/ius microiiUrtis Hleekei; 
which differs in the shorter head. 

Life colors in a specimen from Apia, livid bluLsh white, with line brown reticulations. 

229. Uropterygius concolor Ruppell. Samoa; Xukahiva (Seale); Red Sea. 

lilimwimiirnHi ffis,;, VrU-Tft. Bed. Mon. 18B6, .524, Amboina. 

In this species the color is uniform purplish red without spots, the fins scarcely paler. It 
agrees fairly with the accounts of U. concolur, and still better with that of G. fiisni. 

230. Uropterygius leucurus Snyder. I^anai, Hawaiian Is. 

231. Uropterygius xanthopterus (Bleeker). Nukahiva (Scale); East Indies. 

Family X()TAC.\.\THH)^. 
NOTACANTHUS Bloch. {Oi/jliolia tioode & Bean.) 

232. Notacanthus moseleyi ((loode & Bean). South Pacific. 

Family BEL0NID.4:. 
BELONE Cnvier. 

233. Belone platyura Bennett. Ise. Hawaii; Samoa. 

Of this sjiecies, rather common about Hawaii, one specimen was taken at Apia. It is readily 
recognized by the presence of gillrakers and by the large caudal keel. Anal 20; dorsal 15; tail 
very much depressed, flat-keeled; axil dusky. 

Life colors, deep green, with blue luster above, abruptly white on sides; luster everywhere clear 
blue; fins pale; tip of dorsal and upper caudal lobe dusky; anal and ventral somewhat dusky. 

TYLOSURUS Cocco. 

234. Tylosurus leiuroides (Bleeker). A'n. Samoa; New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

Four specimens of this species were taken at Apia. Life colors of one of these, gray, pide silvery 
with silvery blue lateral line; jaws bluish edged; luster bluish, no green; fins translucent bluish; 
dorsal a little purplish on lobe, not Idack; last dorsal rays low; head deeply sculptured. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 20 t 

235. Tylosurus coromandelicus ( Van Hasselt ). New Britain; East Indies. 
iBclone mclanotus Sleeker.) 

236. Tylosurusurvillei (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Vanicolo. 

237. Tylosurus cancila (Hamilton-Buchanan). New <Tuinea (Macleay): East Indies. 

238. Tylosurus giganteus (Schlegel). A' u. Samoa; Hawaii; Levuka; Oualan; Kandavu; Fiji; 

New Guinea (Macleay); Tubuai Is. (Seale); East Indies; Japan. 
This huge species is rather common about Samoa, as also at Hawaii and throughout the tropical 
Pacific. We obtained three moderate-sized and a few very lai^e sjjecimens from Samoa. One speci- 
men leaped from the water to seize a charge of dynamite in the air. 

ATHLENNES Jordan & Fordice. 

239. Athlennes hians (Cuvier A Valenciennes). Hawaii; West Indies; .\capulco. 

Family E.\0C(ET1D.€. 
HEMIRAMPHTJS Cuvier. 

240. Hemiramphus pacificus Strindailmer. Hawaii; Saiuna. 

Of this species about 20 specimens were taken with the seine near the mouth of the harbor of 
Pago Pago. The fish is not rare about Hawaii. 

Life colors, light olive, silvery below; a clear blue line bounding silvery stripe above; all dark 
parts of body with bright blue luster; base of anal with blue stripe; tip of lower jaw deep orange. 

241. Hemiramphus depauperatus Lay & Bennett. Hawaii; Marcus I. 

242. Hemiramphus affinis Giinther. Ine lixi. Samoa; New Hebrides (Seale). 

This species is the common i.vc or halfbeak, found everywhere in shallow water along the shore at 
Samoa. It is distinguished from related species by the insertion of the ventrals nearer base of caudal 
than gill-opening. We have about 50 specimens. None of our specimens have the head quite as long 
as indicated in Giinther's description. The head with lower jaw is 2.75 to 3 in length to base of caudal. 
Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, dorsal with blackish-edged blotch ; a dusky spot in pectoral 
axil; lateral line and a lateral streak bright clear green; membranes of lower jaw dusky, with some 
red. A specimen from Apia had the lower jaw very red below; two blue streaks on each side of body. 

243. Hemiramphus laticeps Giinther. Fiji. 

244. Hemiramphus limbatus Cuvier A Valenciennes. Guam; East Indies. 

245. Hemiramphus argenteus Bennett. Open sea, near equator. 

246. Hemiramphus eclancheri Cuvier &. A'alenciennes. Marquesas (Cuvier & Valenciennes, Seale). 

247. Hemiramphus quoyi Cuvier t>c Valenciennes. New Guinea (Macleay) ; East Indies. 

248. Hemiramphus g-aimardi Cuvier A Valenciennes. Papua; East Indies. 

249. Hemiramphus commersoni Cuvier. Fiji (Giinther); New Guinea; Shortland 1. (Seale); 

Ea.«t Indies. 

250. Hemiramphus australiensis Seale. Tubuai (Seale). 

251. Hemiramphus cantori Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

252. Hemiramphus acutus Giinther. Rarotonga. 

Hemiramphus aeulxis GvLTilher, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1841, 671. Rarotonga iCook Is.). 

253. Hemiramphus melanurus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Suloinon Is. (Seale); East Indies. 



2U8 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP' FISHERIES. 

EULEPTOKHAMPHUS Gill. 

254. Euleptorhamphus long-irostris I Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; upen I'acili<'; warm 

seas generally. 

ZENARCHOPTERUS Gill. 

255. Zenarchopterus dispar (Cuvierct Valeniieinie.-:^) , New (luinea (Maeleay); Ea.st Indies. 

256. Zenarchopterus maculosus Garman. Fiji. 

257. Zenarchopterus vaisiganis Jordan & Scale, new species. Taolo. 

Head, without lower jaw, 4.30 in length, with lower jaw, 2.30; lower jaw from tip of upper 3.!«i 
eye 3.60 in head; upper jaw slightly broader than long, about equal to eye; interorbital slightly greatii 
than eye; dorsal 12; anal 12; modified with a clasping organ, with a fleshy intromittent organ ju-t 
anterior to base; scales 2-43-3; snout 3.10. 

Body elongate, the depth 1.75 in head, the width 2.75; scales deciduous, the lateral line runniuL' 
very low on body; depth of caudal peduncle equal to interorbital space; width of preorbital in front nt 
eye equal to pupil; opercle and preopercle entire; suborbital with more or less adipose membranr; 
villiform teeth in jaws, none on vomer, maxillary ortongue; gill-rakers thick, rather blunt, thelongest 
about 2 in pupil, 12 developed on lower limb; base of dorsal fin 1.30 in head, fully one-half being on 
caudal peduncle, fourth and fifth rays are elongate, being about equal to base of fin; longest ray of anal, 
which is widened and elongate, forming one of the w'ings of the claspers, is about equal to length of 



Fifi. f[.—/nicirrlit,pln-us raid'janis Jordan & Sculc, new species. Type. 

head; fleshly base of anal equal to eye; ventral small, 2.95 in head, its origin far back at lieginniiii;- 
of posterior third of body; pectoral 1.20 in head; intromittent organ very prominent, situated 
lietween tip of ventrals and base of anal, its width 2 in length; caudal rounded, 1.20 in head. 

Color in spirits, silvery below, darker above, with wash of greenish blue, a distinct dark-blue line 
from opercles to base of caudal; lower jaw deep blue; orbit with rim of blue; anterior of anal with 
dusky wash; a black spot on anterior dorsal, the fin more or less washed with dusky; caudal with 
dusky wash; other fins with very slight trace of dusky. 

Color in life, pale olivaceous; a silvery streak along side; fins dirty-yellowish olive. 

Fourteen specimens from Vaisigano River, at Aj)ia. The type is no. 51718, U. S. National Museum, 
length 6 inches. 

EVOLANTIA Snodgrass & Heller. 

258. Evolantia microptera (Cuvier & Valenciennes ). Hawaii: New Ireland; East Indies; Gala- 

pagos Is. 

FAREXOCCETUS Bleaker. 

259. Parexoccetus brachypterus (Solanderi . Tahiti; Hawaii; Laysan; West Indies. 

260. Parexoccetus brevipinuis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Ireland. , 

261. Parexoccetus rostratus ((iimther). Hawaii. 

EXOCffiTUS Linnsens. 

262. Exocoetus volitaus Linna-us. Hawaii: East Indies: Atlantic Ocean. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



209 



CYPSILUKUS Swaiuson. Malolo. 
263. Cypsilurus unicolor (Cuvier & Valendenues). Vanicolo; f-ea between Auckland and 8aniui 
Tasman Sea. 



Of this species we liave 4 examples taken in the sea south of Saujoa, and one from the Tasman 
Sea between Sydiu'v and Auckland. All were obtained by Mr. A. P. Lundin, then navigator of the 




'"s^^^^ 




^m 



Fig. 



-C'niixiturits unicolor (Cuviev & Valenciennes). 



steamer Steira. The species reaches a length of about 18 inches. On the specimen figured 4 parasitic 
c'lpepod crustaceans {Penella) were attached, and on each of these were attached parasitic Ijaruacles, 
' 'iiichoderma virc/atum, looking like a cluster of strange orchids. 

264. Cypsilurus gilbert! Snyder. Hawaii. 

265. Cypsilurus speculiger (Cuvier A Valenciennes). Tasman Sea, between Auckland and 

Sydney. 





Fig. K.—CypsUurus speciUincr (Cuvier & Viilunciennes) . 

Of this sjjecies we have 5 examples taken by Mr. A. F. Lundin, in the Tasman Sea, between Sydnej 
ami Auckland. According to Dr. Liitken, this species occurs in the Atlantic also. The Atlanti( 
species, called E.i:oca'lus rubesccns, roberti, and affinis, and wrongly called Exoavtus voiitans, is, however, 
proliably different, having the band on the pectoral le.ss marked. 



210 



5ULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF F'ISHERIES 



266. Cypsilurus lamellifer ( Kner & Steindachner) . Open Paciflo. 
Exocoetiis lamelli/cr Kner <S: Steindachner. Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1867, 384, Pacific. 

267. Cypsilurus atrisignis Jenkins. Hawaii; Kusai, or Strong I., Caroline Group. 

Of thia species, besides Dr. Jenkins's type from Hawaii, we have a second, taken at Kusai, or 
Strong Island, of the Caroline group, by Mr. A. P. Lundin, then navigator of the missionary vessel 
,l/oc7i m;/ Star. 

268. Cypsilurus poecilopterus (Cuvier ct Valenciennes). New Pritain; Tahiti; Caroline Ir^.; 

Samoa; East Indies. 
Kwcif'tuKspihptcrus Gtinther, Cat., vi. 2u:^, Caroline Is. 



-.. -*?^ 




i:^ 



ier & Valenciennes). 



This species is easily recognized bj' its plump body and spotted pectorals. Its maximum size is 
smaller than that of Cypsilurus dinus and C. quindecimradinlux, the length being about 9 inches. Life 
colors of one specimen blue above, pectoral with Large spots, ventrals plain, basally dusky, no red on 
pectoral. 

One tine example flew on board the steamer Kamui off the western end of Tutuila, in the night. 




Fig. 



-O/psUuriib quuukcimradtatus Fowli 



269. Cypsilurus quindecimradiatus Fowler. Thornton I. ; north 

Oi this well-marked species, distinguished by its long dorsal of 14 or 
the absence of pectoral markings, we have two large examples taken by M 
to the southward of Samoa. 



Samoa. 

)r 15 rays, its large size and 
A. P. Limdin in the sea 



THE 



[ES OF SAMOA. 



211 



270. Cypsilurus oligolepis Bleeker. Shortland I. (Seale); East Indie.«. 

271. Cypsilurus simus (C'uvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii. Very abundant. 

272. Cypsilurus bahiensis (Ranzani). Hawaii, abundant: Atlantic; I'anama region. 

273. Cypsilurus uaresi (Giinther). Fiji; New Hebrides. 

274. Cypsilurus solandri (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tahiti; Seychelles. 

275. Cypsilurus long-ibarba (De Vis). New- Britain. 

Erucirlus lumiiharba Do Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1884, 4.54. New Britain; very young. 

276. Cypsilurus katoptron (Bleeker). Seas south of Samoa; .\ustralia; East Indies. 
Kmcoetus robustus Gunther, Cat., vi, 289. 1866, Australia. 

A specimen of this species agreeing well with Bleeker's figure was taken by Mr. Lundin, then 
mate of the steamship Skrra, in the open sea south of Samoa. The species has black, white-banded 
pectorals, much as in Cypsilurus specuUger, but the dorsal rays are more numerous (14). 




Fig. IS.—Ci/iisilurus kninptron (Bleeker). 

277. Cypsilurus arcticeps (Uiinther). New Guinea (Macleay ); China. 

Family .M'L()ST0M11).4-:. 
AULOSTOMUS Cuvier. 

278. Aulostomus valentini (Bleeker). Taolilo. Hawaii; Samoa; Tahita; Pauniotu Is.; Johnston 

I.; Aneiteum; East Indies; Japan. 
This common East Indian species is occasionally taken in Samoa as in Hawaii. We have one 
example from Apia. 

Family FISTUURlIU.i. 



FISTULARIA LinnEeu8. 

279. Fistularia petimba Laccpcde. Fiji; (iuam; Hawaii; Samoa; New Guinea; New Britain; 

Necker I.; Mangareva; New Heljrides; Solomon Is.; Makatea; Rarotonga; Eaiatea; East 

Indies. 
This .species is common throughout the South Seas. We have a few examples from the shores at 
Samoa. 



280. Fistularia serrata Cuv 



Hawaii; New Guinea; East Indies; Japai 



212 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

F;imilv MACU(IRH.\MPH()SIU.€. 
MACROEHAMPHOSUS Lac^pede. 

281. Macrorhamphosus brevispinis ( Kner & Steindachner). Samoa. 

Tliis sjiecifs, rcciircU'il innii Sam<i:i, wuk not seen by us. 

282. Macrorhampliosus finschi (Hilgendorf). New Britain. 
Cenlri.iriif jiiifi-hi HilgL-ndorf, Niil. Freunde, 1x84, 52, New Britain. 

283. Macrorhamphosus hawaiiensis Gilbert. Hawaii. 

Faniilv CEXTKISCID.^. 
CENTEISCUS Linnaeus. 

284. Centriscus komis (Mallear) . Palau Is. 

a:OLISCTJS Jordan & Starks. 

285. JEoliscus strigatus (Giinther I. New ( iuinea (.Macleay) ; East Imlie.s. 

Famil.v S0LE.\0ST0M1I)/E. 
SOLENOSTOMUS Lac^pede. 

286. Solenostomus cyanopterus lUeeker. Hawaii: New (iuinea; East Indies. 

Family SYN(',XATHID.€. 
COKYTHROICHTHYS Kaup. 

287. Corythroichthys waitei Jordan & f^eale, new species. Samoa. 

Rings 17-^-:>'); ilorsal 29 or 30, situated on the first 6 caudal rings; snout slend 



ive its edges parallel to the eyes, whei'e the head is abrnjil 



r, as ■ 
h widened; length of 



iewed from 
snout 1.2 ill 




head; eyes large, produced above profile, 4.5 in head; a sharp semiconnected ridge extending from 
liehind eyes to just behind jjectoral base, three lobed, the first lobe on occiput, the other two on Ijody 
plates; a sharp ridge cxfcii'lio'j }K<rk from supraorbital crest across parietal region; top of snout with 
a thin, low ridge; suiMii.ir iln.rncir ridge not continuous with superior caudal ridge, but the former 
extending above the brgiiming df the latter for 3 or 4 rings; trnnk contained 1.5 in caudal portion of 
the body; color very light, made slightly dusky by a network of fine lines along the sides, these inter- 
rupted by diffused light cross-bars on every fifth ring, just anterior to which the network of dark lines 
is more conspicuous and extends across the back; dark lines irregularly connected with each other, 
extending more or less horizdiitiilly Lark tniin tliicye. In life snont;:ose-red, head with black stripe; 
general color pale yellowish; caudal lniLilit lo-c-ivd, its upper and lower margins pale. 

The ty_i.ie is no. 51723, V. S. Xational MiiHimi, :;4 inches in length. This species is named for Mr. 
Edgar R. Waite, the accomplished curator of the Australian Museum, now of the Canterbury IMnseum 
of Christchurch, New Zealand. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 213 

288. Corythroichthys sealei .lordan & Starks, new species. Samoa. 

llciul 7.riO; snout ciiual to di.stance from middle of eye to posterior margin of opercle, the snout 
narrow, being scarcely one-lialf of eye; forehead rather abrupt; rings 16 -f- 32; dorsal 32 high, tile 
rays being equal to or greater than depth of fish, the base of the fin not elevated; no crest on head or 
snout; only a trace of a single raised line across opercle; rings of body with six faces, those of the tail 
with four; distance in front of aual fin. 1.75 in posterior part of body; depth 2.75 in head, slightly' 
greater than the width; the egg sac in the male occupies the ventral portion of the sixteenth to 
twenty-eighth ring; length of dorsal slightly less than width of eye; caudal jjin-shaped, 3 in head, 
anal minute, directly lielow tliinl rav of dorsal. 




Fill. IK—Cori/lliroirhlhiis seairi .Tordiiii & Stnrk.s, new species. Type. 

Color in life light gray spotted with reddish brown and lighter gray; snout and cauilal whitish; 
head barred l)clo\v. Color in spirits whitish, each ring with a liranrhid 'j:?cinish ^|.anL;li- nn side and 
top, under surface white; two distinct greenish lines along side of hi-ad ac i..,~,- ..|.rirlr i., base of 
pectoral, the lower one of these lines extending slightly out on the smMit; t-ip ,fi la-ad marked into a 
numljcr (10) of irregular squares by narrow dark lines; four rings of miiniie dit- aniund snout; a dark 
elongate lilack area on throat, more or less separated from a black ventral >|H.t ..n lirst body ring; three 
rows of small round dots on side of body below the branched greenish spots doisal tin with scat- 
terel 1 t 

Tliree sj ecin en tr ii Vj n thetvien ^l 22 I s Nati nl Mu tut 2i m he long. 

289 Corythroiclitliys mataafse J r 1 rn iS^ Se lie new s] ecie 

Head 11 > '•n ut 3 in head narrow -nidth ib ut'ine\c e\e3 5 m head interorbital very nar- 
1 w It ss than nc halt \\ 1 1th ot e\e rings 15+34 the minute anal tin being on the 15th ring, in the male 
fh g I ![ \ n. tl c \eitt 1 irt e t rings 15 to 2b b U even sided the tail 1 ut four; dorsal 



^.^' 



-1 its base not elevated opeide without a bony ridge extending acre ss it 1 ut n ith numerous radiating 
-ows t pits the w 1 lest point foperlewitha hort derm il fla; me lial line f en ut with a distinct 
ere t Mth si\ teeth the height ot crest 1 emg hghth le s than width of J uj il on anterior half of 
1 It tl e rest not toothed no mtei orbital ci est a <-hort fiinged dermal tentacle o\ei each eye, its 
ki gth 1 M thin wi Itl of ii teroil itil a smo-je fiingei tentacle on mi 1 He of nnchal legion; a pair of 
si itteiti 1 J til 1 1 1 ] t 1 1 toeje anothei pair bcl w mi llle t ^n ut; a rim-like 

ir je tl n |i I 1 ut rathei pug like m shape pectoial ks m lengtli than 

w 'tl t I i 111 I Itoeje anal minute 

C loi wliti h ei h rm„ n icl I it-5 faces with m o\ il buwnrimmtl =[ :)t jf ilvery; under 
sulfa e of tail w hitish snout with 2 rings of hisk\ al ut 5 hi k\ tros line un lei throat; about 5 
radiating dusky lines in eye and over head. 



LLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



One specimen, the type, no. 51724, U. S. National Museum, 4.20 inches long, from the coral reefs 
off Mulinu'u, the residence of Mataafa, chief of Upolu, a distinguished and able statesman, once kin^ 
of Samoa. 

290. Corythroichthys trachypoma (Giinther). Thur.'iday I. ; I'rinci' of Wales I. 

>'«/i.w.,/;,i,s Irarhiipuma (iiilitliiT, Z0..I. Ali-rt, 1SS4, 3(1. 

TEACHYRHAMPHUS Kaup. 

291. Trachyrliam.ph.ussp. Marquesas Is. 

A specimen badly mutilated and therefore not in fit condition for descript: 



Mr. Scale at Nukahiva in the Marquesas Islands. It represents probably 

MICKOFHIS Kaup. 
292. Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker). TuoUio. Tahiti; 

,\bout a dozen examples were taken in the A'aisigam: 
All the species of this genus in Samoa are confined strict 



was taken by 
undescribed species. 



Aneiteum; East Indies. 
River and in other streams about Apia. 
,• to fresh A\aters. 



Life colors of one specimen from Apia, light olive, darker on back; a bright red stripe aloug 
side from below pectoral backward to middle of trunk; head darker olive, barred with paler olive; 
caudal dusky olive. Another specimen was dark, speckled with whitish, a vertical orange dash 
behind opercle the only bright color, and seen in males only. 

293. Microphis pleurotsenia (Giinther). Hawaii. 

294. Microphis sculptus (Oiintherl. Fiii. 




295. Microphis caudatus Peters. 



Six specimens of this species were taken in the Gasegase River at Vaimnsa, near Apia. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 215 

296. Microphis torrentius .Tonlan \- Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Head !*.30 Id base of caudal, 4.10 in distance anterior to anal; snout 2.20 in head; width of snout 2 
in its length; eye about equal to width of snout; interorbital narrow, 2 in eye; dorsal 32; anal 3; rings 
16 — 33, no spines; the rings of posterior half square; abdominal rings wider, containing the egg sac; a 



Fig. il.—Mlcruphis turrcnlius Jordan & Scale, new .'ipecies. Type. 

single unbranched stay across opercle; a low medium ridge on snout and 2 in interorbital; slope of 
forehead not abrupt; length of pectoral equal to opercle; caudal equal to snout; insertion of the minute 
anal almost a third nearer tip of snout than tip of caudal; anterior base of dorsal directly over anal. 

Color in spirits, greenish with a slightly darker band on each ring; a distinct black line along side 
of snout through eye, across opercle to base of pectoral; anal with four narrow cros.«-bands of white. 

Three specimens, taken high up in the Vaivase River, near Vailele, to the eastward of Apia, in a 
swift brook running through pasture land. The type is no. 5172.5, U. S. National Museum, from 
near Apia, length 3.25 inche.'J. 

GASTEROTOKEUS Heckel. 

297. Gasterotokeus biaculeatus iBlnch). Samoa; Pajiua; Kast Indies. 

Five specimens were taken at Apia and Pago Pago. They were caught in the seine on shallow 
shores inside the reefs. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, clear olive brown, finely mottled above; six round jet 
lilack spots like ink-dots on lower part of side of body; lower side of head sulphur-yellow, mottled 
with brown; faint brown bars at tip of tail, which is red; belly yellowish brown, with brown cross- 
streaks. 

ICHTHYOCAMPUS Kanp. 

298. Ichthyocampus erythraeus (iilbert. Deep .sea.s of Hawaii. 

299. Ichthyocampus papuensis Sauvage. New Guinea (Sauvage, Pull. Sci. and Philom. 1880, 

HIPPOCAMPUS Kafiuesqne. 

300. Hippocampus fisheri, .Ionian i<: KviTmaiin. Hawaii. 

301. Hippocampus hilonis .lordan A Everiiiann. Hilo. Hawaii. 

302. Hippocampus kuda Bleeker. New (juinea I -Macleay, as //. 'jitlliilalK.i); East Indies. 

Family PEG.AS1D.€. 

PEGASUS" Linnaeus, 1758 [ivlitans). 

Cataphractiis Gronow, 1763 (draco=iolitam). 
Euri/pegasus Bleeker, 1864 {draco=t-oliians). 
Zdllses Jordan & Snyder (umilengu, near dramy. 

303. Pegasus volitans Linnseus. New Britain (Peters Berl. Mon. 1S76, 843); East Indies. 

304. Pegasus papilio Gilbert. Peep seas of Hawaii. 

PARAPEGASUS Dumeril. 

305. Parapegasus natans {Linna?us). New Guinea; Australia; China. 

<i The gemis Pegasus was ba.sed, by Linna?us in 1758, on a single species, Pegasus volitans. In 1763 tlie name Calaplmirtus 
of Gronow was based on tlie same species, which in 1766 Linnseus renamed Pegastis draconis. The same genus was called 
Eiirypcgasus by Bleeker in l.SGl and Zalises by Jordan & Snyder in 1902. 



216 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OK FISHERIES. 

ramily ATHI-RINID.J:. 
ATHERINA Linnasns. 

306. Atherina lacunosa Foister. New Caledonia; Xew lkl)ri<les; Fiji ((Hintlier); Solomon I:^. 

anil Xew Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

I Mhi ri-nn pln'juis LilcupOde.) 

307. Atherina forskali Rtippell. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

308. Atherina endrachtensis Cuvier & ValeniieiHies. New Guinea; Au.stralia. 

309. Atherina waigiensis Quoy & Gaimard. Waigiu. 
Alhi rinn cijliiidrica Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

310. Atherina uisila Jordan and Scale, new species. Visila. 

Head 4.35 in length; depth 7; greate.st width 7.40; eye 2.7.5 in head; snout 4; interorbital equal i 
eye; dorsal vn-i, 10; anal i, 12; scale.s 2-42-3; maxillary extending to below anterior margin of eye. 

Body .somewhat conical; head as wide as deep; interorbital space flat with two narrow groove- 
gillrakers equal in length to pupil, abcSut 25 on lower limb; a single row of minute teeth in jaw>. 
patches of minute teeth on vomer and palatines; origin of dorsal nearer tip of snout than ba.'^e ": 
caudal, its longest spine equal to eye; origin of soft dorsal slightly posterior to origin of anal; baM' 




.3 



of soft dorsal 2.50 in head; base of anal 1.75 in head; the longest rays of soft dorsal and anal eipial to 
eye; pectoral 1.50 in head; ventral 2; caudal 1.20, deeply emarginate; 18 rows of scales in front of 
spinous dorsal; pectoral reacliin^ :^ixth scale of lateral line; origin of spinous dorsal over the sixteenth 
scale of lateral line; operclc and |iii'(i|u-rilc entire. 

Color in life, olive; a latcial l>aiid with a brighter streak above; lower jaw blue; a black ban<l 
across pectoral, fins otherwii-e plain. Color in spirits, below the lateral stripe white with slight wash 
of pale green; margin of scales with or without fine black dots; a wide stripe of bright silver from 
opercle to base of caudal, at its widest point this stripe eijUal in width to the pupil; scales of lateral 
line in some specimens with darker centers, which give the appearance of a slightly darker line in the 
upper third of the silvery line; above the stripe the scales have darker margins and are punctulate 
witii minute blue dots, the ground color being pale green; pectoral with a slight wash of dusky, other 
fins white; opercle silvery. 

This species is near Atherina Uinmom, but seems to be different. 

Forty specimens from Apia. The type is no. 5172(3, U. .^. National Museum, length 3.75 inches. 

311. Atherina insularum .Jordan A Everniann. Hawaii. 

Family MELA.XOT.JiMlD.i;. 
KHOMBATRACTUS Gill," (.In'.steK.s Castelnau; preoccupied.) 

312. Rliombatractus novseguiueae ( Kamsay & Ogilby). Strickland Kiver, New Guinea. 

y,,iiati„-nil,-is minr-indaai: lUllnsay & Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 1886. 13, Strickland River. 

313. Bhombatractus rubrostriatus (Ramsay & Ogilby). Strickland Kiver, New Guinea, 

314. Bhombatractus goldiei (Macleay). 

Aristcm goldiei Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1S83, 269, Goldie River (New Guinoai. 

aSee Ogilby, Proc. Linu. Soc. K. a. W. 1S96, 124. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 217 

Family MUGILID.€. 

MUGIL Linnaeus. 

315. Mugil cephalus Linnieus. Hawaii; Eaiatea; Taliiti: New Guinea ( .Maoleay ) : Xukahiva and 

Solomon Is. (Seale) ; Mediterranean; Atlantic coasts of United State.*; Panama; .southern 
California; Japan; Red Sea. 
{Mufjil ceur Forsk^l; Mugif irpkalotui' Cuvier & Yalencieiiiies.) 

316. Mugil caldwelli Fowler. Samoa. 

.Viniil i-aMwcUi Fowler, Proc. Ar. Nat. Sci. Phila. liHIO. .W4, Samoa. 

This species, not recognized by us in Samoa, is probably based on the young of some other species, 
perhaps the common mullet of Oceania, which we have been unable to separate from the European 
Miif/il rephalns or the Asiatic yfitgll (mr. 

317. Mugil broussoneti Cuvier & Valenciennes. Cook Is. 

318. Mugil tong-ae Giinther. Tonga. 

319. Mugil planiceps Cuviei' A Valenciennes. Guam; Ea,st Indies. 

320. Mugil kelaarti Giinther. Tahiti; Raiatea ( Seale ) ; East Indies. 

321. Mugil kandavensis Giinther. Kandavu; Fiji. 

322. Mugil perusi Cuvier & Valenciennes. Vanicolo. 

323. Mugil argenteus Quoy & Gaimard. Samoa (Giinther); .-iustralia. 
This species, recorded from Samoa, was not seen by us. 

324. Mugil sundanensis Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

LIZA Jordan & Swain. 

325. Xiiza melinoptera (Cuvier & Valenciennes). A/a; Fue'afa. Vanicolo; Tonga; Samoa. 

This mullet, known by the honey-colored (/(f'A;;) caudal tin and by the black pectoral, is very 
abundant about Samoa, and reaches a large size. About 20 specimens were taken. The namemrfin- 
ojilera (not iitdanoptera) refers to the yellow vertical fins, not to the black pectoral. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia 15 inches long: Very pale olive, silvery below; faint narrow 
lines along series of scales; lips pale; first dorsal pale gray, the spines dark; soft dorsal dusky, yellowish 
at tip; cauclai pale soiled 3=ellow; anal blackish, yellowish at tip, the last rays colorless; ventral pure 
whitish; pectoral mostly deep sooty black, the lower rays grayish. 

Another specimen from Apia, young, with scales 26-10, anal iii, 9, had first dorsal, second dorsal, 
and most of pectoral jet black; ventral blackish at base, edge yellowish; caudal and anal blackish 
washed with deep yellow, edge blackish; iris dark brown. Life colons of young specimens (scales 26) 
from Pago Pago, back with two or three j-ellowish cross blotches; pectoral black; caudal bright yellow, 
even in very young examples;' anal yellow; ventral tipped with pale yellow. 

326. Liza cseruleomaculata Lacepcde. .liKie: ' And'diiahif;!. Guam: Xew Guinea; Samoa; East 

Indies. 
Miu/il cH-rukomandatus LacepC'de, Hist. Xat. Poi.«s., v, 385, 1S03, Mauritius. 

.Viigil a.riUaris Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hi.^t. Nat. Poiss., xi, 131, 1836. Mauritius, New Guinea, (iiinther. Cat., 
in, 444. Scale, Bishop Mu.s. 1901, 66, Guam, Giinther. Fische der Siidsfu, 216, lai. c.\x, fig. B, Samoa, Red l?pa, 
Seychelle.'i. Agvnosiomus dorsalis Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. JIus., vii, 102, 1877, Samoa; very young. 
Life colors of a specimen from Apia, silvery, darker above; no stripes; fins pale; caudal dark at 
tip; a dark axillary spot; pe toral dull yellowish; iris silvery brownish. Scales 39; anal ni, 9. 

This is a large mullet, recognizable by the blue spot at the base of the pectoral. It 
about Samoa, where about 2.5 specimens were preserved. 

327. Liza troscheli (Bleeker). Aim. Samoa; Xew Guinea; East Indies. 
Miiflit Irosclielii Bleeker, Nat. Tijd., xvi, 277, Java. Giinther, Cut., in, 448, Ceylon, Borneo. 
Mufiil bornecmis Bleeker, Nat. Tijd., II, 1S51, 201, Ea.st Indies. Kner, Novara Fische. JJ.s. Tahiti. G 

HI, 448. Giinther, Fische der Siidsce, 218, Tahiti. 
Mugil rowpirg^u:^, Giinther, Fische der .Svidsee. 217. taf. cxxtii. fig. a. Samoa; not type. 
B.B. F. nin.i— lo 



218 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, olivaceous, dull and pale, very faint streaks along tin- 
rows of scales; anal dusky; caudal dull, colorless, with a dark streak along its whole margin abovt-. 
below and behind. Anal in, 9; scales 32; maxillary uncovered; eye 3.5 to 4 in head, hence smaller 
than in the descriptions of L. troscheli. 

One specimen from Apia had a slight brassy luster in life, and faint olive lateral stripes. Another 
was brownish above, the sides silvery, with the barest trace of striations; fins all plain, the caudal 
dusky at tip. 

This species is very common about Samoa, entering the river mouths and brackish waters. 
About 30 specimens were taken. 

328. Liza compressa (Giinther). Normanby 1., New (Tuinea (Macleay). 

329. Lizaneocaledonica (Ca,stelnau). New Caledonia. 

Miigil niiiralidmiicus Castelnau, 187S, 110, New Caledonia. 

330. Iiiza waigiensis (Quoy&Gaimard). Waigiu; New Guinea; Bougainville Is. (Peters); Tahiti; 

Guam; Mangareva; New Hebrides; Solomon Is.; Raiatea and Rarotonga (Seale); Ea.«t Indies. 

331. Liza papulosa (Macleay). Normanby I. 

Muffil papillosus Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1883, 270. 

MYXUS Giiiither. 

332. Myxus leuciscus Giinther. Rarotonira, Gook Is.; Makatea (Seale). 

CKffiNOMUGIL Gill. 

333. Chsenomugilcliaptali (Eydoux & Souleyet). Hawaii: Kingsmill; Laysan. 

( Mt/xus parificus Sleindachner, ) 

334. Chsenomugil nauticus Bryan & Herre. Marcus I. 

Chxnomugil nauticus Bryan & Herre, Bishop Museum 1903, 127, Marcus I. 

aUERIMANA Jordan & Swain, 

335. Querimana crenilabis ( Forster) . Taliiti; Tanna; Pauniotu; Kingsmill; Ponape; New Ireland; 

Christmas I.; Red Sea. 

a:SCHRICHTHYS Macleay. 

336. iEschrichthys g-oldiei Macleay. Goldie River, New Guinea. 
.'Eschrielinnjs goldiei 'Slacleny, Proc. Linn. Soc. N'.S. W. l.^s:;, .=,, Goldie River. 

AGONOSTOMTJS Bennett. 

337. Agonostomus plicatilis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Rivers of New Hebrides; New Caledonia. 

338. Agonostomus loaloa ( ilacdonald) . Fiji. 

Gouotomijxus loaloa Jlacdonald, Proe. Zool. Soc. S. S. W. 1869, 3s, with plate, rivers of Viti Levu i Fiji). 

Family SPHYR.€XID.-E. 
SPHYR.a:NA Linnaeus. 

339. Sphyrsena obtusata Cuvier & Valencieiine.-. SajMitii. Samoa; Fiji; Guam; New Guinea 

(Macleay); Fate in the New Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

One specimen of this species was taken at Apia. It is apparently the species figured liy (iiinther 
in the Fische der Siidsee. 

Life colors, olive green, below white with bright reflections; sides with two lateral stripes of dark 
olive, the lower continuous, the upper along lateral line of rounded, confluent blotches; caudal 
rather bright olive yellow, dusky edged; lower fins white; upper pale olive; snout green. Scales very 
large, 76. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



219 



340. Sphyrsena forsteri Cuvier & Valenciennes. Samoa; Tahiti; Vavau; \ew (iuinea. 

Of this species, we have one specimen from Apia. It agrees fairly with Dr. Giinther's figure in 
the Fi.sche der Siidsee. The Sphyrama forsteri of Steindachner from Mexico is a very distinct species, 
Sphynvna eimg Jordan & Gilbert. 

Life colors of the specimen from Apia: OVjliqne blotch on opercle and base of pectoral; black blotch 
on dorsal and anal; caudal largely blackish; ventral and pectoral pale; obscure dark, short bars along 
sides. Scales 94; pectoral not reaching quite to dorsal; ventral farther. 

341. Sphyrsena helleri Jenkins. Hawaii. 

This is the offshore small-scaled species, known in Hawaii as kawalea. 

342. Sphyrsena snodgrassi Jenkins. Hawaii. 

This is the large-scaled species, known as bxku in Honolulu. 

343. Sphyraena grandisquamis Steindachner. Pacific Ocean, exact locality unknown. 
S],fi!ir:i„,i ,im„di.-<qiiamif Steindachner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1866. 44i;. 

344. Sphyrseua megalolepis Peters. New Ireland. 
Sp/,;/r.'(/i<i merjaloleph Peters, Berl. Mon. 1876. 842, New Ireland. 

345. Sphyraena kenie Klunzinger. Bougainville Is. ; Ret 1 Sea. 

Sithiirirn't hcnit Klunzinger, Synopsis, 1, 823, 1870. Red Sea. Khnizinger, Roth. Meer, 129, Peters, Berl, Mon. 1876, 
-842. Bougainville Is, 

Family P()LY\EMiI).€. 

POLYDACTYLUS Rafinesqae. 

346. Polydactylus plebeius (Brou-ssonet), t'iniaini<i. Tahiti; Samoa; Solomon Is,; New Britain; 

Tahiti and Nnkahiva (Seale) ; East Indies, 
Polynemus plebeius Broussonet, Ich, Decas,, fig. 309, 1788, Tahiti, 
Polrjnemus iineatus LaciSpede, Hist. Nat. Pois.s., v, pi. 13, fig, 2, 1803, He de France, Giiuther, Cat., ii, 227, Samoa, 

Solomon Is., Amboyna. 
Polynemus plebeim Peters, Berl, Mod, 1876, 835, New Britain, 

Polt/nemus plebeius Giinther, Fische der Siidsee, 103, pi, L.x.xvi. fig, a, .\mljoina: n..t ..f Giinther, Cat., ii, 329, 
Pohjnemus IsenicUua Giinther, Cat,, II, 526, 1860, Amboina and Guadalcanar, Solomon Is. 
This is evidently the original Pulynemus plebeius of Broussonet, which has been much confused by 
subsequent authors. It was well described by Giinther under the name of Polynemus Iineatus, and 
earlier described by Lacepede uniler the same name. It is common at Apia, where 6 specimens were 
taken with the hook in the ship channel, and is valued as a food fish. Scales 55; 5 pectoral filaments. 
The adults are very sharply striped, the dark lines along the rows of scales being conspicuous. 
Young examples do not show these lines clearly, and these accord better with the figure given by 
Broussonet. An adult example from Apia in life war; white with streaks of olive brown. A young 
example from Pago Pago in life was entirely silvery, the fins pale with dark dots, pectoral a little 
more yellowish, no dark spot on base of lateral line, 

347. Polydactylus sexfilis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; Johnston I,; Ea.-^t Indies. 

Family HFKVCII>.€, 

MELAMPHAES Giinther, 

348. Melamphaes unicornis Gilliert. Oeeii seas nl Hawaii. 

CAULOLEPIS Gill. 

349. Caulolepis long-idens Gilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

Family P0LYMIXI1D.J-. 

POLYMIXIA Lowe. 

350. Polymixia berndti Gilbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 



220 BULLETIN OF THp; BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Family HOiOCE.\TKII).+:. 
MYKIPRISTIS Cuvier. Mnlan. 

351. Myripristismurdjan(Fi>rskal ). Maiiljiniji. Hawaii; Samoa; Harvey Is.: Tahiti; Fiji; I'aiiiiMitu 

Ls. ; (xuaui; Laysan; Xew Hebrides, Kaiatea, and Karototiga (Seale); East Indies. 
Tliis species is common throughout the South Seas. It is the most abundant of the genus alp'iii 
Hawaii, and is fairly plentiful at Samoa. It is distifiguished by itf- large scales (30), by the pres^cnr. 
of wliite edges on the soft vertical flns and the absence of black tips on dorsal and anal. Tlicic i- 
always a dark bar across the gill-opening. 

352. Myripristis intermedius (Gimther). Malav. Samoa; Kingsmill; Harvey Is.; Tahiti; (■aki 

pages Is. 
Muriprhlis luurdjan, yar. intermedia Gunther, Fische der Siid-suu. '.ti, Samoa, Harvey, Kingsmill, Tahiti. 

This form is common at Samoa, where about 20 examples were taken. It differs from .1/. iKunlj'n, 
chiefly or entirely in the presence of a black blotch on the tip of the soft dorsal and anal. Dr. GiinI In i 
regards it as a mere color variation of .V. murdjan. We should take a similar view were it not for il- 
tact noted by Dr. Klunzinger, that in the Red Sea, and in Hawaii, where M. viiirdjaii is abundant, n- 
specimens of this type have been taken. 

A specimen from the Galapagos Islands, collected by Snodgrass and Heller and recorded as 
U. murdjan, has black tips to the dorsal and anal, and would be referable to .1/. Iiilniiicdiu.i. 

Color deep red, dusky on dorsal and anal, tins all bright red, pale-edged in front. 

353. Myripristis adustus Bleeker. ihdau vo. Samoa; Tahiti; Paumotuls.; Harvey Is.; Kiii;;>- 

null; New Guinea; Marcus I.; Shortland I. (Seale); East Indies. 
Myripristis adustus Bleeker, Amboina, ni, 18. East Indies. Giinther. Cat., i, 22. .\mboina. tiiiniher, Fischi- d. r 
Sudsee, 92, tat. 02, Tahiti, as variety of M. murdjan, Samoa, Paumotu, Harvey I., Kingsmill I. Bryan ,^ 
Hcrre, Bishop Museum, vol. ii, no. 1, 128. Marcus I. 
Mi/ripristis boMie, Day, Fishes of India, ir>9; not of Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
Tliis well-marked and handsome species is rather common about Samoa, where iiliont ll' sj)eci- 
mens were taken. It may be at once known from M. murdjan by the steel blue (not icd ) color, and 
especially by the broad black edging of both dorsals, and of the caudal and anal tins. In M. inter- 
medias there is no black on the spinous dorsal or caudal. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, gray tinged with reddish; edge of i-cales brown; a dark- 
brown blotch across opercle and axil; doi>al, anal and caudal pale pinkish gray at base, the edge 

broadly black, washed anteitorly with lil 1-rcd; spinous clorsal also luostly black; pectoral pale 

pinkish; ventral whitish. 

354. Myripristis microplithalmus Bleeker. Malau lea; Malaxi matapulft. Samoa; New Guinea 

(Macleay); Fate, New Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

This species is very abundant at Samoa, where about 40 specimens were taken. It has the silvery 
luster and dark .scale-edgings of Myripri.ftin inhislns without the deep red shades of ,V. murdjati. Life 
colors were noted in various specimens as follows: 

( 1 1 S|>ecimen from .\pia. Silvery red brown, lighter than in 31. murdjati, each scale silvery with 
dark cdL'i-; o|icrrnlar spot lil.iod i-,d, not liUick; samecoloron base of pectoral; fins paler; dorsal and 
anal witli sil\.ry lia^-; .loisal. anal, camlul, and ventral with pale edge; spinous dorsal orange red, its 

(2) Specimen from Pago Pago, very deep, scales 30, maxillary entire. Brownish, sides pintish 
silvery, not very red; a blackish red cross-band on opercle, shoulder, and axil; first dorsal whitish at 
base, scarlet above; second dorsal, afial, and caudal pink, scarlet or orange at tips, and with a dirtinct 
white edge; pectoral pale; ventral dull orange, whitish-edged. 

(3) Specimen called ?na7au )»o/«;jH(fi,orswelled-tace; very deep; very large-scaled. Purplish black 
above, very silvery on side; a blood-red band from nape to axil; preopercle and opercle nearly white; 
spinous donsal pinkish below, scarlet above; soft dor.sal and anal pinkish behind, .scarlet on lobes, with 
white edge; cauilal red, orange behind, the edges slightly pale; \-entral and pectoral reddish, ventral 
white-edged. 

Larger examples more red, with d\isky behind pale edges of dorsal and anal; tins all bright red 
except white edgings. 

(4) Red, dusky on dorsal and anal; tins all bright red. pale-edged in front. 

(5) Larger specimen. Dorsal clear <lrci> red. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 221 

(6) Bright dear red, the scales a little paler on centers; first dorsal bright red, the tips scarlet; 
other vertical fins clear red with distinct pale edges and no blackish; no stripes along anterior edge; 
ventral deep red with pale edge; jiectoral clear red; a blackish opercular axil bar. 

355. Myripristis hexagonus (Lacepede). Samoa; Mauritius. 
Lutjanns /lemgonus LaciT'pOde. HLst. Nat. Poiss.. iv, 213, 1802, Mauritius. 

.Vi/vipristis Iiexari07!uf. Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Xat. Poiss., ni, 171. Quoy & Gainiard, Vd.v. Astrolabe, 5, pi. 14. 
Guntber, Cat., i, 27. 
VVe refer to this species, with .some doubt, two specimens, large-scaled, with little black on the 
opercle which ends in about five [joints, the one larger than the others. It is near Miiripi-isHs murdjan, 
and still nearer to Myripristh berndii of Hawaii. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, light brick-red, the sides rather silvery, and no dark lines; a 
darker red patch on opercle and axil; a silvery crescent on iris behind: fins all red, the spinous clorsal 
[■aler at base, the others darker on lobes; anal and caudal with very inconspicuous pale edging. 

356. Myripristis berndti .Jordan & lOvermann. Hawaii. 

357. Myripristis chryseres .lordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

358. Myripristis synimetricus .Jordan <& Evermann. Hawaii. 

359. Myripristis arg-yromus .Tordaii & Evermann. Hawaii. 

360. Myripristis sanguineus .Jordan & Seale, new species. Malaii xda; Sef^aaer/a. Tahiti; Samoa. 
Head 3.4 in body; depth 2.50; eye 2..50 in head; dorsal x-i, 14; anal iv, 13; scales 4-38-7. 

Body elongate, deep and compre.ssed; head blunt, its length less than its depth; snout short, its 
length from the upi)ernostril equal to pupil; premasillary slightly protractile; maxillary reaching to a 




/*, 



Ian ti^ Seale. new species. Type. ' 

line below the ]iosterior edge of pupil, its distal end broad, 4.00 in head, its lower posterior margin 
armed with blunt teeth; lower mandible 1.50 in head; bands of small teeth in jaws, vomer, and 
palatines; a patch of enlarged blunt outer teeth on each side of upper and lower jaw; gillrakers 
numerous, long and strong; interorbital space 3.85 in head; opercle striate and denticulate, with one 
small spine at angle; scales all striate and toothed; a row of modified scales over the nuchal region; 
origin of dorsal about even with lower base of ventrals and on line with the third scale of the lateral 
line; dorsal spines slender, the first 2.75 in head, the third longest, 2 in head; anterior dorsal and anal 
rays somewhat produced, their length 1.50 in head; third anal spine strongest, the fourth longest, 
equal to orbit; caudal eraarginate; pectoral reaching to eleventh scale of the lateral line. 



222 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF B'ISHERIES. 

Color in life deep red, a black opercular spot; fins all red, the dorsal pale red with the margin 
deep crimson; outer margin of soft dorsal and the anal also a dark red. 

Color in spirits pale yellowish, the fins a brighter yellowish; a dusky blotch at posterior margin 
of opercle, and a dusky wash in axil of pectoral. 

One specimen, the type (no. 51721, U. S. National Museum), from Apia. Two other specimen;-, 
from Tahiti, Society Islands, are in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. This species is distinguished li\ 
the much enlarged front teeth. It is close to Myripristis argyromus and M. syminelricua. 

361. Myripristis pralinius Cuvier & Valenciennes. Mamo; Malau mamo. Port Praslin, Xi« 

Ireland; Samoa; East Indies. 

This species is very abundant at Samoa, where about 50 examples were taken. Our specimens 
agree well with the account of Giinther and Sauvage. The small scales, the serrated maxillary, and 
the dark bar at the gill-opening are characteristic. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia crimson red, the centers of the scales not much lighter, the 
lower parts rosy; opercular spot deep red, almost black, base of pectoral deep red; fins bright rosi', 
dorsal, caudal, and ventral all edged with white; shade of fins same as body; first dorsal deep red, 
paler at base. 

362. Myripristis carneus Ramsay tt Ogilby. Admiralty Is. 
Mliriliriflis riininis Kamsay & Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soo. N. S. W. 18S6. 474. 

363. Myripristis parvidens Bleeker. New Ireland (Sauvage); East Indies. 

364. Myripristis multiradiatus Giinther. Vavau; Tonga; Hawaii; Samoa. 

A species identical with the Hawaiian species called by us Myripristis multiradiatus, which is 
abundant at Honolulu, is very common at Samoa. It is probably the true multiradiatus, though we 
find no specimen with more than 16 dorsal rays. In the type from V'avau Dr. Giinther found 18. 
The species is extremely close to il. pralinius. 

Life co'.ors of a specimen from Pago Pago light bright red; darker green across opercle, shoulder 
and axil; spinous dorsal scarlet, deepest on edges; other fins red like the body: pectoral, dorsal, anal 
and caudal with an anterior pale edge; eye very large, maxillary entire. 




Fic. 1 > —Holuliailuii, hma (Cuvier A Valenciennes). 
HOLOTRACHYS Gnnther. ( Ilarpafje De Vis. ) 
365. Holotrachys lima (C'luiei \ Wilenciennes). Mahia mnln; Mutn. Hawaii; Samoa; Tahiti; 
Lavsan; He <le France. 
This siie<'ies is very eonimon at .Samoa, as also about Hawaii. It is of small size and is unilorui 
l)riek-red in color. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA.' 223 

366. Holotrachys roseus (De Vis). South Seas. 

n.irpiuic ro^m De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1S84. 44s, South Seas. 
Tills species is unknown to us. It is very clo.sc ti> II. liinn. uml is probably the same. 
OSTICHTHYS Laugsdorf. 

367. Ostichthys pillwaxi Steindailmti . Ihiwaii. 

HOLOCENTHUS ( Artedi ) Gronow. Malan. 

368. Holocentrus spinifer Fonskal. Malan tmi. Sauioa; Hawaii; Boralwra; Waigiu; Papiia; 

Johnston I.; Thornton I.; Vanicolo; Tonga; Vavau; New Hebrides; Solomon Is. ; Raiatea 
(Seale); East Indies. 
lI,,!oniitnix 1,1, Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hist. Nat. Poiss., iii, 204, 1829, Borabora and New Guinea: not Il,,l,,railrum 
f/iiinh mm Cuvier & Valenciennes and Sauvage. 

Tliis lari;e species is common at Samoa, and ranges from Hawaii, where it is not ran-, to thi' Red 
Sea and Madairascar. It i.s known by its ileep body and narrow, conve.x profile. It much resembles 
II. fiiKliiini. nl.iinx, and the name .^/m/'/. /■ i- adopted for the latter species by Valenciennes and Sauvage; 
but a-^ Kor-kal s|icaks of the dark s|Has biliiiid the eye, which is characteristic of the species called 
Ilijloc, iilrii.'i Ui.i, we agree with Ruppell, JUecker, Giinther, and Kliinzinger in r' -ding the present 
species as the true spmi/er, leo being a .synonym. 

Forskal and Klunzinger state that the dorsal spines of this species are envenomeil. Both this 
species and H. caudiiihiculatus are common in the Red Sea. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, deep red, scales with golden edges; no lengthwise stripes or 
violet streaks; preopercle and opercle blood-red above; axil blood-red; first dorsal same color, 
unmarked; dorsal, anal, and caudal scarlet, the upper and lower part of caudal redder; third and 
fourth spines red; ventrals scarlet, the spine pink; pectoral scarlet; cheek pale brassy red, no white 
stripes, except a faint streak below eye along upper edge of cheek, and a paler edge behind opercular 
spot. One specimen with a sharp white striije above opercular spine. 

Life colors of another specimen from Apia, deep red, scales with narrow pale edges; deep reddish 
black spot on opercle and across to axil; dorsal red, edged with deeper red; fins all red without pale 
edging; membrane of third anal spine deep red. 

369. Holocentrus caudimaculatus Ruppell. Tamaluu vmimi; Tamcno viuimi. Samoa; Tahiti 

(Seale): Palauls.; Gilbert Is.; New Guinea; East Indies. 

ll'jlnr, „■; ,.,:.", ,.'„ ( 'uvier & Valenciennes, and of Sauvage; Holoceiitrum hmwvles Bleeker. 

This >['t ■ I, - |. iiiiiilaiit about Samoa, and westward to the Red sea. It is neari/. spirii/i?r but the 
rofile is broa.l, i ami not concave, and there are other differences well expres.sed by Klunzinger and 
by Sauvage. The color is deeper than in H. spinifer, and the white spot on the back of the tail is rarely 
wanting in Jf. cuiuliiiiartiliilux. In II. .sijinifer this is not found, but is represented by a trace of paler 
color. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, all deep red; faint violet streaks on lower parts; a faint line 
down and backward from eye; axil deep red; fins all deep red; anal spine and front edge of ventral 
only whitish; a large whitish black blotch on the back of the tail behind dorsal. 

370. Holocentrus violaceus I'.lceker. Mulaii tifi; MhIku uli. Samoa; New (iuinea (Macleay); 

This very strongly marked species is common at Samoa, where- about a dozen specimens were 
taken. It is deep violet-brown, not red, w^ith a vertical pale streak on each scale, and a white blotch 
on the back of each scale. It is not known from Hawaii. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia called malau tifa and malau uli, blackish red, a vertical bar of 
violet silvery at base of each scale; head mostly clear dark red; a blackish spot on opercular mem- 
brane; a blood-red axillary spot; a darker red spot on upper part of opercle; first dorsal dark red with 
a whitish edge and a deep red line below it; second dorsal, anal, and caudal dark red with a darker 
anterior edge; a pink spot on back of tail ; ventral red, the spine bluish; first spine and first ray of anal 
moderately deeper red; pectoral red; mouth small. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago called malau Ufa ( pearl shell), violet pearly reflections; 
the color very dark, the violet pearly bars on each scale be'ow conspicuous; a bright pink spot on 
back of tail. 



224 BULLETIN OK THE BUREAU (IK KISHERIES. 

371. Holocentrus binotatus Quoy c>c Gaiiiiaid. Samoa; Guam; Papua; Tonga; Solomon Is. 

This species is rather common about Samoa, where about 30 specimens were taken. Usually one 
ur two small dark spots are present on the membranes of the front of the spinous dorsal. There is 
little doubt that the original li. binoliitum is the species called umpuncUttum by Gunther. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, very deep red all over, with faint blue-black streaks, about 
7 in number; head almost plain red, with two faint cheek stripes; fins all deep red, the dorsal with a 
row of dark spots and dark edges. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, very bright red, with streaks of shining golden; fins all 
deep red, \mmarked, the vertical fins a little darker on front edge; a slightly darker spot on mem- 
branes of first two dorsal spines. 

372. Holocentrus erythraeus Gunther. Hawaii; Samoa; New Hebrides; Tahiti; Harvey Is.; 

Kingsniill; Tahiti; Paumotuls. ; Johnston I.; Solimion Is. 
Of this large and handsome species one small specimen was taken liy us at Samoa. The fi.'^li is 
rather rare in deeper waters about Hawaii. 

373. Holocentrus furcatus Giinther. South Seas, probal)ly New Hebrides. 

374. Holocentrus xantherythrus Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

375. Holocentrus tiere T.i —mh, ■^.iinnn; Tahita; Thornton 1. 

//o^/(r»(n/m /ifi< (Lesson ■ i \ ti.irnnes, Hist. Xiit. I'fiiss., Ill, 202, 1S29, Tahiti. Lfs.son, Voy. Coquille, 

II, ■:■>]. IsMii, 'i'lihili. i; ■ ■ - III., 

JIul:,f III '■•">' I .',,,,(,,"„, l,,LLl.t., kuL,;,- Eilaiidcn, 356. Sleeker, Atlas, Cocus Island. Gunther, Cat., i. 35. 

Uohniii I .i«kr, IToe. -\c. Nat. Sc-i. Phila. 1904, 229, Thornton I. 

This sjii ■ n- I- ;,!ii \ii when adult and in good condition by the two rows of pale spots on the 
dorsal fin. It i.- laliiui cuinmon at Samoa, where about 12 specimens were taken. If. pohiiirxureeems 
to be based on a specimen in which the dorsal color has faded. Holocentrtnn fi^ ,'. inii-l lie the same 
species. The elongate, faintly striped bodVj the rather large mouth, the ni-^ui .1 -nl .il.ital, the low 
weak dorsal spines, the subequal and strong opercular spines, as shown in ].i_;-^i.iii'.-: lifiure, are all 
traits of the species called H. xjccciUiptemn. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, deep crimson red; lower half with bright violet streaks; 
axil deeper red; dorsal deep red with a row of white spots and tips white; otherflnsdeep red; ventral 
with paler edge and darker streak, fourth anal spine in a dark streak; pectoral red; head with deejier 
red blotches, but no white. Another specimen from Apia in life was red, rather bright, the sides 
.silvery; cheek silvery with a red streak; no streaks along scales; dor.«al edged with dark red with 
white spots; red at base; vertical fins red, the edges scarcely darker; ventral jiink, axil red; liectoral 
pink. 

376. Holocentrus tiereoides Bleeker. Marcus I.; New Hebrides; Solomon Is.; Tahiti (Seale); 

Amboina. 
Thi.s species is known tu us fnJin the example taken by Bryan and Herre, which agrees well with 
Bleeker's account. The species is evidently very close to //. t'n n , but the scales are much larger 
(40 instead of 50). 

377. Jlolocentruspunctatissimus fuvieri Valenjieniies. MaltiH fiiimnu. Tahiti: Samoa; Hawaii; 

Strong I.; Guam; Marshall Is. ; Paumotuls,; Laysan; Aneiteum; Tabuai; Mangareva; Raro- 

toiiga; Fate; Makatea and Shortland I. (Seale). 
]Ioh,.', 1,1. II III i.iiiii-iiiiissniiinii <'iivi.T & Valenciennes, Hi.st. Nat. Poiss., in, 215, 1S29, Caroline Is. 
lluli~ ' 'n i.T & Valenciennes, op. eit., vii, £03, ISSI. 

Uoh" 1 ■ r, Proc. Zool. Soe. 1871, 660. Gunther, Fische der Siidseo, 97. Samoa, Marshall Is., 

ll,jlw,„iiii^!,iiiiiii>liiiii.i 1-M„,i.,. Proc. 
Holocentrus gladispinia Fowler, Proc. J 
This species is common about Samoa, where about 50 specimens were taken. It is also abundant 
about Honolulu. The form of the body is characteristic, and the silver)- color is usually, but not 
always, obscured by dark points irregularly scattered, giving the fish a soiled appearance. 

//. (jradlispinis, based on our own collections from Honolulu, we can not separate from Samoan 
specimens. H. gladispinis is based on an examrvle from Tahiti with the preopercular spine a little 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 225 

longer. Tlie color of the dorsal is usually characteristic, but the marks often fade in spirits. This 
species is not recorded from the East Indies, where the closely related //. ladeocjuUatus seems to take 
its place 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia called malau faiamii, freckled red, dark across gill-opening; 
iris golden; first dorsal deep red on edge, other fins brick red, scarcely edged with paler; ventrals 
brick red. A specimen from Pago Pago was pinkish, soiled by dark dots; dorsal deep red on edge, 
pale at base; faint dark streaks on rows of scales; a red dash across cheek; fins light red; a dark 
streak along anal. 

378. Holocentrus lacteoguttatus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Xew Guinea; East Indies. 
Iluloixntrus lacleo-yuttatum Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., in, 214, East Indies. 

Holocentrus argenteum Quoy tt Gaima/d, Voy. Astrolabe, 677, 1835, Papua. Cuvier & Valenciennes, (ip. cit., 
in, 2U. 
This species is not known to us. It has not been recorded to the eastward of New (niineii. 
According to KlunzingerJ the type of //. argnUerix, examined b}' him belongs to the species, for whicli 
ive adopt the name lacteoyuttatus. 

379. Holocentrus diadema (Lac^pede). Malau lusitusi; Malaa pdiUi; Malau tui. Hawaii; Samoa; 

Tonga; Tahiti; Borabora; Laysan; Guam; Marcus I.; New Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

Tills small species, always known by its black .spinous dorsal and the alternate stripes of 
white and red on the body, is very common at Samoa, and equally so at Hawaii. It is in general 
the most abundant species of Holocentrus in the Pacific Ocean. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago called mahiK pduli, red. with white strijies; dorsal 
dusky, a continuous stripe, same as from Honolulu. 

380. Holocentrus ruber (Forskal). Louisiades; East Indies; China; nut certainly known from the 

S.iutli Seas. 

381. Holocentrus praslin Laccpcde. Samoa; Ruikiu Is. 



% 



^-- 






Fni. 211. — Butoccnlrus praslin Lac6p0de. 

Tliis species, known by its very dark lateral stripes, which seem bla<-k in spirits, is common at 
but is not known from Hawaii. Life colors were noted as fnUows in various specimens: 

(1) From Apia. Deep red, very bright, paler below; 10 longitudinal streaks, narrow and 
sharply defined, the four uppermost light crimson, the rest almost )jure white, with brownish edge; a 
white stripe <lownward and backward from eye, a red one and a white one aljove it; spinous dorsal 



226 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

blood red with an interrupted row of wliitish spots and a wliitisli tip; other fins clear red, caudal witli 
a blood red edge, as also a stripe along fourth anal spine; ventral similarly striped; pectoral i>inkisli. 

(2) From Apia. Whitish, olive shaded; (I stripesof brownish black, unequal in width and iliplh 
of color, separated by white and grayish and pinkish .stripes, the stripe on level of eye brou.l an. I 

white, the two black stripe.s above it confluent behind as also the two below it; the white strijir ir 

axil of anal to axil of pectoral also broad; opercle reddish black; lower part of head and brca.^-t soil. .1 
gray uitli l.la.'kish stripes; dorsal grayish white with blackish median band; soft dorsal light yellow, 
eiljr,.,! I.,. I,, I,, u itii .lark maroon; caudal light clear yellow, edged above and below with maroon black; 
anal liL'lit.T y.llnw, with darker anterior stripe and a l)lack maroon blotch at base; a maroon black 
bar lielow soft dorsal made of two coaicsteiit blaik stripes; ventral yellow, edged with maroon ami 
white; pectoral reddish, the axil blackish. 

(3) From Pago Pago. Very dark M 1 r.-.l. with whitish pink stripes; dorsal white, w'ith median 

black stripe; second .l.irsal yell. .wish, with re.l anterior margin and blackish blotch at base; caudal 
yellow w-ith maroon stripes; anal yellow ish with a black stripe and a spot at base; ventral yellowish, 
■with white and black stripe. 

(4) From Apia. Deep lusirniis .■.ipiii-ry red, paler below, the dark alternating with pale stripes, 
the red very deep and bronze >liail..l al".ve, growing paler and more diffuse below; about 7 streaks 
distinct; head blackish fre.kleil bi.ijiz.- dimsal dark blood red, mesially pale and pale at tips; soft 
dorsal, anal, and caudal golden, with maroon stripe anteriorly narrow on soft dorsal; ventral similar 
golden and maroon; breast soiled mottled brown and whitish; pectoral pale reddish brown. 

Iloloccntrits ruber differs from this species chiefly in the plain colors, red striped with deeper red. 
Probably Holocentnis prnsHn is an "ontogenetic species" representing //. ruber on the coral reefs, and 
differing mainly in the much heightened coloration. 

382. Holocentrus ensifer Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii; Mangareva (Seale). 

383. Holocentrus bowiei .Ionian & Snyder. Tahiti. 

384. Holocentrus microstomus (Ttinther. Samoa; Guam; Tonga; Hawaii; Kingsmill I.; Panmotu 

Is.; Harvey Is.; Tahiti; Tubuai; Raiatea an.l l;an>loii-a i Scale). 
This species, well distinguished by its silvery Ixuly sDipiii with dark, and by the dark area on 
the front of its spinous dorsal, is rather common about Sam. .a, \s here about 12 examples w'ere taken. 
It is not rare about Honolulu. From Holocentrus mmniura, which has somewhat the same coloration, 
it is known by the deeper body and smaller mouth. This species and the next, intermediate between 
Holocentrus and Flammeo, render the latter genus difficult of definition. We therefore place all the 
Pacific species in lltihm ntms. 

385. Holocentrus scythrops Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii; Laysan; East Indies. 
{Holucentrtim arf/rntcum Bk-uker & Stuindaehner, not of Quoy & Gaimarcl.) 

This species is rather rare about Haw aii. It was not seen at Samoa. It has been once or twice 
described as Holocentrum argenteum, but the true argentetim, as Klunzinger has shown, is a different 
species [lacteoguttatus] 

386. Holocentrus Isevis (ninther. Samoa; L.iuisiades; Solomon Is.; Xew Britain; Xew Giunea: 

Amboina. 

HolocaUrum yuldiei Ma.c\ea.y, Proc. Linn. Sue N'. S. W. 1S\;. :«2. New Guinea. 

Holocentrum Iseve Giinther, Cat., i. 47. Louisiades, Guadalcanar, Amboyna. GunthcT, Fische der Sudsec. 101, taf. 

65, flg. B. 
Holocentrum norse-brU.tanis'DeWn. Tp" I. inn -... x s.w. I.SSI, 447. New Britain; young. 
Holocentrus acliromopterua'Foyiler. Vy« \- '- n ~ i I'hilii. 1904, 'JSij, Samoa. 
J3b!ocent™m<70idietMacIeay, Proc. I.I h'l - ■■ \ - \\ , vii, 1.3S3. 3.i2. New Guinea. 
This species is rather common ali.nit llie reels ul' Samoa, whereabout 20 examples were taken. It 
resembles H. samnuira, but tin' I.. i.l\ i- -licper and there is never any black on the spinous dorsal. 

Life colors of a specimen lioni I'a-o I'ago, the stripes less regular and fewer than in H. sam- 
mara, distinctly shown, the pale stripe un lateral line being dull red, dorsal paler, deep red between first 
and second spines, the white band much broader and more diffuse; caudal almost plain; darker red on 
edge of second dorsal and caudal, much deeper on anal; ventral paler red than in other; ventral and 
anal spines red. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 227 

387. Holocentrus sammara (Forskal). Malau peapea. Hawaii; Tahiti; Samoa; Borabora; Pau- 

niotu Ls.; Solomon Is.; Guam; New Guinea; Thornton I.; Marquesas Is. (Seals); East Indies. 
Labms amjulosns Lac(;pude, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ill, 430, pi. 22. tig. 1. 1803. 
Holoccntrum chrintianum Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iii. 219, 1828, Red Sea. 

Holocmtmm tahiticum Kner, Novara Fische, ill, 1869, f. 2, pi. 16, Tahiti. Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1864, 4.S2. Tahiti. 
Halocentrmfmcostriatus Seale, Bishop Mus.. 1901, 69, Guam. 

nolocaitrus thornlonensis Fowler, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sei. Phila. 1904, 231, Thornton I. (young i. 
This handsome fish i.s very common on the reefs at Samoa, where about 100 examples were taken. 
It is rare about Hawaii. 

The species varies considerably in the distinctness of the dark maroon lateral stripes, but the black 
on the first dorsal is never absent. In the young it takes the form of an ocellus. Such a young 
example is the type of Holocentrus thornlonensis. Life colors were noted as follows in various specimens: 
(11 Siicrinicn fr. .in Ajiia. Silvery, with golden, red, and greenish reflections; back with four stripes 
of (lark iiKiiii,,!! iv.l. 1 he second and third brightest; head dark red above, mostly silvery, with red 
wash beh.w ; lij.^ Ili .^li color; opercle dark red above; fins pale red, the spinous dorsal broadly edged 
with blooii red; i-aiidal with a maroon stripe in each lobe, anal and ventral also; no pale edging. 

(2) From Apia. Olive, lustrous purplish above, copi)ery silvery below;, each scale with a large 
distinct coppery black spot, these forming about ten stripes; cheek whitish with black spots; head 
wine-shaded on lips, snout, and opercle; preopercle white; dorsal maroon, whitish spots at base, tips 
white; front of dorsal with large black, red-washed blotch; soft dorsal, anal, and caudal golden yellow, 
with a long maroon stripe on anterior rays, covering most of caudal lobes; pectoral coppery reddish; 
ventral white. 

• (3) Young specimen from Apia. Red, with a large black blotch on front of spinous dorsal, a dark 
red stripe in each caudal lobe and on front of soft anal; a dark band across opercle. 

(4) From Apia. Silvery rose; brownish above with stripes of rosy maroon, all but one indistinct, 
the bright one following course of lateral line; opercle dark maroon ; dark band across base of pectoral ; 
front of dorsal with very large blotch of maroon black, fin otherwise flesh-color, tips whitish; .soft 
dorsal yellciw, transparent behind, with maroon stripe in front; anal whitish with maroon stripe: 
pei'tc.ral ami ventral nearly white; caudal pale orange, the lobes rosy maroon. 

388. Holocentrus opercularis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tahiti; New Ireland; Samoa; Palauls.; 

Paumotu Is.; Guam. 

This strongly marked species is well figured liy Dr. Giinther. Two specimens were taken at Samoa. 

Life colors of one from Pago Pago, light red, each scale with a darker center and a silvery edge; 
dark streaks along rows of sc-ales; head red; opercle blood red; iris very red; first dorsal jet black, 
with a row of white spots at base and tip; second dorsal, anal, and caudal red, with a darker bar in 
front and a shade of orange behinil; pectoral and ventral pink; pectoral red at base; a red shade down 
and back from eye. Mouth large; chin prominent; anal spine long; body slender. 

Family LAMPRID.€. 
LAMFRIS RetziQs. 

389. Lampris reg-ia (Bonnaterre). Hawaii; all warm seas. 

The name Zeus regius of Bonnaterre and that of Zeus guttatus of Briinnich, both 1788, antedate 
Zeus luna of Gmelin (1789). We do not know which of these first has actual priority, but regius is a 
name preferable to the commonplace and overworked specific name guttnlus. It is true, however, that 
the name gnttdtns has lieen more generally used than that of regius, and the account given by Briinnich 
is the best found in any early author. Following the arbitrary rule which we have adopted, the name 
regius on page 72 in Bonnaterre's work antedates guUatus ou page 398 in that of Briinnich. 

Family ZEID.i. 
STETHOPRISTIS Gilbert, 

390. Stethopristis eos (Hlbert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 

CYTTOMIMUS Gill. 

391. Cyttomimus stelg-is (!;ill)ert. Deep seas of Hawaii. 



228 BI'LLKTIN OF THK BI'KKAT OF FISHERIES. 

Family SCOMBKID.-E. 
SCOMBEK (Artedi) Linnaeiis. 

392. Scomber japonicus Hdiittuyn. Hawaii; Califurnia; Jajiaii; Atlantic. 
.<r,„i,l„rrnliiisOmvnu. 

393. Scomber microlepidotus Hiippell. Solomon Is. and New Hebrides (Seale); coa.«ts of Asia. 

394. Scomber chrysozonus Riippell. Bougainville Is. (Peters, Berl. Mon. 1876, 8.%) ; Red Sea. 

395. Scomber loo (Cuvier & Valenciennes), di. Samoa; Waigin; Fiji; Palau Is.; New (Juinea 

(Macleay); Fast Indies. 
This well-marked mackerel is abundant in tlie open channels about the reefs of Samoa, and is an 
excellent food fish. The species is quite distinct irom 'Scomber hinatjurtd, with which (iiinthcr has 
confounded it. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, lustrous green, silvery below; round blackish green spots on 
sides of back. 

AUXIS Cuvier. 

396. Auxis tbazard ( Laccjicdc). Hawaii; Xcwiiuinca: warm seas. 

GYMNOSAKDA Gill. 

397. Gymnosarda pelamis iLiniucus). Hawaii; warm seas. 

398. Gymnosarda alleterata ( Kulhicsi|ue). Hawaii; warm seas. 

GEEMO Jordan. 

399. Germo gperm.o (Lacepede). South Seas; Japan. 

400. Germo macropterus (Schlegel). Hawaii; southern California; Japan. 

This species is known liy its elevated dorsal and anal, and especially by the citron-yelluw tinlets. 

SARDA Cuvier. 

401. Sarda chilensis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; California; Chile; .Tapan. 

SCOMBEROMORTJS Lacepede. 

402. Scomberomorus coinmersoni Laci'|it(Ie. New (iuinea ( Macleay i ; East Indies. 

ACANTHOCYBITIM Gill. 

403. Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier it \'tdencieiHies). Hawaii; warm seas. 

Family LEPIDOPID.J:. 

RUVETTUS Cocco. 

404. Buvettus prstiosus Cocco. Hawaii; Jai.aii; West Indies. 

PROMETHICHTHYS Gill. 

405. Promethicbthys prometheus ((Juvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; Tahiti; Australia; Jajian. 

LEMNISOMA Lesson. ( aanpylus Cuvier & Valenciennes. ) 

406. Lemnisoma thyrsitoides Lesson. Hawaii; Tahiti; West Indies. 
[(iiiitjii/liis serpens and Gcmpijlus coluber Cuvier Ji Valencienues. ) 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 229 

Family XIPHIID.-E. 

407. Xiphias gladius Linn:rii«. Hawaii; warm sca^. 

Family CARAXr,lI).4-:. 
SCOMBEEOIDES Lacepede. 

408. Scomberoides sanctipetri (Cuvier & Valencieniirs i. Lui. Hawaii; Samoa; Kingsmill I.; 

Tahiti; Johnston I. 
This widely diffused species is rather common al>out Samoa and Hawaii. A few specimens were 
taken in the channels of Apia. 

409. Scomberoides tolooparah. (Riippell). Hawaii; Xew Ireland: Vanicolo; New Guinea ( Mac- 

leay): Kast Indie.^:. 

410. Scomberoides lysan (Forskali. Xew (Jninea (Macleay). 

SERIOLA Cuvier. 

411. Seriola purpurescens Schlcgtl. Hawaii; .Japan. 

412. Seriola sparna .lenkins. Ihiwaii. 

NAUCRATES Rafiuesque. 

413. Naucrates ductor (Linn;ens). Hawaii; Japan; warm seas. 

ELAGATIS Bennett. 

414. Elagatis bipinnulatus Quoy & Gaimard. Hawaii; Hes des Papons; New Britain (Peters); 

Solomon Is. (Seale); East Indies; West Indies. 

MEGALASPIS" Bleeker. 

415. Megalaspis cordyla lLinn:i-ns). Alim!,,. Samna; Fast Indies. 
Common in the open channels in the reef. 

DECAPTERUS Bleeker. 

416. Decapterus pinnulatus (ICydoux & Souleyeti. Hawaii; Raiatea; Tahiti; Bonin Is.; Pau- 

motu Is. 
( DeciiplentA cunitnuide^ Jeiikin,.^. j 
This species is different from Decapterus nmro-udxi of Jajian, and apparently also distinct from 
Decapterus sanctsehelenx of the Atlantic. 

417. Decapterus lundini Jordan & Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Head 3.7.5 in length; depth 3.20; eye -1 in head, 1.20 in snout; dorsal vr-i, 21-1; anal ir, 21-1; 
scales small, 9.5 in lateral line, of which 4.5 are modified with ]ilates; interorbital, 4 in head; maxillary, 
3, reaching to below the anterior margin of eye, all but its posterior third hidden under the preorbital. 

Body elongate, compressed, fusiform; scales covering entire body and head; adipose eyelid well 
developed, covering entire eye except width of pupil; small teeth in single series on jaws and 
palatines, slightly enlarged teeth on vomer; very niinute teeth on tongue; gillrakers shorter than 
width of eye, 24 on lower limb; preopercle entire, opercle with small rounded nick on up])er margin; 
base of dorsal slightly greater than anal, its longest ray 1.8.5 in head; lir.^t ray of anal 2 in head; 

aThe name Megalaspis Blei-ker dates from 1S51. At about the .same time Angelln gave the same name to a genus of 
Trilobites. As to this Dr. Stejueger observes (in lit. Dec. 16, 1904): "Two straws point to the Trilobite's being the 
younger name. Bleeker's Meiialaspis is mentioned in the ' Leistungen ' for 1.S.51. -ingelin's name is not mentioned in the 
■Leistungen' untill.S52-3." There is also doubt for other reasons whether .\ngelin's paper appeared before 1852. We there- 
fore retain Meffataspis for the genus of fishes. 



230 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

pectoral 3.10 in length, extending to below the 8th dorsal ray; ventral 2 in liead; caudal slightly 
less than head, 4.50 in length; depth of caudal peduncle, 2 in its width (with keels). 

Color in spirits, silvery with wash of yellowish below, darker above, with about nine indistinct 
vertical brown bands as wide as eye and slightly greater than the interspaces on sides of body, fading 
out below lateral line; a distinct black opercular spot; a dusky wash on inner axil of pectoral; a dusky 
blotch on tip of snout and tip of lower jaw; a golden wash on preopercle; dorsal and anal yellowish- 
white with narrow dusky margin; pectoral, ventral, and caudal yellowish-white. 

One specimen, type no. .51727, U. S. National Museum, from Pago Pago, length 7.25 inches, taken 
in a school of the common "atule" ( Tr<tchuropx). 




Fig. 27.—Decnptcrus luiidini Inrdiui A. .scule, new species. Type. 

TEACHTJROPS Gill. 

In this genus there is much variation in the size of the eye. In mawlliaiia { = torva) the eye is 
smaller than in crtimenophthalma. In the Japanese form it is still smaller. We can not yet clearly 
define these forms as different species. 

418. Trachurops crumenoplitlialma (Bloch). Atuk. Samoa; Hawaii; Tahiti; Solomon Is.; New 

Hebrides; Marquesas Is.; and Rarotonga (Seale); all warm seas. 
This species is the commonest food-fish of Samoa, entering the harbors in great schools. The 
flesh is excellent. There is apparently no difference between Trachurops lorva and the common T. 
cruiiienojihtlmhiia of the Atlantic. 

CABANX (Commerson) Lac^pfede. (Including Caranyus Griffith = Tricopterm Rafinescjue, 1810.) 

419. Caranx lugubris Poey. Kingsmill Is.; Rarotonga; Marquesas Is.; Tahiti and Solomon Is. 

(Seale); West Indies; Clarion Island; St. Helena. 

420. Caranx melampygus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Muliiuli. Hawaii; Samoa; Marcus I.; New 

(iuinea; Waigiu; Rawak; Austral Is.; Solomon Is. and New Hebrides (Seale); Clarion Is.; 
East Indies. 
This species is the finest of the commoner food-fishes of Samoa, being especially excellent as 
chowder. It is abundant in the channels between the reefs, reaching a large size. Several scores of 
specimens were taken, a few lieing preserved. 

Life colors of a si)ecimen from Pago Pago, body light olive with darker olive spots; fins deep 
clear blue. 

421. Caranx thompsoni Seale. Hawaii. 

422. Caranx forsteri Cuvier & Valenciennes. Ulua. Samoa; Hawaii; Papua; Vanicolo; New- 

Ireland; New Guinea; Tanna; Tahiti (Seale); East Indies. 
The earliest name for the ulua seems to be that of Caranx forsteri. According to Sauvage (Poiss. 
Madagascar) the types of Caratu- sem and Caranx lesson! have the breast naked. These must then go 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 231 

into the synonymy of Carangits ignobilis. Caranx kleini (Bloch), as Dr. Klunzinger has pointed out, is 
not the ulua, but some one of the species found in Hindustan. Caranx sexfascialus is the banded species 
of the river mouths called Camiigus rhahdolug by Jenkins. The name Caranx hippos has no pertinence 
to this species, having been based on a specimen of "Caranx carangus" from South Carolina. Sauvage 
rei'ngnizes Oinnujus forsieri as a species distinct from the ulua, but his figure of the type shows no 
ilifferential characters. Caranx peroni and Caranx belengeri of Cuvier and Valenciennes are also based 
on the uliiii. 

In life the ulua is easily recognized by its yellow pectoral, the anal lobe being dusky, and the 
dorsal not edged with black. The breast is fully scaled. Carangus marginatus is similar, but has the 
dorsal edged with blackish. Carangus ignobilis, like Carangus hippos of the Atlantic, has the breast 
naked except for a small central patch. The anal lobe is bright yellow, the pectoral pale. As a food- 
lish Carangus forsieri, the ulua, and Carangus melamj^ygns, the malauli, are far superior to all others of 
this genus in the Pacific. Caranx lalus (fallax) of the Atlantic is a closely related but distinct species. 
We adopt for the ulua, provisionally, the name of Caranx forsteri, as it seems to be the oldest properly 
applied to the species. 

The ulua is the food fish par excellence of the mid-Pacific, both in Samoa and Hawaii. It reaches 
a large size, similar to that of the malauli, and it is scarcely less common than the atule. Hundreds 
of specimens were taken in Samoa, and a few preserved. 

A specimen from Pago Pago in life had the anal dark, pectoral yellow in the young, growing dull 
with age; body green, with blue specks, the fins with blue-black luster. Dorsal rays 23 or 24; body 
deep; preorbital deep; breast scaly; fins high; no opercular spot. 

One specimen from Apia in life had the pectoral bright yellow, anal dark; another was pale bluish 
silvery, the vertical fins all dusky, the pectoral bright yellow, ventral slightly dusky. Eye small; 
jilates small. 

423. Caranx marginatus (Gill). Hawaii; Samoa; west coast of Mexico and Panama. 

Two species from Samoa seem to be referable to this species. Possibly Caranx heberi Bennett, 
from Ceylon, is the same species. 

424. Caranx ignobilis (Forskal). Lupo. Samoa; Hawaii; New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 
( Carangus hippoides Jenkins; Caranx sejn, ckala, Ussoni, xanthopygus. etc., ('uvier ife Valenoiennos. ) 

Frequently taken about Samoa. 

425. Caranx sexfasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard). Lupo. Hawaii; Samoa; Vanicolo; Waigiu; Java. 
This species, recently described as C. rhabdotus Jenkins from Hawaii, is common in the mouths 

of the streams of Upolu, especially the sluggish stream called Gasegase River, ascending even into the 
smaller brooks. One specimen was taken by us in salt water, and this has lost the cross bands and 
some part of the peculiar dusky shade of the others, although even in this the caudal plates are of a 
watery blackish color. About a dozen specimens were taken. The cross bands, very distinct in the 
young, grow faint with age. 

This species seems to be the one figured by Quoy and Gaimard under the name of Caranx sexfas- 
ciatus. Jenkins's figure of Caranx rhabdotus represents it very fairly, and we are forced to believe that 
the two are the same species. From Caranx ignobilis, which has ;ilsii the anal fin yellow, Caranx sex- 
fasciatus differs in having the breast entirely scale<l. In Cnnmr ((/""'"/'.■■' the breast is naked, with a 
small central patch of scales as in Caranx hippos oi the West Imlies. ' Wmn.c /orsferi has more anal 
rays and more (30 to 33) lateral plate.s. The mouth is larger in Caranx sexfasciatus t\vAn in Caranx 
forsteri or any other of the related species. Caranx forsteri shows no cross bands at the size (4 to 8 
inches) of our specimens of Caranx sexfasciatus. 

Life colors of a specimen from Gasegase River, at Apia, dark brassy with a transparent blackish 
wash, as usual in fishes from muddy water; 6 broad darker cross bands; a black opercular spot; no 
pectoral spot; anal dull yellow, the lobe not sharp; upper fins dark. Another specimen from Apia 
had the pectoral pale, anal yellow. A specimen from fresh water near Vailele, Vpohi. in life had the 
body barred, an opercular spot, upper fins dusky, lower dull yellow. In a specimen from the swamp 
at Pago Pago the anal fin was bright yellow, caudal not so. 

426. Caranx dasson Jordan & Snyder. Hawaii. 

427. Caranx elacate (Jordan & Evermannj. Hawaii. 



262 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

428. Caranx regularis Oarinaii. Fiji. 

' Ura}i.r rir/ularis Garman. Bull. Muk. CDmi). Zool.. vtil. xxxix, no. S. 1903. 232. Fiji. 

429. Caranx parasitus Garman. Fiji. 

Cantiu- iiarufitiis G^Tman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. vol. xxxix. no. .s, 1903. 232, Fiji. 

430. Caranx boops Cuvier & Valenciennes. New Guinea; Vanicolo; East Indies. 

431. Caranx novse-guineae Cuvier &. Valenciennes. New Guinea. 

432. Caranx affinis Riippell. Hawaii; East Indies. 

433. Caranx hasselti (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); Hawaii; East Indies. 
• I ammmx polUiie Jenkins.) 

A specimen of Carangu.i hasxelti from Negros in the Philijipines agrees in every respect with 
.Jenkins's account of Carangus jjotihiit. 

434. Caranx helvolus (Foi-ster). Tahiti(?); Hawaii. 

This species, obtained by Forster on the second cruise of Captain Cook, was rediscovered by 
Professor Snyder in 1901. 

435. Caranx cheilio (Snyder). Hawaii. 

436. Caranx papuensis Alleyne & Macleay. New Guinea. 

( 'ai-aiu- ]>apuru^is .\lleyne tt Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soe, X, S, W. 1S7(J, 325. 

437. Caranx platessa Cuvier & Valenciennes, New Guinea (Alleyne & Macleay); Australia. 

438. Caranx bucculentus Alleyne & Macleay. New Guinea. 

439. Caranx moresbyensis Macleay. New Guinea. 

Camnj- m„jesl,,„i,.fi.< Jlaclc.iy, Prrc. Linn, Soe, X, S. W. 1SS3. S.nS. Port Moresby i New Guinea, 

440. Caraux obtusiceps ( Macleay). New Guinea. 

441. Caraux cheverti .\lleyne & Macleay. New Guinea, 

442. Caranx laticaudus Alleyne & Macleay. New Guinea. 

143. Caranx cseruleopinnatus Cuvier iV: Valenciennes. New Guinea. 

444. Caranx ferdau (Forskal). Lii/m. .'<amoa; Hawaii; Tahiti; Bonuils. ; East Indies. 

This species is not rare al^out Hawaii and was frequently taken at Samoa, where it is valued as a 
food fish. 

445. Caranx ajax (Snyder). Hawaii. 

446. Caranx gymnostethoides Bleeker. .Johnston I., south of Hawaii; East Indies. 

447. Caranx speciosus" (Forskal), Hawaii; Samoa; New Guinea; Fiji; East Indies; Panama, 
Not rare aliout Hawaii, and occasionally taken at Pago Pago, Life colors of a specimen from 

Pago Pago, grten-golden with green iride-^cence; black transverse bars on head (through eye), next one 
blackish; others simply dark, fading posteriorly; caudal with blackish tips and margin. 

448. Caranx edentulus Alleyne & Macleay. Percy I., New Guinea. 

449. Caranx armatus (Forskal). New Britain; New (Juinea (Peters, Alleyne tt Macleay); East 

Indies. 

450. Caranx oblongus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Vanicolo; Oualan; New Britain: Solomon Is.: 

Sumatra. 
This species, as originally described, has the anal rather low, the opercular spot wanting, the 
plates on the tail about 40. It is not clear that all the above references belong to it, although speci- 
mens from Sumatra, recorded by Mr. Fowler as Citula ohlonga, agree fairly with the original account. 

" The genus Caranx was originally based on C. speciosus, a species mthout teeth in the adult stage. Carangus has small 
even teeth; Tricoptems, larger, unequal teeth, and CilfJa, the dorsal rays produced, the teeth being very small. For 
the present we place all these species in a single genus, Caranx. as the subdivisions need better definition. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



233 



, 18; eye 3 in head; snout 2.75; niaxil- 
along straight portion of lateral line, 



451. Caranx plumbeus ( Quoy & Gaimard). Lupo; Lupo ta; Ldlufntu; Airilnfntii. He de France; 
Samoa. 

Head .3.25 in length; depth 2.18; dorsal vi-i, 22; anal ii- 
lary 2.18, extending to below anterior margin of eye; 43 plate 
the curved portion a third longer than the straight. 

Body oblong, compressed; profile of head gibbous and keeled; anterior dorsal and anal rays elon- 
gate (male fishes have 9 and 10 dorsal rays and 7 and 8 anal rays elongate), the first dorsal ray being 
greater than dt']ith of fish, 2 in length. The first anal ray is 2.75 in length; base of anal about equal 
to jM-rtoial. wlii' h is 2.75 in length of fish; base of dorsal 2.20 in length; caudal deeply forked, the 
lol«- -ii_'liil\ liin-er than head; ventrals 2 in head; opercle with small rounded nick on upper margin; 
scale- Mt lin.ly Miiall, about 100 in curved portion of lateral line; thorax naked; cheek scaled and upper 
part of opercle scaled; bands of minute teeth in jaws, vomer, palatines and middle of tongue; a nar- 
row adi[)ose eyelid; preorbital less than width of eye; mouth large, lower jaw slightly the longer; gill- 
rakers strong, two-thirds length of eye, 16 on lower limb. 





Color in spirits silvery bronze, the scales with beautiful iridescence, slightly darker above, .-ome 
specimens showing slight indications of five or six wide vertical brown bands on upper half of body; 
a black opercular spot; a large black spot in axil of pectoral, extending on its upper base; cheek more 
or less blotched with golden; an indistinct dusky blotch on upper part of preopercle between the 
black opercular spot and eye; spines of dorsal dusky; margin of dorsal and its elongate filaments 
dusky; caudal with indistinct dusky margin; pectoral, ventral, and anal yellowish white, the anal 
showing a slight dusky wa.sh on webs. 

A specimen from Apia in life was silver-green, bluish below; axil black; opercular spot faint olive; 
caudal dull yellow; anal and ventral whitish, slightly olive-tinged. Dorsal and anal with one filament 
only. In others of the same species, males, there are numerous filamentous rays on the dorsal ami 
anal fins. • 

This species belongs to the subgenus VituUi. We have 5 specimens, 4 male and 
the seine at Apia and Pago Pago. The description is that of a male 12.50 inches loi 

B.B.F. 1905—16 



female, tak< 



234 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



Cilula plumbea Quoy & Gaimard from He de France, with the fin-rays as in our specimens and the 
depth nearly 3 in total length, is apparently identical with the species in hand. Caranx armntus 
(Forskal) may be the same, but the body is deeper in some specimens called Caran.i: annatus than in 
our specimens from Samoa, which we record provisionally a-s Caranx plumbeus. In Caranx armatus the 
depth is 2 to 2.5 in total length. 

452. Caranx mandibularis Macleay. New Guinea. 

Caranx mandihiitarh Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 18S3, ■-iX, New Guinea. 
This species lielongs to Citula, having the first dorsal ray very long. 

453. Caranx g-ilberti Jordan & Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Head :i.Wl ill length; depth 2.20, e\e 4 m head, 1 10 m «nont interorbital 1>.9.5 in head; dcir.sal 
vi-i, :«; anal ii-i, 29; scales minute, 143 on lateral hne, 25 ot ^^hRh are modified into plates of mod- 
erate size; maxillary 2.50 in head, extendmg to below anterior m irgin of eye. 




I 



Fig. 29. — Caranx gUberti Jordan &. Seale, new species. Type. 



Body ovate, strongly compressed, shaped as usual in Caranx, the upper profile more ovate than 
lower; anterior lobes of dorsal and anal falcate, elongate and graduated, the anterior ray of dorsal 
longer than head, 3 in length (without caudal), anterior ray of anal equal to head; base of dorsal 
slightly greater than anal; pectoral reaching to below straight portion of lateral line, its length equal 
to base of anal, 2.75 in length of flsh without caudal; length of caudal slightly less than pectoral; 
ventrals 2 in head; teeth in villiform bands on vomer, palatine, and tongue; jaws with patches of 
minute teeth in front and a single series on side, no enlarged outer teeth; gillrakers less than width of 
eye, 14 on lower limb; preopercle entire; opefcle with slight rounded nick above; eye with adipose 
membrane slightly developed; head and body scaled, except thorax, which is naked; dorsal and anal 
enveloped in rather high shields. 

Color in spirits, silvery with slight brassy tint, darker above; dorsal, anal, and caudal with slight 
dusky wash. There is a narrow black margin to caudal and a black line on margin of dorsal; pectoral 
and ventral yellowish white. 

One specimen, type no. 51729, U. S. National Museum, fmfii Pago Pago, island of Tutuila, length 
8.50 inches. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 235 

ALECTIS Rafinesque. 

454. Alectis ciliaris (Bloch). Hawaii; Samoa; New Ireland (Peters) ; Tahiti; Palau Is. ; Kingsniill 

I.; New (niinea; Solomon Is. 
Of this widely distributed species, we have several small specimens from Apia. 

TRACHINOTUS Lacepede. 

455. Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus). Alalafulu. Samoa; New Hebrides; New Guinea (Macleay ). 
Of this widely diffused species, we have three examples from Apia, one very large, nearly 2 feet 

in length. Life colors of one of these specimens gray, back tinged with creamy bronze; dorsal dark, 
the lobe largely covered with creamy bronze; ventral, anal, belly, and lips still more orange; tail 
lilack. Specimen from Pago Pago, lobes of dorsal, anal, and caudal black, w-ashed with creamy 
iirange; ventral and anal lobe largely orange. 

456. Trachinotus bailloni Lacepede. Samoa (Giinther); New Hebrides; Tahiti; New Britain 

(Peters I; New Guinea (Macleay). 
This species, recorded from Samoa with the preceding, was not taken by us. 

457. Traclxinotus russelli Cuvier & Valenciennes. New Guinea; East Indies. 
Trachynonis coppingeri Giinther, Zool. .\lert, 1,s,mi, 29, Percy I. i New Guinea), in Cloudy Bay. 

Family COKYPH/HNID^. 
CORYPHaiNA Linnaeus. 

458. Coryphsena hippurus Linnu'us. Hawaii; warm seas. 

459. Coryphsena equisetis Linn;ius. Between Tahiti and Hawaii; warm seas. 

Family BR.WHD^. 
TARACTES Lowe. 

460. Taractes orcini (Cuvier & Valenciennes). South seas; Indian Ocean. 

COLLYBUS Snyder. 

461. Collybus drachma Snyder. Off Hawaii. 

Family PSENH)^. 
PSENES Cuvier. 

463. Pseues javanicus Cuvier <.t ValencJeiim-s. (jnam; East Indies. 
{Pseiu's yiiciMi-nsis (_;unther.) 

CUBICEPS Lowe. 

463. Cubiceps pauciradiatus Giintlier. Misol. 

Ciihicepspauciradiatus Gi'inther, Ann. Miig. Nat. Hist. 1872, iZi. Misol. Regan, .\nn. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1902, 123. 

ARIOMMA Jordan & Evermann. 

464. Ariomma lurida Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

465. Ariomma evermauni Jordan & Snvder. Hawaii. 



'236 BULLETIN OF THK BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

I'aniih IC()STi;il).€. 
SCHEDOPHILUS Cuvier. 

466. Schedophilus medusophagvis ('(n-co. OffSannia (( nintlier). 

I'amih STU()MATi;iI).+:. 

LEIRUS Lowe. 

467. Leirus maculatus (Giinther). iSouth Sea><. 

468. Leirus paucidens Giinther. Between New Guinea and .Ta|)an. 

Lints paucidrns Gunther, Pelagic Fishes Challenger, lss8, 11, open sea north of New Guinea. 

Family R.\CHYCEXTKID,i:. 
RACHYCENTKON Kaup, {Elacaie Ca\\er.) 

469. Rachycentrou pondicerrianum Cuvier & Valenciennes. Vanicolo; East Indies, 

Family ANOMALOPIU^. 
ANOMALOPS Kner, [HdempWudmus Bleeker,) 

470. Anomalops palpebratus Knir. Fiji; Paumotuls. ; Celebe.s. 

Family PEMPHERID^. 

PEMPHERIS Cuvier. 

471. Pempheris oualensis C'uvier & A'alenciennes. Miiniji; Fn a'ao. Oualan, or Strong Islaml; 

Tahiti; Guam; Vanicolo; Samoa; Kingsmill I. ; Caroline Is. ; New Guinea (Macleay). 
Panijluiis oualensis Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poi.ss., vii, 299, 1831, Oualan. 

Prmplicrls okillcnsls Cuvier & Valenciennes, op cit., vn, 304, 1831, Tahiti. Giinther, Cat., n, 568, China, .^mhoyiiM. 
Kner. Novara FLsche, 171, Java. Gunther, Fisehe der Siidsee, 102. Seale, Bishop Museum 1901, 74. Guam. 
Siiuvage, Poiss. Madagascar, 286, Tahiti. 
Pimphrrls mimgtlla Gunther, Fisehe der Sudsee, 102, taf. 59, fig. b, Samoa. Vanicolo, Kingsmill I.. Caroline Is., 
Tahiti; ntit of Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
Of tills species, sliarply distinguished by the presence of a large black spot on the base of tlu' 
pectoral, we have about a dozen fine specimens from Samoa. Life colors of a specimen from Apia, 
dirty olive, sides silvery; dorsal dirty olive, its anterior rays black; caudal pale within, the outer ra\> 
dirty dull red; anal gray, its base blackish; pectoral reddish, .the anterior rays quite red, its liase jit 
black; ventral gray; axil jet black; body with some violet luster. 

472. Penipheris vanicolensis Cuvier & Valenciennes. Pula. Vanicolo; Samoa: He <le France. 
Pfra,.'. ' iivier & Valencienne.s, Hi,st. Nat. Poi.ss., vii, 305, 1.S31, Vanicolo. 

Pcniph i iivier& Valenciennes, op. cit., VII, 306, 1831, He de France. 

Three speciiuen.H taken in the .seine at Apia. _This species is well distinguished by the entire 
absence of black on the base of the pectoral. Depth 2.2 in length. We see no reason for supposing 
this species to be identical with the Indian species Pempheris mangiila. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, coppery black; dorsal and anal pale, the lobes tipped with 
jet black; pectoral golden; ventral orange, blackish at base; no spot at base of pectoral. 

Family SCORPID.^. 

MONODACTYLTIS Lacepede. 

i/onododi/Zu."! Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iii, 131, 1802 (falciformis). 
Centmpodus Lacepede, op. cit., ni, 303, 1802 {rhombeus=argenteus). 
Acanthopoclus Lacepede, op. cit., iv, 558, 1803 (argenteus) . 
PseUnx Cuvier (argenteus). 
This genus is distinguished from P.ietlias Jordan, new genus (seft.r) by the rounded outline ni the 
body, which is not deeper than long. In Psetlias it is very much deeper than lone. 



237 



473. Monodactylus argenteus (Linnn 



■ ). Totu. Samoa; New Guinea; Vanionlo; Fiji; Ivist In 



Nut., ed. .\, 175S, China; nfter Lagerstrom. Giinther, Cat, ir, 4S8, Mo 

(Icr SUdsee, 140. Samoa. Klunzinger, Fische Roth, lleeres. 794, Red Sea. 

:. Aniin., 58, 1775, Red Sea. 

, Hist. Nat Poiss., in, 131. 1802. 

icieniie-j, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vii, 250, 1831,"Vanicolo; after Lacijpfede. 



Tliis species, i-onmion in the East Indies, was found rather abundant in the harbor of Ajiia in the 
deeper water between the reefs. Eight specimens were taken. It is a valued foQd-fisli. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, silvery white with some dusky: a faint orl>ital l)ar. Younj; 
with three curved bla^k cross bars on the head. 



(.,-, 



#5^ 



ATYPICHTHYS Gunther. 

474. At_y-pichthys strigatus (Gunther). Krromangd, New Ht 

Family IvLKTlD.i. 

KURTUS Bloch. 

475. Kurtus guUiveri Castelnan. New- (Guinea. 



(les; Palacky 



New GiiineaV 

Family .\POGON'ICHTHY!D.€. 

AMIA Gronow (17631. I .ly...,/„„ Lac'in:-.!.-, 1802.) Fo. 

476. Amia snyderi (Jordan & Evermann). Hawaii; Samoa; Tahiti; Paumotu Is.; Tubuai; Fate, 
.'^hrirtland I., and Eaiatea (Seale). 
Aifi.jim sntjdrri Jordan & Evermann, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., xxn, 1902 (1903). 180, Honolulu. 
Apugon /rnmlas Gunther, Fische der Stid.see, i, 19, taf. 19, tig. A, 1873, Hawaiian, Society, and Paumotu Is. 
Stuindaeliner, Denljs. Ak. Wis. Wien, L.xx, 1900. 484, Honolulu. Not Apogon frenatim Valenciennes, Nouv. 
Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1832, .57. pi. 4. fig. 4, nor of Klunzinger. 



1 Under the- rules of nomenclature adopted by us the name Amia Gronow (1763) beeomes tenable for this ge 
rity over Apoyon (1802) and over ,4mm Linnaeus (176G), for which genus Raflnesque's iia 






288 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

This large species is very common about the Saraoan Islands, as also about Hawaii. We have about 
40 specimens from Apia and Pago Pago. The dark spot at base of caudal above is usually distinct, 
tliough varying much in degree of definition. There is a more or less evident lateral shade, but never 
sharply defined. 

Life colors of a specimen from .'Vpia, brownish red; sides washed with clear light green, the edges 
of scales brownish red; a diffuse black bar at base of caudal, forming a pretty distinct rounded spot 
above lateral line and extending backward on edges of both caudal lobes; a faint dark shade from 
snout across eye, with a darker blotch on opercle and a rounded spot behind eye; a dusky shade on 
side from eye to tail on larger specimens; axil dull reddish brown; fins all dull reddish brown; first 
dorsal l)lack on anterior spines; second dorsal and ventral dusky shaded. 

477. Amia frenata (Valenciennes). New Guinea; Guam. 

Apogim frenatus Valenciennes, Nouv. Ann. Hist. Nat., i, 57, 1832, with plate. New Guinea, Guam. 
This species we have failed to recognize. It is close to our Amia exodigma, differing in the 
narrower lateral band, and in the more diffuse caudal spot, which is at the end of the lateral band. 
It is more remote from Amia snyderi, which has the lateral stripe fainter, broader, and more diffuse. 

478. Amia exostigma Jordan & Starks, new species. Samoa. 

Head 2.7.T in length; depth 3.3; eye 3 in head; interorbital width 5; snout 3.7.5; maxillary 2.2.5: 
caudal peduncle 2.67; dorsal vii-i, 'J; anal ii, i); scales 2-2.5-.5..5. 



/■ 



A 




I emsliffma Jordan i Starlfs. new species. Type. 

Body slender; upper anterior profile a slight, even, unbroken curve from tip of snout to first dorsal 
spine; snout blunt, and projecting very slightly beyond the maxillary; maxillary extending to below 
middle of eye, its anterior end projecting a very little beyond tip of lower jaw; teeth in moderately 
wide bands on jaws, in a narrower V-shaped patch on vomer; rather large spines on both posterior 
edges of preopercle, those near the angle larger, all of them directed backward; gillrakers ratliei 
slender, the longest one-thiid the diameter of the eye, 4+14 in number, about 4 of which are repre- 
sented l)y tubercles on the anterior end of the lower limb. 

Scales everywhere ctenoid, the marginal denticulations fine and elose-set. preicded by many short 
s]iinules regularly placed, forming a moderately wide band around tlie |.o>teii,ir Imidi-r of each scale. 
Third dorsal spine Itingest, its length equal to distance between tip of Minut and posterior margin of 
pupil; when fin is depressed its tip reaches a little past front of soft dorsal; first spine very short, 5 in 
eye; the second spine midway between these two spines in length; second dorsal with a long spine 
equal in length to the second dorsal base; second dorsal ray the longer, equal to length of head 
anterior to anterior preopercle margin; second anal spine a little longer than diameter of eye; anal 
placed a little posterior to soft dorsal; ventrals scarcely reaching to front of anal; pectoral reaching to 
ai)o\e base of second anal spine. 

Color in life of a specimen from Pago Pago, light olive; jet black band from snout through eye, 
fading behind; just above this stripe at base of caudal a round, jet lilack spot as large as pupil; fins 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 239 

dull reddish; first dorsal spine black; a dark streak on base of dorsal a-nd anal and upper and lower 
caudal lobes; cheek and breast soiled silver. 

Color in alcohol, slightly dusky with fine dots; scarcely darker on back; a black lateral band 
from tip of snout across eye, but not involving eye, tajjering backward to base of middle caudal 
rays; widest just behind ej'e; a conspicuous round black spot on caudal peduncle at base of caudal 
rays, just above lateral line; a short light stripe with violet reflections on opercle bordering black 
lateral stripe, below which opercle is silvery with violet reflections; upper and lower margins of 
caudal bordered with black; dusky shades at base of soft dorsal and anal. 

Eight specimens from Apia and Pago Pago. This species is very clo.se to ^mia /renata and A. 
iiieUiiiiii-liinii-hiia, differing in having the very distinct caudal spot above the termination of the jet black 
lattral baud and entirely separated from it, the band growing very faint before reaching the base of 
the caudal. 

The lateral band is in this species very broad anteriorly, almost as broad as the eye, while in 
Amia frennta this band is narrow. In Amia snyderi, also a closely related species, the lateral liand 
and its terminal spot are broad and diffuse. 

The ty|ie is from Apia; it is 3 inches in length, ami is no. .t1782, l". S. National Museum. 

479. Amia menesema (Jenkins). Hawaii. 

480. Amia crassiceps (Garman). Fiji; Samoa. 

Apiirinn rmssitrps Garman, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.. 19l;3, Suva (Fijii. 
One large specimen taken at Apia. 




481. Amia everman-ni (Jordan & Sny<ler). Hawaii. 

482. Amia orbicularis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Radack I.; East Indies. 

483. Amia guamensis (Valenciennes). Guam. 

Apogon guaniensis XedencieTine^, Ann. Mus, Nat. Hist , i, nrt, ls:^l. Guam. 
A deep-bodied, plain-colored species with large head and one limb only of tlie opercle serrate; 
cau<lal notched This species may be the same as A. rrasgireps. 

484. Amia savayensis (Giinther). Savaii, Samoa: Tonga; Yap; Tahiti; Fiji; Fate; Shortland I. 

and Raiatea (Scale); East Indies. 

Apoijnn saraiii-iisig iliiiitluT, Piijc. Zool. Soc. 1871, G56,. Savaii i Samoa i. Giinther, Flsche der Sudsee, 21, taf. 19, 

fig. B, Saui'Ni I '!iL 1, V i; , hiliiti, Celebes. Seale, Bishop Mus. 1901, Fishes Guam, 76, Guam 
ApoyonbanrJiiij. - i : not of Bleeker, who has wrongly identified sacai/CTiws with ?itm(/aiiCH!i(s. 

ApnyonSiifCiix'. . . \. . I: : !. r SUdsee, 22, Fiji. 
ApiigonniibilusG^iniutu, Lui:. .Mus. Comp. Zool.. 1903, Suva (Fiji). 

This species is very common about the Samoan Islands. We have about 100 specimens from Apia 
and Pago Pago. Ordinarily the color markings are very distinct. There is an oblique black streak 



2-10 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHEKIES. 

Vjackward and downward from eye; aKont i-ijhi vrrtical silvery stripes on the side between iHTi.niil 
and region above middle of anal; :i i.l:nki-li -:mMIc on caudal peduncle, and a black and wliitc- ^t^i| <■ 
on eacli edge of caudal. In some siM-riniriis, liwwever, any or all of these marks may be rciluccl 
to mere traces. The silvery cross-streaks, the most characteristic of these traits, were wanting in 
Giinther's types. Apparently the specimen called hy Gunther Apogon fu^cm was one in which all 
the marks were obliterated. It is certain that this is not thefuscm of Quoy and Gainiard, which ha^- 
the caudal rcjiindeil and lili itched with hlaek. Bleeker is certainly wrong in regarding saruyeiuis as the 
same as Amin li,iii,l'ini uxix. i lannan's Apogon nubilus is apparently the young of this species with 
the markings laded, allli<pugh mure di.-tinet than in Giinther's type. 

Color in life of a specimen from Pago I'ago, dusky olive, with seven narrow dull silvery cross- 
streaks, each dark-edged on each side; other fainter streaks curved behind; a dusky saddle on caudal 
peduncle, another under soft dorsal; fins dull red, first dorsal anteriorly black; a dark streak along 
each caudal lobe; a dusky streak behind eye. 

A specimen from Apia in life was brownish olive; side with seven pinkish-white cross-streaks, 
each eilged with brow'n; an oblique brownish olive bar below eye; a jet black saddle on back of tail; 
first dorsal blackish; other fins light brownish red; a black streak edged with orange down each lobe 
of the caudal; tips of soft dorsal and anal liglit orange-red. 




Fig. 33.— .lm»i sariiiieiifif iGunllu-n. 

The life colors of a young examjjle from Apia were dull olive, faintly barred with paler, a large 
black sjirit before base of caudal; no other markings; first dorsal black; other fins pale grayish. 
Called,/'; by the Samoans. 

Another specimen from Pago Pago in life was dull olive, slightly reddish, with some silvery on sides, 
arranged in cross-bands along muscles; a dark streak like a pencil mark across opercle, another down- 
ward and backward from eye; a faint diffuse dark blotch above lateral line from base of caudal, then 
joined saddlewise over back; first dorsal dusky; other fins purjilish olive, the spine of second dorsal 
dusky. Caudal lunate; dorsal vii; preopercle serrate. 
485. Amia koilomatodon (Bleeker). Samoa; Shortland I.; Solomon Is. (Seale); East Indies. 

Head 2.60 in length; depth equal to head; eye 3.10 in heail; dorsal vi-i, 10; anal ii, 8; scales 2- 
28-0; interorbital l..j0 in eye; snout 1.20 in eye. 

Body oblong, compressed, slightly elevated; caudal [peduncle rather thick and strong, its depth 
1..50 in length, which is equal to distance from anterior margin of eye to posterior margin of opercle; 
mouth large; maxillary equal to post-ocular portion of head; its distal end under posterior margin of 
pupil, the width of distal end slightly greater than pu]iil: villifurm teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatine; 



THK FISHES OF SAMOA. 241 

the two limbs of preopercle distinctly denticulate; the lower posterior limb of preorbital denticulate; 
gillrakers rather sharp pointed, the longest scarcely equal to pupil, 17 on lower limb; second dorsal 
spine much the strongest, its length 2 in head; base of soft dorsal 3 in head, its longest ray 1.80 in 
head; anal rounded, its base 2 in its length, the second spine 2.25 in head, its longest ray 1.75 in head; 
pectoral 1.45 in head, its distal end below middle of soft dorsal; ventrals reaching base of anal, their 
origin directly below origin of pectoral; caudal bilobed, 1.50 in head. 

Color in spirits, light brownish; a black half-band at origin of spinous dorsal extending to beneath 
anterior third of pectoral; a second black band at origin of soft dorsal, extending down to lateral line; 
a third black band at posterior axil of soft dorsal, longer than second band, extending to below lateral 
line, in young examples extending to middle of anal base; a third very indistinct dark band over 
middle of caudal peduncle (in an old example this is broken up into three or four round spots) ; a 
distinct round spot on lateral line just anterior to base of caudal; a round black spot on opercle; a dis- 
tinct black line from eye to angle of preopfercle; anterior dorsal spine black, upper and lower margin 
of caudal dusky; tip of ventral and anal with dusky wash; pectoral vellow. 



Fig. 31.— .Imm koilnmalodoa (Bleeker). 

Color in life of a very large specimen from Pago Pago, dark reddish olive brown; a faint darker 
bar under first dorsal, one under second dorsal; a small round blackish spot at base of caudal, and one 
on opercle before its edge; iris golden. Fins all dusky brownish red, the first dorsal darker; dorsal 
rather dark; dark dots confluent along base of soft dorsal. Caudal lunate; dorsal vi. 

Another large specimen from Pago Pago was dark olive brown in life, much mottled, witli three 
vague dark cross-bands; a large black spot on opercle and another at base of caudal; fins mottled Ijrovvn. 

We have eight specimens from Apia and Pago Pago, of a large and robu.st species of Am'm, 
evidently allied to A mia koilomalodon. It has a distinct caudal spot, which is said to be wanting in the 
latter, but as no other differences appear, we refer our specimens provisionally to Amia koUomatodon. 
The specimen described is no. 51733, U. S. National Museum, 5.63 inches long. 

486. Amia nigripinnis (Cuvier &. Valenciennes). P.onham I.; East Indies. 

487. Amia maculifera (Garrett). Hawaii. 

488. Amia novse-guinese (Valenciennes). Papua; East Indies. 

489. Amia aroubiensis (Hombron & Jacquinot). Samoa; Tahiti: Tuliuai: Shortlaml I.: Nukaliiva 

(Seale). 
Apogon aroubiensis Hombron & Jacquinot, Voy. au Pole Sud. Poiss., 31. pi. 1. fig. 1, Aroub in Malaysia. 
Apogonfasciatus Giinther. Fisclie der Siidsee, U'. taf. 20, tig. a. 
This species very closely resembles Amia iwvemj'asciala, but the colors are deei>er, and the black 
bands, broader and continuous, do not extend on the caudal fin. There is no black spot on base of 



242 



BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



pectoral. It is certainly a distinct species, anil it is fairly represented by Dr. Giinther's figure a, as 
well as apparently in the poor plate of Hombron and Jacquinot. 

About 10 specimens from Apia and Pago Pago. Color in life of a specimen from Apia, reddish 
gray, with five stripes of very deep red-Tjlack, the interspaces gray; iris gray with yellowish tinge; fins 
all pale red; an oblique streak on each dor.sal and on anal; none on caudal, the bands not converging; 
on the fin. 




(Hombron & Jatu^uii 



490. Amia novemfasciata (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Samoa; Guaui; Tahiti; Kins;sniill I.; F;it/ 
(Seale); East Indies. 
Aji'ii/on. novemj'asciaius CuTier & Valenciennes. Hi.st. Nat. I'oiss., ii, 151, Timor and Guam. 

Apoijon fascialus Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. ITranie, 344, Guam. GUnther, Fisclie tier Sikisoe, 19, taf. 20, fig. i;. 
Society, Samoan, and Kingsmill islands, etc.; not fig. a. Bleeker, Atlas, tab. XLvni, fig. 4, East Indies. Street^. 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., vii, 100, 1877, Samoa. Seale, Bishop Miis. 1901, 76, Guam; not of White. 

Head 2.50 in length; depth 2.S5; eye 3.20 in head; snout 4 in head; dorsal vii-i, 9; anal ii, S; 
scales 2-28-6; interorbital 2 in orbit. 

Body oblong, compressed; caudal peduncle strong, its depth 1.50 in its length, which is 1.35 in 
head; mouth large, jaws equal, maxillary 2 in head, its distal end under posterior third of eye; bands 
of small teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines; gillrakers not very sharp, the longest equal to width of 
pupil, 14 on lower limb (12 developed); opercle entire; outer limb only of preopercledenliculate: base 
of spinous dorsal 1.40 in the third spine, which is the longest and strongest; base of soft dorsal 2.75 in 
head, its longest ray equal to distance from middle of eye to posterior tip of opercle; base of anal equal 
to orbit, its longest ray 1.75 in head; pectoral 1.50 in head, its distal end reaching to base of soft dorsal; 
ventrals 1.40 in head, their insertion directly below base of pectoral, their tips scarcely reaching base 
of anal fin; caudal emarginate, 1.30 in head. 

Color in spirits, yellowish white, with four brown longitudinal bands about as wide as interspaces, 
the first extending from middle of interorbital, dividing in front of dorsal fin into two which continue 
along base of dorsal, uniting behind in a single line along top of caudal peduncle; the 2nd band extend- 
ing from upper margin of orbit to caudal, where it runs obliquely out on fin to join the end of the 
third line, which extends from tip of snout through eye to tip of caudal fin; the fourth line extending 
from side of snout along lower part of orbit, over base of pectoral to caudal, where it extends 
obliquely out on the fin to join the third line at tip — three of the bands thus converging on the caudal 
fin, each of these bands more or less distinctly widened at about three intervals. There is also an 
indistinct dusky line from angle of mouth to base of ventrals; a narrow white line along side of snout; 
two larger dark blotches are apparent on the third body band; base and axil of pectoral dusky; a 
black line with a narrow light one above it through lower base of soft dor.sal; a slight wash of dusky 
on anterior membrane of spinous dorsal, usually a narrow black line through lower part of anal, 
.lisappearing with age. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 



243 



Color in life of a specimen from Apia, olivacemis, the liands blai-k, converging on caudal; space 
anteriorly before pectoral silvery white, with liright luster; the streaks on head above very white; fin 
all brick-red. 









rcm/asctata ( Cuvier tt V: 



Another specimen has the stripes darker olive, almost black, on whiter grcjimd; a black bar across 
axil, and a black spot in front of it; a stripe from angle of mouth to ventrals; fins all pale red, in 
younger individuals orange yellow; no black marks, except dusky streak at liase of second dorsal and 
anal, which runs obliquely up and back; black bands convergent on caudal, the outer margin pale; 
first dorsal all pale. 

.\ third specimen liom thesime localit\ has a deeper bod\, the black stripes more olive, none 
Ueliiw le\( 1 ot pectoral no bUck bar across axil, a blatkish spot on lower part of opercle; fins dull 



^t 




red; both dorsals and anal with an oblique black cross-band; stripes on caudal less distinctly con- 
verging, the outer margin lilack; first dorsal all black. The.se specimens differ rather markedly from 
the ordinary ones and may represent a distinct species, but, except in color, we find no tangilile 
characters. 



244 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

This species is very abundant at \'ivjn I'aL'o an^l ,\i>i:i, and wo have about 100 specimens. Length 
3.25 inches. We have not seen tin ■ |.l:ii..ii I/^Z/m.^ /■(/■.r/,(///.s, published by John White. From tlic 
account of Cuvier and Valenciennes lhi> >|.(in>. likf ijunilri/iifciata, has but two black stripes on each 
side. The present species, Apogonfaxcinlus of most authors, has five (or four) stripes on each side, tun 
of them converging to meet the middle stripe on the caudal fin. These stripes are relatively narrow , 
and are again narrowed in two or three places. A black spot at the base of the pectoral is also ver\ 
constant. 

Concernmg the tvpes of Apogon noiemfasdatus, Dr. Leon Vaillant writes: 

leviensd \ imiii rl d i\ j e is qu on peut regarder comme types primitif-s de Cuvicret Valenciennes; Ce sont 
cieu\ indiM 1 I raor par Peron, 1' autre de Guam par Quoy et Gaimard. 

Lc r rem dc 60 + 12 = 52 mm. en medioere etat. en grand partie decoloro: tout ce qu' on 

I eut dire \ lent sur la partie basilaire de la caudale (No. 5616) 

L etat 1 1 I t La longueur est de 40 + 12 = 52 mm. Les trois lignes sombres laterales, se 

prolongent \isibltmcnt bur la taud lit la ■^upeneure, et 1' inferieur convergeant nettement, 1' une versl' autre en arricr.' 
(N-) 853) 

The '-etond of thc-e specimens evidently corresponds to the A mia noremfasciala of the present 
pajm. .ind the other, which is properly the type of noremfasciatus, is almost certainly a discolored 
exam] lie of the same species, as the black spots are seen on the base of the caudal fin. In Apaijuti 
imiiiliinixis of Hombron and Jacquinot the black spots do not encroach on the caudal fin at all. 

491. Amia amboinensis ( Bleeker) . New Guinea (Macleay); Shortland I. (Seale); East Indies. 

492. Amia sang'iensis (Bleeker). Fiji (Giinther); New Guinea (Macleay); Yap (Giinther); Ea>t 

493. Amia fleurieu (Lacepede). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies 

I t'isfin-fiiiichtis jlcuruti Lact^^pt-de; Ceutropomus aureus Lac(5pede; Apogon aiui.Jaris Riijipell; Apinjnn rnscfpiiinis 
cnvierA Viileneiennes.) 

494. Amia tsenioptera (Bennett). New Guinea (Macleay) ; East Indies. 
49.5. Amia buruensis (Bleeker). Normanbyl.; New Guinea (Macleay) 
496. Amia trimaculata (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea; East Indies. 



( 




Fig. ■M.—Amiafusca (Quoy & Gaimard). 

497. Amia fusca (Quoy & Gaimard). Samoa. 

Al«j,m,ifii.ieus Quoy & Gaimard, Voy. Uranie, Zool., 345, 1S24. Guam. 

Head 2.h:5 in length; depth 3; eye 2.75 in head; snout 4.80; dorsal vi-i, 8; anal n, 8; scales 2-23-6; 
interorbital equal to snout. 

Body oblong, compressed, head and body scaled; caudal peduncle long, 3.10 in length of fish, its 
depth 2..55 in head; jaws even; maxillary 1.95 in head, its distal end under jiosterior margin of pupil; 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 245 

Ijaiids of villiform teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines; gill-rakers sharp pointed, the longest less than 
width of pupil, 14 on lower limb; posterior margin of opercle ending in a spine-like point which 
extends as a small bony stay across opercle; the posterior limb of preopercle only is serrated; lateral 
line evenly curved from its origin to a line with posterior axil of dorsal, the straight portion 1.50 
incurved. Base of spinous dorsal 1.50 in its height, the second (upright) spine being the longest 
and strongest; base of soft dorsal 1.95 in its length, the soft dorsal spine being equal to base of fin, 
2.90 in head; base of anal equal to depth of caudal peduncle, its longest ray 1.95 in head; ventrals 
scarcely reaching base of anal, equal in length to distance from middle of eye to posterior tip of opercle, 
their insertion being slightly in advance of pectoral; pectoral 1.50 in head, the tip on a line with 
niiddie of soft dorsal; caudal rounded, 1.20 in head. 

Ocilur in siiirits yellowish white, thickly covered with minute dots; a broad black area covering 
most of the caudal peduncle, except its upper and lower sides, this black marking extending out and 
covering the lower half of the caudal fin; anteriorly thi.s color fades out under the posterior axil of 
soft dorsal; there is a dusky w-ash on upper half of eye and on dorsal surface of head; cheek punctulate 
with brown dots rather larger than those of body, a small brown spot on opercle near base of the bony 
stay; sides of thorax rather strongly shaded with brown dots; fins yellowish white. The black color 
of the lower half of the caudal, which fin is not forked, is very distinctive. 

One specimen from Apia, length 1.75 inches. 

498. Amia zosterophora (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

499. Amia leptacantha (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay ) ; East Indies. 

500. Amia nematophora (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay ) ; East Indies. 

501. Amia cookii (Macleay) . New Guinea. 

.Il«i,mn cuok-ii Macleay, Prou. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., V, 1884, 321, New Guinea. 

502. Amia ]iyalosom.a (Bleeker). Puinepetl.; East Indies. 

503. Amia erythrina (Snyder). Hawaii; Samoa. 

Ol this small species we have seven examples from .\pia and Pago Pago. It is clear red in life, 
often with scattered paler spots, and some dark shading. Our specimens agree well with those from 
Hawaii. 

A specimen from Pago Pago in life was all deep vermilion red. One from Apia was all bright red, 
a dusky blotch on opercle, dusky shades along base of first dorsal and on toj) of head; no markings. 

504. Amia doryssa Jordan & Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Apugon hypsdonut^s, Giinther, Fische der Siidsee, 20, South Seas; nut of Bleeker. 

Head 2.60 in length; depth 2.95; eye 2.S5; dor^ial vi-i, 9; anal it, 8; scales 2-26-6; interorbital 
equal to snout. 

Body oblong, compresssed, its greatest depth at origin of dorsal; body and head scaled; caudal 
peduncle long, 1.2(1 in head, its depth 2.95; jaws about even, the under one scarcely as long as ujjper; 
maxillary 1.95 in head, its distal end under posterior margin of pupil; bands of minute villiform teeth 
on jaws, vomer and palatines; gillrakers sharp pointed, 12 on' lower limb, the longest less than pupil; 
opercle with three small spine-like projections on posterior margin; both limbs of preopercle with 
small denticulations; anterior part of lateral line with strong oblique curve under base of soft dorsal; 
second (upright) spine of dorsal very strong, flat, and sabre-like, its length equal to distance from 
anterior margin of eye to posterior margin of opercle; shape of the spinous dorsal that of an acute 
triangle, the base of which is 1.75 in its length; base of soft dorsal equal to orbit; the spine of soft 
dorsal slightly longer than base of fin, the fin rounded, its longest ray equal to distance from middle 
of eye to posterior margin of opercle; base of anal 1.50 in length of longest ray; ventrals below base 
of pectoral, their length 1..50 in head, their tips reaching to base of anal; pectoral 1.40 in head, extend- 
ing to a line with sixth anal ray; caudal bilobed, the longest ray equal to distance from anterior 
margin of orbit to posterior edge of opercle. 

Color in life, light brick-red, fins a little darker; no trace of markings. Color in spirits, yellowish 
white, some black shadnig at base of spinous dorsal; a few small dusky blotches on upper |>art uf 
opercle; fins without marknigs. 



246 



HULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 



Three specimens from Apia. The type is no. 51812, U. S. National Museum; length 1.87 inche? 

Dr. Giinther identifies his specimens, apparently similar, with Apogon hypselonotus, but Dr. Bleekci 
is apparently correct in refiarfling the species of the South 8ea« as distinct. Ttie species resemlilr^ 
Amiii erythriria, but the dorsal spines are stronger and longer than in the latter, and the physiognoiux 
is different. 





Fli, 3t — 




^■^^%^" 



Inrdan it Seale new species. Type. 



505. Amia lateralis ( \ alenciennes) Samoa, Vanicolo 

Aputjon lateralis \ &\tini.\Qnni:ii Nou\ Ann Hi^t Nat I 8 is"..* Vanicolo. 
Head" 2.40 in length, depth 2 75, e\e i 75 in head '•nout 4; 
1.5-26-5; interorbital «carcel\ equal to e\e 




Body oblong, comprsssed, and somewhat elevated; mouth large; maxillary 2.15 in head, its distal 
end under posterior margin of pupil; teeth in villiform bands on jaws; vomer and palatines; cheek 
scaled; preoperde with the outer limb very slightly denticulate, the teeth finer above, the inner limb 

n Including opercular flap in all descriptions of Ambassis and Amia. 



OF SAMOA. 



entire; gill-rakers strong, blunt, and finely denticulate, the longest two-thirds as long as pupil, 17 on 
lower limb; second dorsal spine longest, 2.20 in head; longest ray of soft dorsal, 2 in head, its base 3; 
caudal emarginate, the lobes rounded; base of anal, 3 in head, its longest ray, 2.50, the spines small; 
pectoral extending to a line with sixth dorsal ray, 1.75 in head; insertion of ventrals slightly in advance 
of base of pectoral, their tip extending to anal opening, their length equal to postocular part of head. 

Color in spirits, dull yellowish white with a slight wash of brown; everywhere punctulate with 
indistinct minute dark dots the size of pin pricks; a narrow and distinct line of brown from posterior 
margin of opercle to base of caudal, where it'terminates in a small round black dot about half the size 
of pupil; a short black line from posterior margin of eye to near posterior margin of opercle, a dusky 
blotch above this at upper end of preopercle and including the upper portion of orbit and eye; a more 
or less distinct dusky line from anterior of orbit down side of snout; dorsal fin with anterior spine, 
dusky black at tip; other fins white; opercle gilt. 

Twenty-six specimens from Apia. The specimen described is 3 inches long. 

This s)iecies is rather common in the sluggish waters at the mouths of the streams of Apia. From 
the other iSamoan species it may V)e known by its strong likeness to the species of Amhassis, among 
which it is often found. It has always a small black spot at base of caudal and a low spinous dorsal, 
the long spine barely reaching base of second dorsal when compressed. 



MIONORTJS Krefft. /b. 

This genus has the lateral line complete, the palatine provided with teeth, and the two limbs of 
the preopercle both strictly entire. In .V. gr.rffei the body is short and greatly compressed, and 
the dorsals high. Other species provisionally referred to the same genus {waikiki, carinatits, glaga, etc. ) 
have the general form of Amia. , 




f'i 



506. Mionorus grsefifei (Giinther) 



iomn-us grseffci (Giinther) . 
Samoa; Marshall Is. 

idsee, 22, U\l. 20, fig. e. 1S73, Bos 



t)t tins pretty species we have two specimens from Ai)ia, and ten from Pago Pago, 
compressed body and elongate whip-like spine are characteristic. 



The greatly 



248 HULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Color in life of a specimen from Apia, translucent, with orange shades on head; fins plnin jiiriK. 
the spinous dorsal dark-edged; no stripes or spots; very deep and much compressed; second (l(.rs:il 
spine filaini-nt.diis. rcucliinsr past middle of soft dorsal. 

A f^iioi inirii from \':rn , Pajo in life was light pinkish olive; no spot or bar of black; two gold, i 
bronze rro: — I r. al,^ lnluii.l li.\i.l: two on opercle and two or three similar streaks radiating from fy>\ 
a streak of clark poijils al'Hi.u uii. Idle line of back: first dorsal dusky, the long whip-like product 
spine black; otlier fins plain pink, tlie (•au<lal faintly dark-edged, t'audal well forked; preopercle 
serrate. 

The other specimen from Aijia, with body very deep, was translucent olive, paler bejow, silvery 
on side; a dark streak along base of dorsal; four vertical bars of bright golden bronze behind eye on 
opercle and front of body, these not much above or below level of large eye; upper fins pale orange; 
lower pale red; pectoral colorless. Scales very large; dorsal filamentous; anal ii, 10. 

507. Mionorus waikiki (Jordan ^^ Mvcriuann I. Hawaii. 

FOA Jordan & Evermann. Fo. 

Foil Jordan & Evermann, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., xxiii, 1903 (July 29, UlOo), 210 (type 
Fowleria brachygramma). 
This genus is characterized by the entire preopercle, incomplete lateral line and by the presence 
of teeth on the palatines. The species are all very small in size, and they live in crevices of coral reefs. 

Aiialysis of species of Foa. 
a. Opercle without black spot. 

h. Body and fins plain, pale brm-hygramma 

W). Body much mottled; fins mottled. 

c. Head very large; back with broad diffuse dark cross-shades Jb 

(■*■. Head moderate; no broad blackish cross-bands vaiuln- 

508. Foa brachygramma (Jenkins). Hawaii. 




Fig. A-l.—Foafu Jordan & Scale, new .-ipeeies. Typi 



509. Foa fo .lordan tt Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Head 2.20 in length; depth 2.50; eye 3.75 in head; snout 4.75 in head; dorsal vii-i, 9; anal ir, 8; 
scales 1-21-6; lateral line discontinued at the ninth scale from head; interobital equal to shout. 

Body oblong, compressed, rather deep; body, cheeks and opercles scaled; caudal peduncle rather 
short and strong, its depth 1.50 in its length, which is 1.70 in head; mouth large, the jaws equal; pre- 
maxillary equal to postocular part of head; bands of minute teeth in jaws, vomer and palatine; opercle 
entire; preopercle with both Hmbs very minutely denticulate, the denticulations being hidden under 
the scales; gillrakers not very sharp, rather strong, 12 on lower limb, the longest less than length of- 
pupil; base of spinous dorsal slightly greater than its height, which is 2 in head; base of soft dorsal 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 249 

;i in head, its height 1.90 in head; anal base about equal to eye, its longest ray 3 in head; pectorals 
1.75 in head, extending to below middle of soft dorsal; ventral inserted directly below base of pectoral, 
its length 1.75 in head; caudal rounded, 1.50 in head. 

Color in spirits, yellowish white, the scales shaded more or less with light l)rovvn; five diffuse, 
irregular vertical cross-bands of dusky, the first in front of dorsal, the second from middle of spinous 
dorsal, tlie third from base of soft dorsal, the two posterior ones encirrliiii; luudul i>eduncle; there is 
also a more or less distinct dusky area on nuchal region; dusky cmss-sliiHli- nuder chin; the fins, 
except pectorals, all more or les.s indistinctly blotched with dusky, thi- spmcii- .li^rsal being black at 
tip with a lighter area in middle and dusky at base; anal shows indications of three or four darker 
cross-shades; ventral dusky; a dark spot on opercle, just posterior to ej'e; upper portion of orbital 
and snout shaded with dusky. 

Of this species, well distinguished by its large head, blackish cross-bands, and by the absence of 
opercular spot, we have one specimen from A])ia, the type, no. 517o5, V. S. N"ationaI Museum, 1.50 
inches long. We have also 2 specimens from the Philippines. Fo is the Samoan name of all species 
of Amid and related genera. 
510. Foa vaiulae Jordan & Seale, new species Simoa 

Head 2.50 in length; depth -., e\e 3 m hevi snout eijual to mtt loibit il; dor.-^al vii-i, ii; anal ii, 7; 
scales 2-21-0; lateral line cuntniUKl onh to tenth >-nle from head 




Fig. 43.—F(ia raiiihe Jordan & Seale, new species. Type. 

Body oblong, compressed; body, cheeks, and opercles scaled; caudal peduncle rather strong, its 
depth 1.75 in its length, which is 1.50 in head; mouth large; jaws equal; maxillary 1.85 in head, its 
distal end under posterior third of eye; bands of minute teeth on jaws, vomer, and palatines; opercle 
entire; preopercle with very minute denticulations on each limb; gillrakers rather strong at base, 
sharp-pointed, the longest about two-thirds width of pupil, 7 developed on lower limb; spinous dorsal 
rounded, its base I'qual to its height; base of soft dorsal 3 in head, rounded, its longest ray 2.20; base 
of anal o.nO, its longest ray 2.18; pectoral 1.75, reaching anterior base of soft dorsal; ventral 1.80, 
its tij) not reaching base of anal, their insertion below base of pectoral; caudal square, its length 
1.95 in head. 

Color in spirits, yellowish white, each scale shaded by numerous fine brown dots like pin jn-icks, 
darker on nuchal region, with a small but distinct black spot above opercle at origin of lateral line; 
some dark shadings on opercle and cheek behind and below eye; pectoral yellow, all the other fins 
shaded more or less with small brown dots, darkest on spinous dorsal, which also has black blotches 
between third and fifth spines at tip of fin and at the base; on caudal fin the dots form three irregular 
bands. This species ia mottled somewhat as in Jpogonichihys mai-raoralus, but is without opercular spot. 

One specimen, type, no. 51734, U. S. National Museum, from Apia, length 1.20 inches. Named 
for the fisherman Vaiula, of Apia. 

B. B. F. WO.T— 17 



250 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

APOGONICHTHYS Bleeker. Fii. 
Fowlrria Jordan i>i Kvermaiiii, Bull. U. 8. Fish Coiiini., xxii, 1902 (Apr. 11, 190;i), 180 (nnrUusK 
This genus is based on a species, Apugou nur'dm Cuvier & Valenciennes, which we have not seen. 
It is, however, very closely related to three Samoan species, with which it is doubtless congeneric. 
These species differ from the group called Foa in havinir no teeth on the palatine.*. In all of them tlien- 
is a large black ocellus on the opercle, an<l tlic hitrral line, althoufrli interrupted, shows rudinientaiy 
pores on the caudal peduncle, 
a. Opercle with a large ocellated black spot. 

b. Body mottled with dusky; fins all closely chequiTed; lower side of head chequered varicgatujs 

bb. Body deep red in life, with many pale cross-bands; fins faintly mottled; caudal blackish at tip viarmoratnit 

hhh. Body brown; a distinct black spot at base of many scales, forming lines; fins plain isoeticima 

511. Apog'oniclitliys variegatus (Valenciennes). Samoa; Tahiti; Yap; He de France. 

'Aiiaiiiin aiinlus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vn, 443, 1831, He de France; color plain, tins plain, nn 

opercular spot. 
Apogon I'ariega^MS Valenciennes, Ann.Sci. Nat., 1,1832, 55, lie de France; body and fins mottled: an opercular spot. 
Apogon auritus, Gunther, Fische der Sudsee, 23, Tahiti, Yap. Day, FishesoIIndia. Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
VII, 1877, 100, Samoa. Sauvage, Fish. Madagascar, 141, not plate. 
This species is common on the reefs about Samoa. We have ten examples from Apia and twenty 
from Pago Pago. It is well figured by Day as Apor/on auritus, but the original auritus is said to have 
the fins plain. There is a black opercular spot, and the body and fins are everywhere closely mottled 
with light and blackish. The vertical fins especially are finely marked, the pattern suggesting that of 
the fin.s of some gobies. 

This species may be tlie original Apor/ou auritus, but it can not be identified as that without 
comparison with the original type. Apogon punctuhdus of Riippell and A. polystigma of Bleeker may 
be the true aunVus. At any rate, the figures diverge widely from our fish. The description of .1. 
aaritns of Sauvage approaches it, but his figure looks much like Foa hracliy gramma. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, body everywhere much mottled, blackish, and gray; all the 
fins save the ventrals elaborately spotted and barred; jaws barred and mottled; a black ocellus on the 
opercle. 

Another specimen from Apia was dirty olive-brown; opercle with a black pale-edged ocellus, very 
large and conspicuous, fins all much like the bodv, brown and mottled, caudal rounded. 




512. Apogonichtliys marmoratus (Alleyne & JNIacleay). Fo unmiu (red). Samoa; North 
.\ustialia. 
Apugonichthijs marmoratus Alleyne & Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1876, 2ii.s, pi. v, lis.'. 'J, Cape Grenville 
(North Australia). 
Of this species, distinguished by its clear red color, black ojjercular spot, and the Ijody covered 
with pale crossbands, we have three specimens from Pago P;igo, and ten from Apia. It is well sepa- 
rated from Apogonichthys variegatus. The little figure given bx- .\lle.\ne and Macleay is characteristic. 



^ES OF SAMOA. 



251 



life colors of one specimen irom Pago Pago, light clear brownish red, the ground-color forming 
about nine distinct crossbars on the body, about twice as broad as the pale olive interspaces; head 
mottled; a large black spot on opercle, washed with golden and surrounded by a golden ring, this spot 
two-thirds diameter of eye and covering most of the bone; fins all very bright cardinal red, the caudal 
with an irregular black shade at tip. Caudal rounded. Length 2J inches. 
513. Apogonichthys isostigma Jordan & Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Head l'..=i-"i in length; depth 3; eye 4 in head; snout equal to eye; dorsal vn-i, 9; anal ii, 8; scales 
L'-22-ti, the lateral line interrupted; interorbital less than snout, 1.75 in orbit. 

Body oblong, compressed, scaled, tlie scales covering cheeks and opercles; depth of caudal pedun- 
cle 1.30 in its length; mouth large, the lower jaw slightly the shorter; maxillary 2 in head, its distal end 
under posterior margin of orbit, the distal width being greater than pupil; teeth in villiform bands 
on jaws and vomer, no teeth on palatines; opercle entire; preopercle apparently entire, but with a few 
slight serrations at angle hidden under the skin; gillrakers short, the longest 2 in pupil, blunt, ending 
in a prickly knob, 7 developed on lower limb; base of spinous dorsal equal to its height, which is 2.10 
in length of head; base of soft dorsal 1.50 in its longest i^ay, which is 2 in head; ventrals do not reach 
to the anal, their length 1.75 in head, their insertion directly below base of pectoral; pectoral 1.50 in 
head, terminating at the seventh round black spot on side; caudal rounded, 1.40 in head. 




Fig. 4rt, — Apogonichthys -isostif/ma Jordan & Seale, 



Type. 



Color in spirits, light brown, with about five rows of distinct round dots fonuing the center of 
scales along the sides, two of these lines w^ith their origin at axil of pectoral and extending to caudal, 
one with its origin at posterior tip of opercle and extending to caudal, the other two usually extending 
from near middle of fish to caudal (very old examples show a few other scattered dots over the body); 
a large, black, white-edged spot on opercle, a more or less distinct dusky area extending from eye back 
to this spot; a narrow black line from lower part of orbit across cheek; top of head and snout dusky, 
a narrow dark line across opercle just above the black spot; all the fins except pectorals have a wash 
of dusky, the caudal briiiL' :iliii.»t bhick: p.-ctoral \.-IIm\\ i.-li white. 

Life colors of one >iii'(iiiH 11 [.lain.l.iik Ki. .u n.i a. Ii -ralrw ith a darker spot, these forming dark streaks 
along scales, but no iiiarbliu'j-^; laiLic (i|.cri-nlar ..eel I us with a {;olden edge; fins dark brown, unspotted. 

This species has the large opercular ocellus found in Apogonichthi/s nnritus, pobjslirjnia, variegatus 
anil marmoratus. The body is, however, marked with large distinct spots, about one on each scale, 
arranged in regular lines; the fins are dusky but unspotted, and there is an oblique dark line below 
and Vjehind the eye. 

The species is nea.reat Apogoniclith i/s poli/sligma Bleeker, but it does not seem to agree witli Bleeker's 
account. It is not unlikely that Bleeker's fish is the original Apogon cniriliis. It is certainly different 
from A /inijonichthys variegatus. Apogon aurilus Seale (Bishop Mus. 1901, 76) from Guam, must be the 
present species. , 

Nine specimens from Apia. The type is no. 51736, tf. S. National Museum, and is 2.67 inches long. 



252 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

ARCHAMIA Gill. 

514. Archamia lineolata (Ehrenberg). Fn. Samoa; Vanicoln; Kast Indies. (PL xx.wiii, fig. 1. ) 
Apugon tineolatus Ehrenberg in Cuvier«fe Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ii, 160, 1828, Red Sea. (.Anal ii, 14.) 
Apoijon macroptcrus Kuhl & Van Hasselt in Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., II, 160, Java. (Anal ii, 13.) 
Apogon ceytonicus Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., iii, 491, Ceylon. {Anal ii, 13.) 

Apogon argenteus Valenciennes, Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. 1832, 60. Vanicolo. (Anal ii, 14.) 
Apogon /ucatus Cantor, Cat. Malay., 4, 1850, Penang. (Anal ii, ir,.) 
Apogon noUvtus Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, 936, Madras. (Anal ii, K. ) 

This species is very abundant about the reefs of Samoa. We have about twenty .specimens from 
Pago Pago and forty from Apia. We find no specimens with fewer than 16 soft rays in the anal fin. 
Possibly two species (fucalus and lineolatus) have been confounded, the latter with fewer rays. 

The species is subject to considerable variation. The delicate orange cross-streaks characteristic 
in life mostly fade in spirits. Only in the very largest specimens is a large black scapularspot distinct; 
usually there is no trace of it. In some specimens there is a round black spot at base of caudal; in 
most there is only a diffuse black blotch or cluster of black points. In some the sides of the hea<l 
are profusely speckled, in others clear silvery. All show a faint silvery horizontal streak just before 
and just behind eye. In all the body is deep, but there is considerable variation. The variations in 
color are somewhat parallel with those in Amia savayemis. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, light soiled pinkish olive, with many dark specks; sides 
silvery; body with 18 narrow curved cross-streaks of bronze orange. A large black blotch covering 
whole side of tail; scapular spot obsolete; fins all light rosy. Depth 2.25 to 2.50 in length. 

Another specimen from Apia was light clear pink; about 15 narrow curved cross-streaks of bright 
rosy, some golden on cheek; a blackisli stripe across eye and cheek; a round black spot on scapular 
region, and a larger and blacker one ou tail at middk' of ba.se of caudal; fins all rosy, the caudal dusky 
shaded; iris golden, before and behind. 

PARAMIA Bleeker. 

{(•)irilo,lij)tn-vs Cuvier A V;d.>nriennc.>-; not of Laci'pcde. ) 

515. Paramia quinquelineata (Cuvier et Valenciennes). M<iUt nliuU. Samoa; New Guinea; Raia- 

tea and Nukahiva (Scale) 

Tliis species is abundant about Samoa. We liaye about 40 exanijiles from Apia and Pago Pago. 
The species is known at once by the black streaks, about 5 in numl)er, which do not quite reach a 
black caudal spot which is in the center of a golden area. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, brownish, with about 5 stripes of black; a yellow ocellus 
around a black spot at the base of caudal. 

A specimen from Apia was translucent olive; a round jet black spot at base of caudal with a l)road 
golden yellow border; six black stripes along side; fins dirty translucent, the dorsal darker in front; 
ventral pinkish; no other red. 

516. Paramia macrodon (Lacepede). Tiiganini. New Guinea (Macleay); Samoa; East Indies. 
(Chriluiliptcnts octoritlalus Cuvier & Valenciennes.) 

This large species, reaching a length of eight inches, is rather common at Samoa. We have aljout 
twenty specimens from Apia and Samoa. It is known by the diffuse black caudal blotch and by the 
presence of about eight dark stripes on each side. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, pale translucent olive; with 7 to 9 streaks of soiled bronze, 
as wide as interspaces, the middle stripes plainer; one on middle line before dorsal; 7.on head besides 
a black band through eye; a broad diffuse black bar at base of caudal; fins all reddish, dusky shaded. 

A larger example shows the streaks but faintly; first donsal and ventrals tipped with black; 
caudal irregularly black-edged. 

517. Paramia truncata (Giinther). Misol. 
Cliiilodipterus iruncalus Giinther, Cruise Curafao, 187J. 4I^, Misol. 

SYNAGROPS Gunther. 

518. Synag:rops argyrea ( (Gilbert ). Deep ^eas of Hawaii. 



thp: fishes ok samoa. 253 

Family AMHASSID^. 
AMBASSIS Lac^pede. 
. I jniassis Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ii, 1829 [ambassix) . 

Tlie generic name Cluinda has priority over Ambasm, as Cantor and Waite have recognized, but 
Fowler, the first reviser of Chandn, has made its type identical with the type of Bleeker's genus 
['■•^eudainbassis. Pending a final agreement on the rule of nomenclature governing this case, we may 
follow Fowler's arrangement. 

Ambaasis, or Chandn, is characterized among related genera by the serrated preorbital, small teeth, 
large scales, complete lateral line, and the presence of about ten rays in the dorsal fin. A procumbent 
dorsal spine is always present, but in the Samoan species it is very small and concealed in the flesh. 
The weakness of this spine defines the genus Pseudoambcuisis of Castelnau, a group which we think 
in.separable from Ambassi.i. Pseudainbassis of Bleeker is apparently a valid genus, with long anal fin 
and small scales. Priopis Kuhl & Van Hasselt differs from Aspro in the interrupted lateral line. 

Hamilton-Buchanan's Chanda (orala=nnma) , which is the same as Bogoda Bleeker, is character- 
ized by the uninterrupted lateral line, small scales, and strong curved canines. Parambaasis Bleeker, 
with canine teeth and a short anal fin, is apparently a valid genus. 
519. Ambassis lafa Jordan & Seale, new species. Lafa. Samoa. 

Head 2.60 in length; depth equal to heail; eye 3.45 in head; snout 5; dorsal vn, i, 10; anal in, 11, 
<cales 3-31-6; interorbital 4. 




Fig. K.—Aiidiassis laja Jordan & Scalu, new species. Type. 

Body oblong, compressed, slightly elevated; profile of head slightly comave over eye; bodv, 
opercles, and cheeks scaled; mouth rather large; maxillary 2.75 in head, its distal end under anterior 
margin of pupil; lower jaw slightly the longer, minute villiform teeth in jaw, vomer and palatines, 
the inner row in jaws depressible, tongue smooth; gillrakers pointed, equal to width of pupil, 20 on 
lower limb; opercle entiie; preopercle with flat spine at angle and the lower limb only serrated, the 
outer limb strongly denticulate below; depth of caudal peduncle greater than length of maxillary, 2.25 
in head; second upright dorsal spine the longest and strongest, 1.50 in head; connection of soft with 
spinous dorsal very narrow, less thamwidth of pupil; spine of soft dorsal 2.25 in head, the longest ray 
2 in head; base of anal equal to distance from middle of eye to posterior tip of opercle, its longest ray 
equal to longest ray of dorsal; pectoral equal to distance from anterior of eye to posterior tip of opercle; 
ventral equal to base of anal; length of third anal spine 2.30 in head, the second but little shorter, the 
first very small; caudal deeply forked, its lobes about equal to head; the ventrals are slightly in 
advance of base of pectorals. Lateral line continuous. 

Color in life yellowish white, darker above, the margins of each scale being shaded with minute 
brown dots; a dark line from base of caudal along median line of body, fading out near the oper- 
cle; tip of snout, upper part of snout, interorbital, and upper half of eye dusky; dusky shading 



254 BULLETIN OF THK BUREAI' OF FISHERIES. 

oil first web of spinous dorsal; all the flns more or less punetulate with minute brown dots like pin 
points; opcrcle gilt; lower half of eye golden yellow; darker shadings along base of dorsal and anal, 
and a dusky line on under side of nandal peduncle, more distinct in the young, in which the line 
(Extends along the belly. 

Color in life of a specimen from fresh water at mouth of Vaisigano River, Apia, olive, sides silvery, 
with a silvery lateral stripe; scales all dark-edged; fins dirty olive, with no trace of red markings, 
except that front of spinous dorsal is marked with dull orange. 

This species is very abundant in the lower waters of the Vaisigano Kiver ami other streams of 
Upolu. We have upwards of a hundred specimens. The spinous dor.-al is high, the spine reaching 
middle of second dorsal. 

Type no. 51818, U. S. National Museum, a specimen 3.69 im-lies long, fmm near mouth of Vaisi- 
gano River, Apia. 

520. Ambassis vaivasensis Ionian k Scale, new species. Lafn. Samoa. 

Ilca.l L'.7.'> in length; .U ptli Kjudl t(i heul e\ e 3 10 in head; dorsal vii-i, 9; anal ni, 9; scales 
2-27-5; interorbital 4; snout I id m i \( 




Fig. 47 — AmlHtsnis I'nivasensls Jordan & Scale, new species. Type. 

Body oblong, compressed, scarcely elevated, the scales of moderate size, covering opercles and 
cheeks; mouth large; profile of head slightly concave over middle of eye; maxillary 2.75 in head, its 
distal end under anterior margin of pupil; lower jaw slightly the longer; bands of villiform teeth in 
jaws, vomer and palatines, the inner series in jaws depressible; gillrakers rather slim, sharp-pointed, 
longest equal to pupil, 24 on lower limb; opercle entire, ending in a sharp-pointed flaj); preopercle 
with flat spine at angle and denticulated on its lower limb; lower margin of outer limb of preopercle 
toothed; depth of caudal peduncle equal to length of maxillary; second (upright) spine of dorsal the 
longest and very strong, 1.40 in head; connection of soft with spinous dorsal very narrow, about one- 
half width of pupil; spine of second dorsal 2 in head, the longest ray 1.75; caudal deeply forked, the 
lobes pointed, the longest ray 2.50 in length; base of anal equal to distance from middle of eye to 
posterior tip of opercle, its longest ray equal to longest ray of dqrsal; of the three anal spines the first 
is very short, the second is long, 2 in head, the third is the longest, 1.80; pectoral reaching to a line 
with second dorsal ray, 3 in total length; base of ventrals directly over base of pectorals, length 
1.50 in head; lateral line continuous. 

Color in spirits, yellowish wdiite, the back and upper part of sides slightly shaded with minute 
punctulations of brown; a silvery band along the median line of side from posterior margin of opercle 
to caudal, the band becoming more distinct posteriorly with a slight shading of brown; tip and first 
membrane of spinous dorsal shaded with dusky; base of caudal with slight shading of dusky, other 
fins white without markings; opercles gilt; upper part of orbit and eye dusky, lower part golden. 
The side is marked by a silvery streak with no caudal spot or crossbar. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. - 255 

This species is rather common in tlie Vaisigaiio, Vaivafo, and other streams of I'pohi. 
Thirty-one specimens from Apia, Samoa. Tlie type is no. .■>1819, U. S. National Mnsenni. fniia 
Vaivase River, Apia; length 2.50 inches. 

521. Ambassis miops Giinther. Rarotonga. 

A'libassis miops Gunther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871. 655, streams of Rarotonga. 

522. Ambassis gigas (Ramsay & Ogilby). Streams of New (ininea. 
Amhnssis ffigas Ramsey <Si Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1.S86, ',i, New Guinea. 

523. Ambassis macracanthus (Bloeker). Streams of New Guhiea (.Macleay) ; .Java. 

PRIOPIS Kuhl & Van Hasselt. 

524. Priopis papueusis (Alleyne & Macleay). Streams of New (iiiinea. 
Amtiassis jiaptimsis Alleyne & Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. \V. 1876, 267. 

525. Priopis agrammus (Gunther). New Guinea (Ramsay ct Ogilljy); North Australia. 
Amliassisiifframmus Ciinthor, .\nn. .Mag. Nat. Hist. 1S67, .57, Cape York. 

TETKACENTRUM Macleay. 

Dorsal lin coiitiiiuims; anal spines four. Otherwise resembhng ,1mm {Apogon). 

526. Tetracentrum apogonoides Macleay. Streams of New tiuinea. 
Tclraecntriim apot/ouoides Macleay, Proc. Linn. 8oc. .\. S. W. 18S:i, •.',56, Goldie R. i.New Guinea i. 

Family KUHLI1D.€. 

KUHLIA Gill. 

527. Kuhlia rupestris (Lacepede). Seseli'. Sanma; Guam; Vanicolo; Fiji; Tonga; RodrigUfz: 

Futuna; New Hebrides; Molicolo; New Guinea; Solomon Is.; Caroline Is.; Palau Is.; New 
Caledonia; East Indies. 

This species, which closely resembles the American black bass in form and habits, is very common 
in all the rivers of Samoa, where it reaches a weight of 5 or 6 pounds. Many specimens were taken, 
most of them from the deep swimming-pool in the Vaisigano River above Apia. 

528. Ktihlia marginata (Cuvier & Valenciennes). SaMi: Fiji; Tahiti; Samoa; GillxTt Is.; 

Papua; Bonham I.; Misol; East Indies. 
This species is found in the river mouths of Samoa, about a liozen specimens, mostly small, being 
taken in the Vaisigano River at Apia. 

529. Kulilia urvillii Boulenger. South Pacific; locality unknown. 

530. Kuhlia male (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; Tahiti; Tubuai; Paumotu Is. (Scale); Fiji; 

Rodriguez; Laysan. 

531. Kuhlia tseniura (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Safole. Samoa; Johnston I.; Marcus L; Tubuai; 

Paumotu Is.; and Tahiti (Scale); East Indies; Galapagos Is. 
This species, unlike the others of the genus, never enters fresh water, nor is it found about the 
reefs. It frequents the "iron-bound," or lava, coast in rather deep water. Our specimens, about a 
dozen in number, were taken on the northwest shore of Tutuila, opposite Pago Pago. 

532. Kuhlia caudovittata (Lacepede). Tahiti. 

•Family SEKKAMI>.-E. 
PLECTROPOMDS (Cuvier) Oken. (ImUs Cawkt &. Valenciennes.) 

533. Plectropom".s calearifer I'.lochi. Now Guinea (Macleay); Australia. 

PIKEA Steindachner. 

534. Pikea aurora .Jordan i>i Kvermann. Hawaii. 



BULLETIN OF THK BUREAU 



CHORISTISTIUM Poey. 



This genus has liecii hithi'rto known from a single species taken by Poey in C'lilta, and named 
VlKiriMiMium rubrum. The discovery of a second species is most interesting. 

535. Chorististium susumi Jordan & Seale, new species. Susuumi. Samoa. 

Head 2.55 in length; depth 3.40; eye 4.50 in head; dorsal vi-i, 10; anal in, .S; scales :-!-49-ll; inter- 
orbital equal to eye. 

Body elongate, compressed; scales of moderate size, striated and ciliateil, entirely covering head 
and body; lateral line strongly curved, the straight portion 2 in curved; .«nout rather wide but acute; 
the lowrr j:n\ sli-htly the longer; maxillary 2.40 in head, extending to posterior third of eye; a distinct 
jjiipiiliiii. iiUil Ixiiic; mouth large, with broad bands of villiform teeth in jaws, vomer and palatines, tin- 
inner rn\v in jaws slightly longer and depressible; no teeth on tongue; gillrakers equal to one-half eye, 
y.i on lower limb; longe.st si)ine of dorsal 2.75 in head; distance between last dorsal spine and origin 
..f soft dor.sal 4.50 in head; base of soft dorsal equal to depth of caudal peduncle, its margin somewhat 
rounded, its longest ray 2 in head; caudal bilobed, its longest ray 2 in head; base of anal equal to 







jrdan & Seale, new species. Type. 

longest (2nd) anal spine; its longest ray 2.10 in head; pectoral equal to distance from middle of eye to 
posterior margin of opercle; ventrals inserted directly below the base of pectorals, their length 1.55 
in head; opercle armed with three flat spines, the two lower ones closest together; preopercle slightly 
serrate. 

Color in spirits, light brown, with seven longitudinal lines of deeper brown on sides; four of these 
lines arise from posterior margin of orbit and extend to or near base of caudal; the remaining three 
seem to arise at margin of opercles and extend about to a line with axis of soft dorsal; fins all uniform 
yellowish white. 

Life colors of one specimen Iroin Apia, dark brow'ii suffused with red, redder below and behind; 
about seven olive-red stripes, very dark on boily, these not extending much on head; fins all plain 
bright cherry red. 

Two specimens from the reef at .\pia. The Ivjie is no. 517.i8, I'. .S. National Museum, .!. 10 inches 
long. 

CENTROGENYS Richardson. 

536. Centrogenys -waig-iensis (Quoy tV; (iaimard ). New (lumea; Australia; Kast Indies. 

PARACANTHISTITJS Sleeker. 
( I'lifinipoiiKi lioulenger, not les Plectropomes of Cuvier = Plectropumus Oken. ) 

537. Paracanthistius maculatus (Bloch). Samoa, Louisiades; Fiji; Palau Js.; New Guinea 

(IMacleay); Fat(5 (Seale). 
One large examjile taken at Apia. It belongs to the form called leopardus, the body covered with 
round blue dark-edged spots, none of them elongate. This is apparently not specifically distinct from 
the true mdciildliis, in which these spots are larger, some ot them oblong or elongate. 

538. Paracanthistius ollgacantlius (Bleeker). Caroline Is. ; East Indies. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 257 

ANYPERODON Gunther. 

539. Anyperodon leucogrammicus (t'uvier & Valeiifieimes). Galala aleva. Samoa; Poiiapc; 

Caroline Is.; New Hebrides; New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 
Of this handsome species, 7 adult specimens were taken at Apia. Life colors of one of these, clear 
olive-green, with 4 faint interrupted stripes of white, the second and third widened and distinct at 
intervals, forming 2 white spots on side; lowest stripe very distinct across cheek; side with about 8 
rows of bright orange-brown spots, not ocellated or reticulated; head with smaller spots; lower parts 
of head coppery red; spinous dorsal olive with 3 rows of large orange spots; second dorsal, anal, ami 
caudal green, dorsal and anal with a spot at base of each ray; pectoral pale olive; ventral dusky olive, 
both unspotted. Body elongate; caudal rounded; teeth in 2 rows below. 

VARIOLA Swainson. 

540. Variola louti (Forskal). I'n inaiuiin. Tahiti; Samoa; Paumotu Is.; New Helirides; Solomon 

Is.; Marshall Is.; Fate (Scale). 

Of this beautiful and widely diffused species, 10 specimens of different sizes were taken at Apia 
and Pago Pago. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, greenish above, rosy below; upper spots clear violet; 
lower lateral spots cherry-red; crimson on tail, the edges of spots dark, the spots largely lake; dorsal 
deep red, with spots of violet and lake; caudal similar, similarly golden behind; pectoral purplish, 
])ale golden behind, violet spotted at base; ventral clear red, red spotted at base, tinged with golden 
at tip; spots arranged in lines, the lateral spots oblong. 

541. Variola flavimarginata ( Riippell ) . Samoa; East Indies. 

Seiraniis fiiirimarrjmatiis Riippell, .\tlas Rothen Meeres, 109, 182S, Red Sea. 

Varinhi riarimaniinala. Bleeker, Verh. Ak. Amst., iv. 9, 1873, East Indies. Bleeker, .\tlns Ichth., vn, 2S, tab. 

cci..x.\.\ix,fig. 1. 
Serranu^ metanoUeiiia Bleeker, Act. Soc. Sci. Ind. Ned., ii, 1857, Amboina. 
Of this rare species, overlooked by Dr. Boulenger, we have one line specimen from Apia. It has 
the general form of Variola louti, but a very different coloration, there being a broad black band along 
the upper part of the side. 




^ 



Fir,. 49.— I'arioto flayimarrjinnta iRiippell). 

Life colors, ground-color pinkish salmon, whiter region behind pectoral; a velvet blackish longi- 
tudinal band, side above brownish salmon; spots whitish below and posteriorly; elsewhere purple-pink 
with lake border. 

' CEPHALOPHOLIS Bloch & Schneider. 

This genus, as here understood, differs from Epincphdaf in having but 9 dorsal spines. There is 
considerable difference among the species in the form of the skull, but in this regard few of the Pacific 
species have been examined. It here includes Enneacentrus and Petrometopon of Gill, Menephonm of 
Poey, and Bodianus Cuvier (not of Bloch). 



258 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

542. Cephalopholis argus (Bloch). Galula moana (blue spotted); Gutala nli; Valania. Samoa; 

Hawaii; Borabora; New Guinea; Marquesas Is.; Papua; New Britain; Tahiti; Tubuai and 

Karotonga (Seale); East Indies. 
Common about the reefs of Samoa. Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, dark gray all over, 
with evenly disposed rather pale-blue spots with blackish edge; caudal with narrow white margin: 
dorsal with very narrow white margin on posterior half; pectoral paler than body. 

543. Cephalopholis miniatus (Forskal). Samoa ( Boulenger) ; Apamana; New (iuinea ( Macleay ); 

New Britain (Peters); Shortland Is. (Seale). 

544. Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch). New Guinea (Macleay). 

545. Cephalopholis urodelus (Forster). Mittn'iJi.. Tahiti; King.sniill Is.; Harvey Is.; Paumotu 

Is.; Samoa; Solomon Is. ; New Guinea; Uene, Society Is. ; Misol; New Hebrides; Micronesia; 
Fanning Is.; Funafuti, Ellice la.; Mangareva (Seale); East Indies. 

Of this handsome species, 4 specimens were taken at Apia. Life colors of one, deep brick-red, 
darker olivaceous on back, the posterior parts almost black, the belly and sides paler and brighter 
red; head closely covered on sides with vermilion spots, the ground-color forming reticulations around 
them; body spotted with small vermilion spots which are sparse and show faintly on the ground- 
color; opercular flap olivaceous; dorsal dark red, the edge bright red, the narrow margin dusky; anal 
similar but brighter, with broader margins; traces of vermilion spots; caudal red-black, very dark, 
with two white cross-bands, converging behind, cutting off the dusky red corners; ventral vermilion 
with a dark edge; pectoral vermilion at base, then blackish, the edge broadly dull orange. 

Another specimen was brown, with yellow-greenish tinge; dorsal with two yellow-white spaces 
interrupting brown, and with posterior third with yellow white edge; caudal with angulated trans- 
verse yellow white bar, also narrower terminal bar yellow white; anal with one yellow white blotch; 
ventral blackish brown; pectoral yellow white with brown blotch at base and two weakly indicated 
Ijrownish cross-bands; sides of body and head with creamy white blotches. 

546. Cephalopholis leopardus (Lac^pede). Gatahiuli. Samoa; Tahiti; Louisiades. 

f_)f this species, 8 specimens were taken at Apia. Life colors of one of these, dark olive, with 
round .scarlet spots on side; a black opercular spot; a black spot on tail below axil of dorsal, a smaller 
one behind it; dorsal reddish olive, with a scarlet margin; caudal with deep red convergent bands, a 
yellow stripe within each, the outer margin whitish; anal mottled red and bluish with a broad scarlet 
l)and and grayish edge; pectoral orange; ventral red; lips cream and olive mottled, reddish within. 

547. Cephalopholis aurantius (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Ireland; Louisiades; East Indies. 

548. Cephalopholis sexmaculatus (Riippell). Tahiti; Paumotu Is. 

549. Cephalopholis sonnerati (Cuvier i*c Valenciennes). Kingsmilll.; Patau Is. ; East Indies. 

EPINEPHELUS Bloch. 

550. Epinephelus merra lUocli. (lnUiln; 'Atn'tita jiiilqnih: Samoa; Marcus I.; New Ireland 

(Peters); Tahiti; Guam (Seale); Fiji; New Hebrides; Solomon Is.; New Guinea (Macleayl. 

This species is excessively common about the reefs of Samoa, the young living in every crevice, 
by far outnumbering all other species of this family. About 50 specimens were preserved. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, very dark olive-brown, the ground-color reduced to hexag- 
onal spots surrounded by whitish olive reticulations, which are broader and clearer below; spots on 
head smaller; fins all similarly marked; edge of dorsal dusky, with a paler streak below. Gill- 
rakers 12. 

Another specimen from Apia was olivaceous, dark above, the spots dull orange with darker 
centers; those on dorsal more orange, the interspaces grayish olive; maxillary, branchiostegals, and 
belly also spotted. Gill-rakers 12. 

551. Epinephelus stellans (Richardson). Samoa; East Indies. 

Of tins species, apparently distinguished from Epinephelus merra by the presence of small white 
spots scattered over the body, among the larger dark ones, we have 3 examples from Samoa. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 259 

552. Epinephelus daemeli ((Tunther). 'Uo'uo. Guam; SaiiKia: .N'nrfnlkl.; New (iiiinea; Sciluiiniii 

Is. (Si-alf); Australia. 

Of this species we liave two large specimens from Apia. Life colors of one, very dark olive with 
many fine brown spots, gray reticulations around them on cheeks and jaws; five black irregular 
l)lotches on back, and two balow it; one blotch on back of tail; fins all mottled and barred obscurely, 
reddish brown, olive and black. Ten gill-raker.s. 

The other specimen was olive-gray, closely covered with small dark brown spots which arc larjror 
l)clow; a large black blotch on back of tail; fins all dusky, all spotted like the body, pectoral paler. 

553. Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forskal). Samoa; .Marshall Is.; Tonga; (Ireeinvieh Is.; Xew 

(iuinea (^Macleay, as Sermnus microdon); East Indies. 

Of this species, we have 6 specimens, large and small, from .\pia. They agree fairly with 
Rleeker's plate. 

Life colors of one specimen, olive, rather ]ial<', with rouml lirown spots which are narrower than 
the interspaces; a dark brown nioustaelie liehind the maxillary; upper Jaw spotted; a black saddle cm 
caudal peduncle; dorsal, caudal, and Ik i^l ~|i..tt.d like body; caudal dusky behind with whitish eilge; 
anal similar, le.ss spotted; ventral siniiiar; caudal with smaller spots. Gill-rakers 12; preopercle 
roundeil, feebly notched and sjiined. 

554. Epinephelus corallicola (CuvierA Valenciennes). Samoa; ilortlock Is.; Caroline Is.; (ireen- 

wich I.; Howland I.; New Guinea (Macleay). 

Of this species, we have one example from Apia. It agrees fairly with (niiither's tigure of 
Serranus hmvkmdi. 

Life colors, margin of caudal bright golden yellow, pectoral with margin weakly orange yellow, 
liody with flesh-brown polygonal blotches. 

555. Epinephelus macrocephalus (Lacepcde). Kingsmill I.; Mortlock Ls. ; I'onape: Rodriguez; 

East Indies; New (iuinea (Macleay). 

556. Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch). Samoa; Papua; Marshall Is.; Caroline Is.; Shorthiud I.; 

Paumotu Is. (Scale). 

Of this well-marked species, we have one young example from Apia. 

557. Epinephelus fasciatus (Forskal). Louisiades; Tahiti; Paumotu Is.; New Britain; Ponhani 

I.; New Guinea; Mangareva (Seale) ; Japan; East Indies. 

558. Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tonga; East Indies. 

559. Epinephelus australis (Castelnau). New Britain (Boulenger) ; Australia. 

560. Epinephelus pachycentron (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Louisiailes; East Indies. 

561. Epinephelus summana (Forskal). Caroline Is.; New Guinea; Shortland I. (Seale); East 

Indies. 

562. Epinephelus megachir (Richardson). Louisiades; New (Juinea (.Vlleyne & Macleav as 

Srrrinmn alatuK); East Indies. 

563. Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Louisiades; East Indies. 

564. Epinephelus tauvina (Forskal). Louisiades; Ponape; Palauls. ; East Indies. 

565. Epinephelus quernus Seale. Hawaii. 

566. Epinephelus undulosus ((juoy & Gaimard). Misol; Shortland I. (Seale); East Indies. 

567. Epinephelus spiniger (Giinther). Marcus I. (Bryan efe Herre, Bishop Mus., ii, IDO.S, 129). 

568. Epinephelus cseruleopunctatus (ISloih). New Britain (Peters); East Indies. 

569. Epinephelus socialis (Giinther). Tahiti; Kingsmill I.; Paumotu Is. ; Samoa (Boulenger). 
We did not tind this species, recorded from Samoa by Dr. Boulenger. 



2<U) BULLETIN OF THE BUKEAU OF FISHERIES. 

570. Epinephelus magnificus (Macleay). New Guinea. 

S,rranus magnifirus Macleay, Proc'. Linn. Soc. N. S. \V. If83, Tl'i. New Guinea. 

571. Epinephelus albopunctatus (Boulenger). Marquesas Is. 

572. Epinephelus goldiei (Macleay). New Guinea; New Caledonia. 

Herranus iioldiei Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1883, 221;, New Guinea. 

ODONTANTHIAS Bleeker. 
073. Odontanthias fuscipinnis (.Jenkins ;. Hawaii. 

FSEUDANTHIAS Bleeker. 

574. Pseudanthias kelloggi (.Ionian & Evermann). Hawaii. 

575. Pseudanthias hypselosomus (Bleeker). New Guinea. 

576. Pseudanthias mortoni ( Macleay) . New Guinea. 

Aiilliiasmortoni Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1883, 263, Moresby I. i New Guinea). 

ANTHIAS Bloch. 

577. Anthias manadensis Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

578. Anthias cheirospilos Bleeker. New (iuinea (Macleay) ; East Indies. 

CAPRODON Schlegel. 

579. Caprodon schlegeli (Tiinther. Hawaii; Japan. 

GRAMMISTES Bloch & Schneider. 

580. Grammistes sexlineatus (Thunberg). Samoa; Taliiti; Solomon Is.; New Guinea; New 

Hebrides; Kingsniill I.; Marquesas Is. (Seale). (PL xx.xviii, flg. 2.) 

Two specimens from .Apia. Life colors of one of these, black with 7 irregular stripes of pale 
golden yellow; fins all dull reddish, the first dorsal dusky, the rest pale. 

POOONOFEKCA Gunther. 

581. Pog-onoperca ocellata Gimther. Taliiti; .Misol; East Indies. 

PHAROPTERYX Rtippell. 

Pleniops Cuvier, Regne Animal, 11, 2t!6, LSI", repeated in 2d ed., 1828. (No type; no species 

known at that time. ) 
Plesiops Oken, Isis, 1182, 1817; name only, after Cuvier. 
Pharopteryx Riippell, Atlas, 15, 1828 {nigricans). 
Pledops Giinther, Cat., in, 363, 1861 {nigricans). 
The name Plesiops, without specified type or reference to any species, no species of the genus 
having been described at the time, should apparently give place to Pharopteryx. 

582. Pharopteryx nigricans Riippell. Samoa; Tahiti; Tonga; Palau Is.; Gilbert Is.; Fiji; Solo- 

mon Is. (Seale. ) 
Pharopteryx nigricans Riippell, Atlas, 1,5, pi. iv, fig. 2, 18JS, Red Sea. 
Plesiops nigricans RiXppeU. N. W. Fische. 5, 1835. Bleeker, .\tlas Ich., i.K. tab. cccxc, Hg. 3. Guntlier, Cnt.,iir, 3ti3, 

Red Sea. 
Plesiops cmruleotineatus Ruppell, N. W. Fische, 5, 183,i, Red Sea. 
Plesiops corallirola Bleeker, Nat. Tijds. Ned. Ind., iv, l.S.W, 2ho. Giinther, Fische der Siidsec, 87, taf. Sn, fig, b, Tahiti, 

Tonga, Palan, Gilbert Is. 
Plesiop.^ nigricans Boulenger, Cat.. I, 340, Zanzibar, Ceylon, China, .\ndaman.s, Sumatra, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa 
Micronesia. 
This species is very abundant in the reefs of Apia and Pago Pago. About 100 specimens were 
tiiken in the tide pools. Life colors of a specimen from Apia, black; head with sky-blue spots; a 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 261 

black ocellus on opercle, with orange below it; fins all black; dopsal and caudal edged with white; 
pectoral broadly edged with scarlet. Some (male) with sky blue spots in center of opercular ocellus, 
and a sky-blue stripe along middle of dorsal and anal. Some with blue spots along whole of body. 

583. Pharopteryx melas (Bleeker). Samoa; Savay; Kandavu; East Indies. (PI. xx.xviii, fig. .3.) 
Plisinps mdas Bleeker, Bali. 1849, 9, Bali. 

Plcsiop.i iiiffricans var. apoda Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1868, 54, Savay, Kandavu. 

This species is very common in the tide pools on the reefs of Upolu and Tutuila. It is almost as 
common as I'luiroptenjx nigricans, but it never reaches as large a size as that species. About 60 speci- 
mens were taken. In life it is well distinguished by the broad scarlet edge of the spinous dorsal fin. 
The body is without blue spots or lines and there are always 11 dorsal spines, while 12 are present in 
all our specimens of P. nigricans. This leaves no doubt that P. apoda of Kner, based on a specimen 
which had lost the ventral fins, is our species, but fortunately the well-chosen name given by Bleeker 
is earlier. 

Bieeker's description of Plesiops melas evidently belongs to this species, and not to Pharopteryx 
nigricans. He finds .\i, 8 dorsal rays, and the color is diagnostic: "Corpore pinnisque omnibus 
nigerrimo macuUs vel vittis nulla; membrana pinnaj dorsalis spinosaj partic superiore tantum pellu- 
cida." This clear margin to the dorsal is, however, in life flame red. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, dark, blackish brown to black; the whitish sides finely 
spotted with black; dorsal with bright brick-red margin, then clear white, then broad dark-l>rinvn 
liase, with bhie line and posteriorly several short blue linear spots; caudal with orange-yellow sul)- 
niarginal band; blue lines in anal; ventral and pectoral pale smoky. In some specimens the caudal is 
lilack, or ha,s a dull orange intramarginal band. 

Another specimen from the same locality was black, first dorsal scarlet, edged with blue stripes 
on black below. 

A specimen from Apia was black, iris and edge of dorsal spines scarlet; no opercular spot. 

A third specimen from Pago Pago was all lilack, no ocellus; first dorsal edged with scarlet, a white 
line below it; second dorsal and caudal not ])ale-edtred ; jiecforal all black. 

GRAMMATONOTDS Gilbert. 

584. Granimatonotus laysanus Gilhert. Laysan. 

Family FK1.\C.\NTHID.4<:. 
PRIACANTHUS Cuvier. ( J/<»/i«mnir Forskal.) 

585. Priacanthus cruentatus (Lacepede). MaUi-pnln. Hawaii; Samoa; Tahiti; Caroline Is. ; .Tapaii; 

West Indies; Clarion Is. 

This species is common throughout the Pacific. It is rather common at A]iia, where about a <iozen 
specimens were taken. It is also found at Hawaii. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, bright light red, silvery on sides; fins niucli the same; 
dorsal, anal, and caudal with small round spots of deep red. 

586. Priacanthus alalaua J(ird;in & Evermann. Hawaii. 



587. Priacanthus hamruhr ( Fiirskal). New Guinea (Macleay); Solomon Is. (Scale); Japan; East 

Indies. 

588. Priacanthus meeki .Jenkins. Hawaii. 

Family LUTIANID^. 
LUTIANUS Bloch. ( Uobar Forskal. ) 

589. Lutianus kasmira (Forskal). Tahiti; Samoa; Fiji; Louisiades; New Ireland; Guam; Marcus 

I.; New Hebrides (Scale); East Indies. 
( lloioccntrus bengalensis Bloch, ) 

Two small specimens of this very widely distributed species were taken at Pago Pago. Life colors 
of one of these, bright light golden olive with four bright blue stripes, darker edge; fins like the body, 
paler at base; edge of spinous dorsal deep golden. 



262 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

590. Lutianus caeruleolineatus (Riippell). Marcus 1. (Bryan <k Herre); New (iuiiioa (^lacleay); 

I'^ast Indies'. , 

M'.sf.prion quimiuelineatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ii, 44.i; not ul Bloc-li. 

591. Lutianus gibbus (Forskal). Ti'ava; Mala'i; Mala'i pa'pae. Samoa; New Britain; Tahiti; 

New Ireland; Waigiu; Papua; Borabora (as Mesoprion horensis Cuvier & Valencienne.i); 
Solomon Is. and New Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 
{Ilolocentrus boutton Lac6p&de; Dtacope boUonentds Cuvier & Valenciennes.) 
Ten large examples were taken at Apia and Pago Pago. The species is easily known by tlie deep 
notch on the preopercle. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, dark olive green, the belly bright coppery red; each 
scale with a fine pale blue-green spot, these forming continuous lines; head mostly coj)pery red; 
caudal pidiiiiclc abruptly (obliquely) black behind dorsal; dorsal dark brown, the soft fin with white 
c.lu'c. 111!' -oft rays black at base; caudal black at base, golden at tip, with a maroon stripe in each 
lolir; anal luppiay red with a black submarginal shade and a white edge; ventral coppery red, with 
blackish shade; pectoral pale orange, the axil black. 

A specimen from Apia was olive above, very bright coppery red below; faint pale streaks along 
rows of scales; dorsal coppery red, dusky shaded at base, the edge yellow; anal dusky red, edged with 
whitish; ventral similar to anal; pectoral light orange-red. 

592. Lutianus bohar (Forsk&l). Mumea. Samoa; Tahiti; Paumotus; Solomon Is. (Seale); New 

Guinea (Macleay); Marcus I. ( Bryan & Herre ) ; Thornton I; (Fowler); East Indies. 

Two large examples were obtained at Pago Pago. This fish has the reputation of being always 
poisonous, the only species not Plectognath of which this statement is made. The two round pale 
spots below the dorsal fin are diagnostic. 

Life colors, deep brick red everywhere, blackish on back, each scale with a whitish vertical spot, 
these forming lines along the rows of scales which are very oblique above lateral line, horizontal 
below; a dark dash along maxillary and behind it (in one specimen only ) ; two rounded pale blotches 
along base of soft dorsal; dorsal blackish maroon, a narrow jjale edge; caudal dark maroon, a narrow 
dark edge (the lower'lobe longest, the fin deeply forked); anal darker red in front, with pale edge; 
pectoral deep red above and in axil, pale below; ventral mesially blackish red, pale edge. Dorsal x, 
i;;; anal iii, 8; scales 8-64; canines large. 

593. Lutianus bidens (Macleay). New Guinea. 

Cniijoroge bidens Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 18S3, 230, New Guinea. 

594. Lutianus argentimaculatus (Forskal). A'a; Xannc. Samoa; Kingsmill 1.; Xew Britain; 

New Guinea (Macleay). 
Mesuprion garretti Giinther, Fische der Siidsee, 1873, l.i, taf. 13, flg. B, Kingsmill I. 

Of this species four fine specimens were taken at Apia. The largest, known as a'a, is nearly 2 
feet in length. Two others still much larger were seen but not taken. The species bears a strong 
superficial resemblance to Lutinmis griseus of the Atlantic. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, olive, flushed with very dark coppery red; bell}' dark cop- 
pery red; a narrow blue streak below eye; fins all deep coppery red; ventral and anal black towards 
edge with pale anterior margin; caudal with a narrow black margin. 

Another specimen from Apia, called (/anue, had the colors of Luliamts grUeus, the Atlantic species — 
dull green, scales darker in center; lower parts, with all fins, more or less coppery red; anal pale-edged ; 
a blue streak below eye. 

595. Lutianus olivaceus (Cuvier A Valenciennes). Waigiu. Perhaps same as preceding. 

596. Lutianus roseus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Ulea, Caroline Is. 

Based on a drawing, a very doubtful species. Red; dorsal xiii, 12, with blue spots. It also is 
probably identical with Lutianus argentiinaculatus. 

597. Lutianus rivulatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Uiui; Xamte. Samoa; East Indies. 

(If this well-marked species two fine specimens w'ere taken at Apia. Life colors of one called 
liniiir, dark olive, each scale with a blue sjiot; belly coppery with blue stripes; head closely covered 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 2ti3 

with wavy streaks of bright blue; dorsal greenish yellow; caudal same, dusky toward tip, with dusky 
edge; pectoral dusky, with pale edge; anal golden, the first soft rays dusky with narrow pale edge. 

A specimen called I'Vui was clear olive green, bronze-orange on belly; each scale above with a 
small round pale-blue spot; head brassy yellow, entirely covered with light clear-blue streaks and 
vermiculations; maxillary yellow; fins all soiled yellow, brightest on edge. 

598. Liutianus marginatus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Taiia; Tagau; Tarnala; Lanue; Nanue. Samoa; 

Tahiti; Louisiades; Vanicolo; Oualan; Thornton!.; New Hebrides and Shortland I. (Seale). 

Ot this species, by far the most abundant of the genus, about 40 specimens were preserved — from 
Apia and Pago Pago. Life colors were noted in various specimens as follows: 

(1) Specimen from Apia called taiva. Olive above, each scale edged with brassy, the belly grad- 
ually shaded to brassy orange; lower parts of head bright coppery; front of head dusky purplish^ 
brassy about eye; dorsal blood-red, paler at base, a narrow pale edge; caudal deep wine-color with a 
jiale edge; anal bright golden, the first soft rays darker; ventral pure golden, the first rays paler, the 
last duller; pectoral golden, the lower rays paler. 

(•2) Specimen called tagau, from Apia. Golden olive; yellow below; lower side of head marbled 
bluish gray and coppery red; dorsal scarlet, darker above, with a blackish stripe lengthwise and a 
whitish edge; caudal deep wine-red with whitish edge; pectoral and ventral golden; anal yellow with 
blackish and whitish edges. 

(3) Specimen called himala, from Apia. Brassy orange, bright on belly, coppery on lower part 
of head, dusky greenish shaded on back; head bright scarlet below w'ith blue streaks about sub- and 
interopercle; dorsal scarlet with a broad black band and white edge; caudal dark wine-color, pale- 
edged; anal golden, darker anteriorly, and pale edged; ventral deep golden; pectoral light yellow. 

(4) A1.S0 called tamala, from Apia. Coppery red, rather pale, greenish above; each scale edged 
with coppery; head deep coppery red, paler creamy red below with grayish shades; lower jaw gray; 
no black spot; belly yellow; dorsal blackish red, very deep paler below; soft dorsal with pale edging; 
caudal bla(;kish red, edge paler; anal golden, deeper yellow anteriorly; ventral golden; pectoral trans- 
parent olivaceous. 

(5) Young specimen from Apia. A'ery pale olive, the sides silvery gray, unmarked, the lower 
parts golden shaded; lower parts of head with blue and golden markings; dorsal fin pale at luise, with 
broad edging of maroon black, and a narrow white margin; caudal grayish; dark maroon distally, witli 
a white margin; lower fins all clear golden. 

(6) From Apia. Olive green, belly orange, no spot; lower part of head scarlet over whitish; 
dorsal red, first with pale middle; soft dorsal dark-edged; caudal deep wine color, with white edge; 
ventral and anal golden; pectoral yellowish. 

599. liUtianus unicolor (Alleyne & Macleay). Percy 1.; New Guinea. 
licnmmgc unicolor Alleyne & Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1876, 266. 

600. Lutianus semicinctus (Quoy & Gaimard). Waigiu; Rawak; New Guinea (Macleay); Kings- 

mill I.; Fiji; East Indies. 

601. Lutianus fulvus Forster. Tahiti; Guam. 

602. Lutianus rufolineatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Fiji; Waigiu; Papua; East Indies. 
Diacope rufolineata Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 531, 1830, Papua. 

Diacopc vilianus Hombron & Jacquinot, Voy. Pole Slid, 37, taf. 2, tig. 2, Fiji. 
Mrsiiprion amiminensis Bleeker, Nat. Tijds. Ned. lud., in, 259, Amboina. 
ilmoprion mchmospilos Bleeker, op. cit., 750, Celebes. 

603. Lutianus goldiei (Macleay). New Guinea. 

ilrgiiprion qoldiri Macleay. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1883, 233, New Guinea. 

604. Lutianus parvidens (Macleay). New Guinea. (.Macleay, i>p. cit., 2'M.) 

605. Lutianus caudalis Cuvier & Valenciennes. Vanicolo. 

606. Lutianus -waigiensis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Waigiu; North Australia. 

607. Lutianus marg-inipinnis (Macleay). New Guinea. 

Mesoprion marginipinnis Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. W. 1883, 2*4, Normanby I. i New Guinea). 



264 BULLKTIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

608. Iiutianus sexfasciatus ( Macleay). New Guinea. 

609. Lutianus rubens (Maoleay). New Guinea. 

Mesoprion nibms Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1883, 232, New Guinea. 

610. Iiutianus flavipes (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Vanicolo; East Indies. 
Diacope anatis Cuvier & Valencienne.^, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VI, .534, 1830, He de France. 
Diaeope aurantiaea Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., VI, 535, 1830, Vanicolo. 

611. Iiutianus lineatus (Quoy & Gaimard). Samoa; Waigiu; Guam; Christmas I.; East Indies. 
Sa-ranas llnibaUis Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., n, 307, 1828, Guam. 

Of this species we have 3 young specimens from the reef at Apia. They are reddish olive in 
spirits, with about 6 yellowish stripes from the snout to base of caudal; dorsal dark-edged; caudal 
dusky behind; notch on preopercle slight; tongue with teeth. 

612. Lutianus vitta ( Quoy & Gaimard) . Waigiu; Louisiades; East Indies. 

613. Iiutianus chrysotsenia (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

614. Lutianus johni (Bloch). Tahiti (Giinther); East Indies. 

615. Lutianus fulviflamma (Forskal). Fiji; New Guinea (Macleay); Fat6 (Seale); East Indie.«. 

616. Lutianus monostig'nia (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tuiva uliuH; Vava sui; Feloilega; Samoa; 

Tahiti; Ivingsmil! I., Paunmtu Is.; New (iuinea (Macleay); Tubuai; Marquesas Is. and Fair 

(Seale). 
Mesoprion monostigma Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss,, ii. 44G, 1828. 
Lutianus KoglossusBleekeT, Atlas, viii, 70, tab. xlvi, Hg. 4, 1877. 

Of this well-marked species 12 tine specimens were taken at Apia. Life colors were noted in 
various specimens as follows:' 

(1) Specimen from Apia called vwa mi. Olive-green, scales on sides brassy; belly whitish tinged 
with golden yellow; a small, well-defined black lateral spot; fins all golden-yellow; lips orange-red; 
no stripe on head; axil dark. 

(2) Specimen called feloilega, from Apia. Color the same as in no. 1, with black axil spot, except 
that lower parts are shaded with coppery red; jaws bright red; fins all deep yellow; seems same except 
for red color. 

(.3) From Apia. Coppery red, the belly paler red, the back olive; a small jet-black lateral spot; 
fins all bright orange yellow, the dorsal dark on edge, the soft dorsal paler; a pale streak below eye. 

(4) Specimen called torra w/i'K/i, from Pago Pago. Dull olive-green, without red shades; lateral 
spot distinct; fins above j'ellow olive; below more yellow, verging on orange; soft dorsal, anal, and 
ventral with pale ciliji-; traces of bronze streaks along scales. 

This spcch ^, nil, 11 |M,isonous, is well distinguished by its small, well-defined lateral spot and the 
absence of terih .in thi- imigue. It is well represented in Giinther's plate (Fische der Siidsee, pi. 16), 
except that in that iiUito the first soft ray of the dorsal is represented as a spine. In our judgment, 
(Jiinther and Sauvage are right in identifying the miMostigma of Cuvier & Valenciennes with Bleekor's 
lioglossus. 

617. Lutianus erythropterus (Bloch). Guam; East Indies. 
I Dinropr liueolata Riippell.) 

618. Lutianus russelli (Bleeker). Solomon Is. (Seale); East Indies. 

619. Lutianus flaviroseus (De Vis). New Britain. 

This species is unknown to us. It bears some resemblance to Lutianus niunoMigma, but has a faint 
dark spot at base of caudal. 

620. Lutianus eh.renbergi (Peters). New Ireland; New Britain; East Indies. 
Mesoprion ehreiibergi Peters, Berl. Men. 1869, 704, New Ireland, New Britain. 

621. Lutianus aureovittatus (Macleay). Solomon Is. 

This species is unknown to us. There is a large black blotcli on the lateral line, and three golden 
stripes along the lower part of the side. 



THK FISHES OF SAMOA. • 265 

622. Lutianus adeti (Castelnau). New Caledonia. 

Diacupus adeti Castelnau, Proc. Zool. Soc. Victoria, in, 1873, New Caledonia. 

623. Lutianus fuscescens (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tahiti (Seals); East Indies; China. 

624. Lutianus niger (Forskal). Samoa (Giinther); Papua; East Indies. 
[Mtsopriun iitacalor Cuvier A Valenciennes.) 

This strongly marked species, the type of Bleeker's genus Macolor, recorded from Samoa by Dr. 
(Tiinther (Fische der Siidsee, p. 11) was not taken by us. 

APRION Cuvier. 

625. Apriou virescens (Cuvier ct Valenciennes). Hawaii; Fiji; Tahiti; East Indies. 

626. Aprion microdon Steindachiier. 

627. Aprion latifrons Kner. Fiji. 

Sparupsis lali/rons Kner, Sitz. .\k. Wiss. Wien ISl'iK, 27, Fiji. 

ETELIS Cuvier. 

628. Etelis evurus Jordan & Evermaiin. Hawaii. 

629. Etelis marshi Jenkins. Hawaii. 

CHffiTOPTERUS Schlegel. 

630. Chastopterus dubius tiuiitber. Hawaii; .lapau. 
{Bower^ia ulaula .lordan A: E\ crmiiiin. i 

ROOSEVELTIA Jordan & Evermann, new genus. 

Rooseceltia Jordan & Evermann, new genus of Serranid;e (Serrunus hrighami Scale). 

631. Booseveltia brighami (Seale). Hawaii. 

632. Booseveltia aloha (Jordan i?t Snyiler I. Hawaii. 

BOWERSIA Jordan & Evermann. 

633. Bowersia violescens Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

[Apsilus 7nicrodon Jordan & Evermann: not Apnon microdon Steindaehner.) 

APHAREUS Cuvier. 

634. Aphareus furcatus I LacifK-de I . Tahiti; East Indies; Japan. 

635. Aphareus flavivultus Jenkins. Hawaii. 

SYMPHORUS G anther. 

636. Symphorus spilurus Giinther. Palau Is. 

Sijiiijilinnif fjiihinis Giinther, Fische der Stidsee, 61, taf. 47, LS73, Palau Is. 

NEMIPTERUS Swainson. (.S'^no<;cis Giinther.) 

637. Nemipterus ruber (Cuvier it Valenciennes). New Guinea; ICast Indies. 

638. Nemipterus tolu (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea (Bleeker): Java. 

639. Nemipterus waigiensis (Quoy & Gaiinar<i). Waigiu; Kawak. 

640. Nemipterus marginatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea; East Indies. 

641. Nemipterus taeuiopterus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea (Ogilby); Australia; India. 
Denter tsmiopterus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Hi,st. Nat. Poiss., vi, 216, 1830, no locality. 

Stjnaffris notaius Day, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, 084. India. 

642. Nemipterus furcosus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

B.B. F. 190-")— 18 



266 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

C£SIO Cavier. 

643. Csesio cserulaureus ( Laoepede ) . Samoa; New (iuinea; Solomon Is. (Seale); East Indies. 
This beautiful little fish is rather common in the coral reefs, about a dozen specimens being taken 

at Apia. Life colors of one of these, clear light blue, very bright; a golden streak above eye and 
above lateral line to base of caudal; dorsal dusky gray; caudal pink, with a black stripe along each 
lobe; anal pinkish; ventral white; pectoral colorless, a black bar at base; a brownish mark behind eye. 

644. Csesio erythrogaster Cuvier & Valenciennes. New Guinea (Macleay). 

645. Csesio lunaris Ehrenberg. New Ireland; New Guinea (Macleay); Solomon Is. i Seale). 

646. Csesio chrysozonus Kuhl & Van Hasselt. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

647. Csesio arg-enteus (Bloch). Gilbert Is. (Giinther); P^ast Indies. 

648. Csesio pisang Blei^ker. New Guinea (Macleay). 

PTEEOCESIO Bleeker. 

649. Pterocsesio tile (Cuvier A Valencit-nnt-s). Caroline Is.; Gilbert Is.; Tahiti; Tonga. 

Family NLJiXID.-K. 
ERYTHKICHTHYS Schlegel. 

650. Erythrichthys schlegeli (Giinther). Hawaii; Japan. 

TEKA.PON Cuvier. 
(Djabub Forskal; Therapon Cuvier & Valenciennes.) 

651. Terapon jarbua (Forskal). 'Ava'ava. Samoa; Fiji; New Britain; Ne\v(4uinea; Solomon Is. 

(Seale). 
{Holocentrus servtis Bloch.) 
This species is exceedingly common ia tide waters at the river mouths in Samoa. We have about 
40 specimens from the mouth of the Vaisigono River. It takes the hook readily. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, greenish gray, bands olive brown, those in caudal browner; 
first dorsal gray and olive; second dorsal, ventral, and anal creamy orange. Adults have the markings 
more faint. 

652. Terapon nasutus Macleay. New Guinea. 

Tkerajion nasidus Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1884, 258, Normanby I. i New Guinea*. 

653. Terapon interruptus Macleay. New Guinea. 

654. Terapon chalybseus Macleay. New Guinea. 

655. Terapon trimaculatus Macleay. Goldie River, New Guinea. 

656. Terapon caudavittatus (Richardson). New Guinea (Macleay); Australia. 

657. Terapon sexlineatus (Quoy & Gaimard). New Guinea; Australia; Timor. 

658. Terapon oxyrhynchus Schlegel. Fiji (Giinther) ; Japan. 

669. Terapon puta Cuvier & Valenciennes. New Britain; East Indies. 
Tlnrapon trivittatus De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., viii, 467, New Britain. 

660. Terapon arg'enteus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Kandavu, Fiji (Kner). 
Therapon argenteus Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 1868, 7, Kandavu. 

661. Terapon unicolor Giinther. Kandavu, Fiji (Kner); Australia. 

662. Terapon theraps Cuvier tt Valenciennes. Caroline Is. (CTiinther); Ea,«t Indies. 



THK BMSHES 0¥ SAMOA. 267 

Family H..EMULII)/E. 

PLECTORHYNCHUS Lac^pede. (/,(((«'rv» Fc.rskal. ) 

Fowler separates from I'li'dorhi/ii'-liuK the >^|iwifs with larj.'(' si-iles and 14 dorsal spines as Euela- 

tiehth >is, &nd those with small si-ales ami 10 .l.irsal siiiiit-f' as Sjnlnlirhllii^s. In Pledorhiindin.i {=Dia- 

gmiiiina) the scales are small and the dorsal spines mostly 12 (11 to 13). Further structural differences 

have been noted by Waite and Ogilby (ms.) . 

663. Plectorhynchus dia^amma (Lacepede). 'Aia'ava moamt. Samoa; Waigiu; Tahiti; New 

Guinea (Macleay). 
(Diayrawma k\^oiii Cuvier ^t Valenciennes; Diagramma fhi^atum Cuvier it Valenoiennes; I'kctor/ii/whu-a cuvieri 
Bleeker.) 

Of this strongly marked species we have two specimens from Apia and Pago Pago. In one, about 
nine inches long, the pale color is yellowish, the two median bands on the side coalescing over the 
pectoral, and the <iorsal and caudal fin being marked with black stripes and no spots; the pectoral fin 
has a large black median spot. This specimen corresponds closely with the original figure of P. <•« n'eri as 
given by Bennett. 

The other specimen is nearly two feet long. The pale markings are bluish gray, the stripes on 
the side are all distinct, and the stripes on the dorsal and caudal are broken up into large round spots, 
those on the caudal forming two cross-series. The pectoral (in is unspotted. This corresponds to the 
figures of Fledorhynchus lessoni as given by Lesson, Giinther, and Bleeker. Bleeker's figure of Pledorkyn- 
chus cuvieri represents an intermediate stage. We have no doubt that these specimens belong to one 
species, for which the tenable name is Plectorhynchus diagram ma. 

Life colors, young specimen from Apia, dark brown, belly white, side with five pure white stripes 
of varying width with deep brown interspaces; head anteriorly washed with golden, the stripes 
becoming yellow; dorsal striped, dark brown and light yellow; caudal redder brown and deep yellow 
in elaborate stripes; anal yellow witli two brown red stripes; ventral golden with dark spots, its axil 
deep red; pectoral with a brown-red axil and basal bar, the fin yellow with a large black spot. 

The Pago Pago specimen, adult, had eight dark brown longitudinal stripes on side (the eighth 
weak); caudal bright yellow with about 30 subcircular brown blotches and margin dark brown; 
dorsal yellowish like tail, with black brown margin and blotches; anal same; pectoral yellow with 
red axil; ventrals yellow with red axil and brown markings on posterior aspect; ground-color of body 
white with slight bluish tinge; the white interspaces on back strongly tinged with yellow. 

664. Plectorhynchus orientalis (Bloch). Samoa (Giinther); East Indies. 
Not found by us; perhaps representing a stage in growth of P. dla/jramma. 

665. Plectorhynchus pica (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tahiti; Fiji. 

666. Plectorhynchus radja Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay ). 

667. Plectorhynchus polytaeuia Bleeker. New (iuinea (Macleay). 

668. Plectorhynchus punctatissimus (I'layfair). Tahiti; Seychelles. 

Diuiiramma punclatissim urn Playfttir, Proc. Zool.- Soc. 1x67, s.^l, Seychelles. Giinther, Fische rter Siidsee, 27, tnf. 
21, Society Is., on a figure of Garrett. 

669. Plectorhynchus g'ig'anteus (Giinther). Ponape; Caroline Is. 
Diaitramma rrignnlciim CiuUheT, .\nn. iMag. Nat. Hist. 1879, li, Ponape. 

670. Plectorhynchus chaetodonoides Lac^pede. Pa mai-nxxni'i. Samoa; Fiji ((ninther); East 

Indies. « 

(THagmmma pardatis Kuhl & Van Hasselt; adult.) 
One very large example, closely resembling the figure of the adult given by Dr. Bleeker, was taken 
at Apia. Life colors, olive, closely covered above with hexagonal spots of dark brown, restricting 
the pale olive-green ground color to reticulations; belly slate-color; all the fins spotted like the body, 
the spots smaller, the pectoral spotted only on the inside; caudal with a gray and then a black 
margin; membrane of jaws, inside of mouth, and the naked skin ;it opercular joints all bright 
blood-red. 



268 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

671. Plectorhynchus papuensis (Macleay). New Guinea. 
Diagra7nmapapuens>sUa.c\eay. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. \V. 1883, 237. 

672. Plectortyiiclius hsBmatocliir (Bleekei). New Guinea (Macleay); Ea.Ht Indies. 
I Plectorhynchus goUlmnimi Bleeker. ( 

SPIL0TICHTHY8 Fowler. 

673. Spilotichthys centurio (t'uvier & ValtMuit-nnes). New Guinea (Marleay); Seychelles. 

674. SpiloticMhys pictus (Tluinberg), New Guinea (Bleeker); Fiji (Giinther); East Indies; 

.Ia|.an. 

ETJELATICHTHYS Fowler. 

675. Euelatichtliys crassispinus (Riippell). Misimisi. Samoa; East Indies. 

l>ia;iramma crassispintim Riippell. Neue Wirbelthiere, Fische, 125, taf. 30, fig. 4. 1835, Red Sea. Giinther, Cat., 
1, 319. 

Diagramma gibbosus HovahYow & Jacquinot. \'<iy. Stid Pole, 46, i>l. .">. \\^. f*, 18.'>4. Giinther, (.'iit., i, 319. Giin- 
ther, Fische der Sudsee, 26. 

/>ia(7ramma a^ne Giinther, Cat., 1,319, Australia, Moluccas, Amboina, Madras, China. 

Of this species we have three large examples and one small one from Apia. The small specimen 
has the caudal fin gray. In the others this fin is black. The small specimen and two of the large 
ones have the soft dorsal covered with small blackish spots. Some of these spots are seen on the 
caudal fin. In one specimen there are no distinct spots on the dorsal, and one faint one only at base 
of caudal. These specimens certainly belong to the same species, and we see no reason for separating 
the nominal species affine and gibbosus from it, although P. gibbosus, originally described from Samoa, 
is said to have 13 spines. This may be an individual variation or an error in counting. 

Life colors of a specimen from river mouth at Apia, blackish; caudal abruptly pale gray; round 
black spots on dorsal, anal, and ba-se of caudal; body unspotted; fins else blackish. 

Another specimen from Apia, called niKi misi, was dark olive, each scale with darker edge; pre- 
opercle and opercle black-edged; fins all plain dusky, the edges blacker; a few small black spots on 
second dorsal; no red or yellow. 

676. Euelatichthys crassilabris (Alleyne & Macleay). New Guinea. 

]>i.i„nim„ia cnigsilal,ri>: .\lle,vne & Macleay, ProC. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1876, 271, Hall Sound .New Guinea). 

This species must be very close to P. crassispinus. 

677. Euelatichthys oloscurus (Giinther). Fiji. 

Viagramma obscurum Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1.S71. 6.57, Fiji. 
This species is not known ti> us. It resembles 1'. rrassispinux, but the second anal spine is much 
smaller than in the latter. 

678. Euelatichthys uuicolor ( Macleay) . New (iuinea. 

Diaymmma unicolnr Macleay. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1S76, Jia , China Straits, New Guinea. 
POMADASIS Lacepede 1804. 

679. Pomadasis hasta (Blcnh). New Britain (I'eters); East Indies; New Guinea (Macleay). 

SYMPHYSANODON Bleeker, 

680. Symphysanodon typus Bleeker. New Guinea. 

SCOLOPSIS Cuvier. (Ghannn Fonskal. ) 

681. Scolopsis trilineata Kiier. Tiinu tuni. Samoa; Fiji; New Guinea; New Hebrides (Scale). 
Sa/liipsia trilineata Kner, Sitz. .\k. Wiss. Wien 1868, 301, Samoa. Giinther, Fische der Siidsee, 31, taf. 26, fig. a. 

Samoa, Fiji. 
This species is one of the most tastefully colored of the coral-reef fishes of Samoa, .\bout 20 
specimens were obtained at .\pia and Pago Pago. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 269 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia called taint luxi, pearl-gray, darker on back; forehead very 
dark brown, crossed by two bright blue stripes, both of which become golden yellow on eye, which 
is crossed by a dark brown stripe; three pearly white stripes behind eye, the middle one fainter, 
uniting near middle of body and proceeding to last ray of dorsal; fins pinkish gray; dorsal narrowly 
edged with orange; anal with pale blue; anal and soft dorsal with some orange shading; lower half of 
belly and bead pure white. 

682. Scolopsis bilineata (Blocb). New Guinea iMacleayl; Kandavu, Fiiil,Kneri; Sbortlaiid I. 

(Seiilei; East Indies; Ovalau and Levuka (Giinther). 

683. Scolopsis lineata (Quoy & Gaimard). Guam; Samoa (Giinther); Fate (Seale). 

684. Scolopsis ciliata (Lac^pede). Vanicolo; New Guinea (Macleay); Pjast Indies. 

685. Scolopsis monogTamma Kuhl & Van Hasiselt. Xew Guinea iMacleayl; Fate and New 

Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

686. Scolopsis temporalis Cuvier & Valenciennes. Newtiuinea (Macleay); Fiji (Giintber (; Vani- 

ccil.i; Waijiiii; Louisiades; Solomon Is. (Seale). 

687. Scolopsis xenochrous Giinther. Misol. 

Sciilopfis xenochrous Giinther, Cruise of the Curayoa, ls73, '.'ii. 

688. Scolopsis cancellata Cuvier & Valenciennes. Polynesia; New Hanover (Peters); East Indies. 

689. Scolopsis margaritifera Cuvier & Valenciennes. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

690. Scolopsis aflauis Peters. New Ireland; New Britain. 
Sroliiiisis nffinis Peters, Berl, Mon., 1S76, S32, New Britain, New Iieland. 

691. Scolopsis niacroplithalmus Ramsay A Ggilliy. New (iuinea. 

PENTAPUS Cavier & Valenciennes. 

692. Pentapus caninus Cuvier t^ \'alenoiennes. New duiiiea (Mack'ay); Louisiades; Apamana; 

(iilliert Is. (Giinther). 

693. Pentapus vittatus (Bloch). New Guinea (Giintben; Solomon Is. (Seale); East Indies. 

GNATHODENTEX Sleeker. 

694. Gnathodentex aurolineatus ( Lacepede ). 'J'ulni. Samoa; Hervey Islands;- Tonga; Gilbert 

Is.; Tahiti' Paumotu Is. ; Marcus I. ; New Guinea (Macleay ); Tuliuai and Mangareva (Seale) ; 
East Indies. 
This species is common about Samoa, where about 15 specimens were taken. 
Color of a specimen from Apia called tolai, light olive-gray; 6 to 8 very faint longitudinal stripes 
of brownish bronze above lateral line, all of them disappearing behind middle of body; still fainter 
streaks below lateral line; larger specimens with 5 broad, faint stripes vi gold-bronze below lateral 
line; an oblong spot of light yellow below soft dorsal; fins all plain light reddish, the edges a little 
darker; opercular flap dark; inside of mouth orange. 

Family SP.\K1I).-E. 

LETHRINUS Cavier. (.SWioiir Forskal, 1775.) 

695. Lethrinus ramak iForskal). Mni/afo'u: MngauH. Samoa; Palau Is.; Kingsmill I.; Fiji, Ea-t 

Indies. 
Afiiinu ramak Forskal, Descr. .\nim., 53, 1775, Red Sea. 

Ltthrinusehrenbergii Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 31, 1830, Red Sea. 
LelhTimisflavescensCu\-\eT& Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 299, 1836, Tonga. 

Lelhnnus ramnk, Ounther, Cat., i, 459, Red Sea, Ces'lon. Giinther, Fische <ier Siiiisce, I'.y, taf. 4fi, lig. b, Samoa, 
Palau Is., Kingsmill, Celebes. 
This species is common at Samoa. Five large specimens were secured. 



270 BULLETIN OK THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia called mailajVu, a faint pinkish band from pectoral back; head 
olive; lips flesh color; dorsal dull orange mottled with gray; caudal dull orange; anal reddish; ventral 
pale-yellowish tinged; pectoral faintly orange; no lateral spot. 

Another specimen from Apia, called magauli, was light green, no spot; axil black; head dark; 
lips and gums scarlet; dorsal light bright red; caudal dirty yellow; 2>fctoral bright yellow, orange 
above; anal dull orange; ventral gray, black at tip. 

696. Lethrinus harak ( Forskal ) . Mala'de'ele. Samoa; New Britain; New Hanover (Peters); Fah' 

in the New Hebrides (Seale). 
Of this species 2 large specimens were taken at Apia. Life colors of one called mata 'lie'ele, dull 
olive green; fins all brick red; inside of mouth scarlet. A black lateral spot on molar teeth. 

697. Lethrinus bonhamensis Giinther. Samoa; Bonham I.; Philippines. 
Lethrinus bcmliammsis Gunther. Fische der Sudsee, 65, taf. 46, Bonham I. 

A single large specimen corresponding to Giinther's figure was taken at .\pia. It i;; near Lethrinus ^ 
harak; but is apparently distinct. We have also examined specimens of the same species in the U. S. 
National Museum, collected on Negros Island in the Philippines by Prof. Bashford Dean. 

698. Lethrinus papuensis Alleyne & Macleay. New Guinea. 

699. Lethrinus amboinensis Bleeker. Samoa; Palau Is. (Giinther); East Indies. 
Of this species we have 1 specimen from Apia. 

700. Lethrinus erythropterus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Ulea. 

701. Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson. New Guinea (Alleyne & Macleay ); Australia. 

702. Lethrinus nebulosus (Forskil). Fiji (Gunther); East Indies. 

703. Lethrinus mahsena (Forskal). Samoa; Fiji; Palau Is.; Paumotu Is.; Waigiu; Mangareva 

(Seale). 

[Lethrinus hypselopterons Bleeker. i 
Of this species we have 1 large example from Apia, corresponding to Gunther's figure, and 
almost equally well to Bleeker's plate of Lethrinus hypseloplerus. 

704. Lethrinus mahsenoides Bleeker. New Guinea (Ramsay & Ogilby); East Indies. 

705. Lethrinus alboguttatus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Bonin Is. 

706. Lethrinus laticaudus Alleyne & Macleay. New Guinea. 

L.ilirinus lalicauilus .\lli-yne & Mafleay. Proc. Linn. Soe. N. S. W. 1876, 276, Percy I. i New Guinea i. 

707. Lethrinus moensi Bleeker. Tahiti; Tonga; Fiji; Paumotu Is.; Harvey Is.; New Guinea; 

Palau Is. ; Louisiades; Marquesas Is. (Seale); East Indies. 

708. Lethrinus ornatus Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay) ; East Indies. 

709. Lethrinus leutj anus Lacepede. New Guinea (Macleay); Fat6 (Seale); East Indies. 

710. Lethrinus hsematopterus Bleeker. Fiji (Giinther); New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

711. Lethrinus erythracanthus Cuvier A Valenciennes. Luganor; Mortlock Is. ; Carolines. 

712. Lethrinus sordidus Cuvier & Valenciennes. New Guinea. 

713. Lethrinus waigiensis Cuvier & Valenciennes. Waigiu. 

714. Lethrinus xanthopterus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Ulea, Caroline Islands. 

715. Lethrinus aurolineatus Macleay. New Guinea. 



LETHRINELLA Fowler. 

This genus is distinguished from Lttlirinns by the elongate pike-like snout ami jaws. 
716. Lethrinella miniata (Forster). Filoa 'ara. Samoa; Tahiti; Louisiades; Marcus I.; New 



Britain; East Indi 



THK FISHES OF SAMOA. 271 

Of this remarkable species, distinguished by the pike-like prolongation of the snout, we have 3 
large examples from Apia, one of them 2i feet long. The long snout and comparative slenderness of 
the teeth define the well-marked genus Lethrinella of Fowler. 

Life colors of a specimen called _/i7oa ra, from Apia, pale grayish olive unmarked; mouth scarlet 
within; niembrances of upper jaw red; doi-sal, anal, and caudal grayish, mottled olive, edged with 
dull red: pei'toral dull light olive, ventral dufky gray, 

MONOTAXIS Bennett. 

717. Monotaxis grandoculis (Forskal). Mumu moaga; Lonlia (a Rarotongan word). Hawaii; 

Samoa; Papua; Fiji; East Indies. 

This species is rather common about Samoa, as also at Hawaii. It is valued ag a food fish. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, olive green, with 2 whitish cross-bars; a black crescent at 
base of pectoral; dorsal brownish, reddish at tip; caudal orange, yellow at base; anal like dorsal; pec- 
toral and ventral reddish. 

718. Monotaxis euanus ((Jiinther). Tonga Is. 

Spli:n;i:ion ruatiw! Giinther. .inn. Mas. Nut. Hist..iv. IsTa, 137. Eua I Tonga Is. I. 

SPARTIS (Artedii Linnaeus. {Ony-iupiirya Cuvier & Valenciennes. ) 

719. Sparus australis (Giinther). New Hebrides; Australia. 

, 494, rivers of Australia, De Vis, Proc, Linn. Soc, N. S, W. 188J, 4,'i7, Api 

720. Sparus novse-caledoniae (Castelnau). New Caledonia. 

Chrimiifliriif noi:e-caledo7>Lr Castelnau, Proc. Zool. Soe, Vict, 1873, 110, New Caledonia, 

721. Sparus berda Forskal. New Guinea (Macleay); Ea«t Indies, 
(Sparus hasta, Bloch & Schneider,) 

Family KYPHOSID.*:. 
PACHYMETOPON Giinther, 

722. Pachymetopon squamosum .\lleyne & Macleay, New (niinea, 

Paehijmclopnn squamosum .411eyne & Macleay, Proc. Linn, Soc, N, S, W, 1876, 225, Hall Sound (New Guineai, 

KTPHOSUS Lac^pfede, ( Tahinel Forskal, 177.5. ) 

723. Kjrphosus fuscus (Lacepede). Hawaii; New Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

724. Kyphosus lem.bus (Ouvier & Valenciennes). Vanicolo; East Indies. 

725. Kyphosus sandvicensis (Sauvage). Hawaii; Laysan; Marcus I. (Bryan & Herre). 

This species seems to be almost identical with Kyphosus elegans Peters, a species from tlii; west 
coast rif ^lexico. 

726. Kyphosus waigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard), Vmue; Matu mntu. Waigiu; Papua; Caroline Is. ; 

Samoa; Palauls. ; New Guinea. 
Three large specimens of this species were taken at Apia. Life color of one called umue, bronze 
brownish, with a gray s[)Ot on each scale, these forming pale bluish streaks, alternating with darker 
bronze streaks; no other colors; fins all dusky; pale below eye, a dark streak about it; opercle dark- 
edged. 

727. Kyphosus tahmel i Forskal). New Guinea (Bleeker); East Indies. 

SECTATOR Jordan & Fesler. 

728. Sectator azureus Ji>rdau it Kvenuaini, Hawaii, 



272 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Family GEKRID.€. 
XYST£SIA Jordan & Evermann. 

729. Xystaema gigas (Giinther). Matu loa. Samoa; Fiji; Tonga. 

Gerresgigas Giinther, Cat., iv, 262. Tonga. GiinthtT, Fische der Su(isec, 30. taf x.\iv, fig. a, Tonga, Fiji, Samoa 
Life colors of a specimen from Apia called malu loa, silvery with faint dark shades; no bright 

colors; caudal pale edged; first dorsal elevated, its edge dusky. 

One large specimen and one very small one taken at Apia. Apparently this species is distinct 

from A', ohlongum (Cuvier & Valenciennes) of India, with which Day unites it. X. oblom/um is still 

more elongate. 

730. Xystaema argyreum (Forster). Matu. Samoa; Tahiti; Waigiu; Strong I.; Tanna; Aus- 

tralia; Kast Indies. 
{(Ttrre^ waigiensis Quoy it Gaimard. ) 

Compared with A', argyreum, X. gigas is less silvery, and has more distinct streaks along the row s 
of scales. In A', gigas the snout is longer than eye; the body is more elongate, and the head propor- 
tionately longer. 

This species is more common at Samoa than A', gigaii, but seems to reach a rather smaller size. 
We have 8 examples of different sizes from Apia and Pago Pago. Life colors of an example from 
Apia, silvery, without dark streaks; ventral and anal light yellow; other fins scarcely yellowish; edge 
of spinous dorsal dusky. 

731. Xystaema aTobreviatum (Bleeker). New Guinea (Ramsay & Ogilby); East Indies. 

This can not be Sparus erylhrourus of Bloch, which is a species of Xystsema, said to be from Japan. 
Bloch's type is more elongate, the depth being 3i inches, the total length lOi inches in the type in the 
Museum of Berlin. 

732. Xystaema macrosoma (Bleeker). Samoa (Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1868, 9, Savaii); 

Admiralty Is. (Gunther); East Indies. 
This species, recorded liy Kner from Samoa, was not seen by us. 

733. Xystaema punctatum (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Vanioolo; New Britain and New Hanover 

( Peters ) ; East In<lies. 
(Gerres filamentosus Cuvier & Valenciennes, adult.) 
Valenciennes describes Gerres punctalus as having the depth 3i in the total length with caudal. 
This is true of the very young only (2| inches long). In the adult it is 3 or a little less. Gerres punc- 
tatus is, however, evidently the same as G. filamentosus, and the name occurs on an earlier page of the 
same work. 

734. Xystaema acinaces (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

735. Xystaema poeti (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Milne Bay, New Guinea (Macleay) ; East Indies. 

736. Xystaema macracanthum (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

TJLJEMA Jordan & Evermann. 

737. trisema bispinosum (Alleyne & Macleay). New Guinea. 

Gerres bispitwsus Alleyne A Macleay, Proc. Linn. .Soc. N. S. W. 1876, 273, Hall Sound. .\nal rays 11, S. 

Family EQUULID.-E. 

EQUULA Cuvier. 

Eqmila Cuvier, Regne Anim., ed. 1, vol. ii, 323, 1817 { insidiator) . 
Deiv.iimenlum Fowler, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1904, 517 (insidiator). 

738. Equula insidiator (Bloch). Tahiti (Kner); East Indies. 

This species is separated by Fowler from Leiognathus as the type of a distinct genus Dereximentum, 
characterized by the vertical mouth. But the same species is the original type of the genus Equula, 
which has been regarded as a synonym of Leiognalhus. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 273 

LEIOGNATHTJS Lac^pede. 

739. Leiognathus fasciatus (LacepMe). Samoa; Fiji ((Tunther); New Britain (Peters); East 

Indies. 

This species is common at Samoa, nnmerons specimens being taken about Apia and Pago Pago in 
the seine. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, spots on sides and dorsal liars dull brassy; axil lirassy and 
brassy shades on dorsal and anal fins. 

Another specimen from Apia was silvery, faintly streaked and barred above. Dorsal spine not 
reaching tip of last spine in specimen 3 inches long. Young. 

740. Iieiognathus obscurus (Seale). Guam. 

Lfiognathtis ohscurus Seale, Bishop Mus. 1901, 74, Guam. 

741. Leiognathus equula (Forskal). New Caledonia; East Indies. 

Equula caballa I Cuvier & Valenciennes) . Castelnau. Proc. Zool. Soc. Victoria, 1S73, 114, New Caledonia. 

742. Leiognathus dussumieri t Cuvier A Valenciennes). Tahiti (Kner, Novara Fische, 167); East 

Indies. 

743. Leiognathus edentulus Lacepede. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

744. Leiognathus smithursti (Ramsay & Ogilby). New Guinea. 

K.^iiula fmillnir.iti Kiimsay & Ogilby, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ISSn. II. 

GAZZA Cuvier. 

745. Gazza minuta ( Bloch I. New Guinea; New Britain (Peters); Tahiti (Kner); East Indies. 

746. Gazza equulseformis (Riippell). Solomon Is. ; East Indies. 

747. Gazza argentaria (Forster). Tanna; New Hebrides; East Indies. 

Family MILLID.-E. 
TIPENEUS Cuvier. ( I'peueoidix Bleeker.) 

748. Upeneus vittatus (Forskal I. ]'cl'\ Tahiti; Samoa; Papua; Borabora; Fiji; Marquesas Is. 

(Seale); East Indies. 

This species is rather common about Samoa, where about a dozen specimens were taken. In life 
the belly is a bright sulphur-yellow\ The number of bands on the caudal fin is fewer than in Upeneus 
(irrje, one of tho.-e on the lower lobe being very broad and black. 

Life colors of a specimen called ^lete, olive, sides silvery, no red except on iris and sides of snout, 
side with 5 golden bands, fourth the brightest and broadest; belly bright sulphur yellow, in a broad 
stripe; barbels white; first dorsal black at tip, with 2 white and 2 brassy bands, one of the latter at 
base; second dorsal with 4 white and 4 olive oblique bands; fourth and fifth lateral bands converging 
on tail; upper lobe also with 3 dark oblique bands and 4 white bands; lower with 3 white and 2 dark 
bands, the outer one very broad, nearly as broad as eye, and black with yellow edge, twice the width 
of upper outer band. 

749. Tlpeneus arge Jordan <& Everniann. Hawaii. 

This large species is common about Hawaii, but has not been seen elsewhere. It has the belly 
silvery \\hite in life and the caudal bands are more numerous and more even than in Upeneus viUatus. 

750. Upeneus tseniopterus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii (Steindachner); Ceylon. 

751. Upeneus tragula Richards. in. New (iuinea (Macleay) ; East Indies; China. 

PSEUDUPENEUS Bleeker. 
( Ujictu'us, Pseudupeneus, and Parupenem, all of Bleeker.) 

752. Pseudupeneus multifasciatus (Quoy & Gaimard). Hawaii. 

This species is very common about Hawaii, where it replaces the P. moana of the islands of Poly- 
nesia. In the former species the bright red area among the bands on the side is behind the pectoral. 
In Pseudii petieus moana the bright yellow area is under the soft dorsal. 



274 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

753. Pseudupeneus moana Jordan & Seale, new species. Moaiiii; MoiHja: Mar/a (jiiv.); .Von/in 

fiitiini. Samoa. 
Upencus trijasdalus Giinther, Fische der Siidsee, 59, taf. .XLiv, fig. B, Vavau, Samon. .\mboina; not of LaCL-pedt-. 
Upeneus multifasciatus Seale, Bishop Museum, i, 71, 1901, Guam; not of Quoy &. Gaimard. 
Parupeneus mullifascialus Bleelier, Mulloides, 20, 187-1; Atlas, Mulloides, tab. IV, fig. 4. 

Head 3 in length to ba.se of caudal; depth 3.25; eye 6.10 in head; interorbital 3.75; maxillary ;; 
in head, its distal width greater than eye, its posterior end not reaching below anterior margin of t ye 
by at least two-thirds width of eye; dorsal viii-9; anal 7; scales 2-32-6; barbels long, reaching to 
second row of scales in front of ventrals. 

Body oblong, compressed, deepest at origin of spinous dorsal; depth of caudal peduncle 2 in its 
length; body and head scaled; lips wide; teeth in a single row in each jaw, no teeth on vomer nr 
palatines; preopercle entire; a short flat opercular spine; gill-rakers slim and sharp, 25 on lower liml., 
the longest slightly moie than one-half width of eye; only two complete rows of scales between thi 
dorsal fins; height of spinous dorsal 1..35 in head, its base 1.90; base of soft dorsal 1.95 in head, it> 
last ray usually elongate, reaching to base of caudal; pectoral 1.35 in head; ventral 1.20 in head; bast- 
of anal 2.50 in head; its posterior ray somewhat prolonged, 1.95 in head; caudal 1.35 in head. 

Color in spirits, upper half of body brownish with wash of purple, yellowish white below; a 
broad saddle of black on caudal peduncle; another broad black band from anterior half of soft dorsal; 
between tliese two is a bright yellow area, about as wide as the posterior black band; a narrow black 
band between the two dorsals, the yellow lines bordering on its posterior and anterior margins being 
narrow, about one scale in width; abroad, black band from anterior two-thirds of spinous dorsal; 
another black band in front of spinous dorsal, making in all five black vertical bands on the sides; all 
of these bands fade out a little below the axis of the body; there is a dusky blotch posterior to eye 
extending more or less distinctly upon nuchal region; a dusky line through eye and along sides of 
snout; spinous dorsal dusky; soft dorsal du.sky at base with yellow margin, and some 4-5 narrow 
intermarginal lines of alternating light and dusky; the last ray of dorsal is entirely deep black; caudal 
dusky, with black upper and lower margins; anal yellowish with 4 intermarginal longitudinal lines of 
dusky; pectoral yellow; ventral yellow, the outer rays bluish. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, dirty purplish red mottled with black and yellow, with 4 
darker cross-bands; lower side of head wine red; barbels purplish; dorsal clouded dusky; second 
dorsal with blue and yellow streaks at tip; caudal dirty brown, edged with black above and below; 
anal pale violet, and with 4 violet and 4 light yellow streaks; ventral red with a purple-black edge; 
pectoral bright golden orange. Adult. 

Another specimen from Apia, called moana, was olive, with golden edges and bluish base to scales; 
five blackish cross-bands; a black blotch behind eye; first dorsal dusky, second golden blackish 
at base, streaked above with bluish; caudal golden, covered with fine bluish streaks; anal dusky; 
ventral dusky; pectoral yellowish; barbels golden. 

This species, common in the East Indies and in the South Seas, seems never to have received a 
distinctive specific name. The name trifasciatus certainly belongs to Pseudupeneus bi/aiciatug, while 
that of multlfasciatus was given to the common moana of the Hawiian Islands. 

Twenty-five specimens from Apia. The type is no. 51737, U. S. National Museum, length 8.55 
inches. 

The species is known from Samoa, Guam, Tahiti, Vavau, New Guinea (Macleay), Mangareva, 
Rarotonga, New Hebrides, Tubuai, and Nukahiva (Seale); also from East Indies. 

754. Pseudupeneus atrocingulatus (Kner). Muana; Moaga. Samoa (Giinther); Vavau; .Amboina. 
3. Giinther, Fische der Sudsee, 59, as var. C of C. trifasrialus. Samoa. Vavau. 

This species is close to Pseufhipeiteu« moana, but the coloration is different from any specimen 
seen by us. We therefore regard it as a different species. 

755. Pseudupeneus bifasciatus (Lacepede). Matalau uliuli; Maga (young). Hawaii; Samoa; 

Rarotonga; Caroline Is. ; Solomon Is; Marcus I. 
[iluUus bifasciatus and MuUus trifasciatus Lac^pfede.) 
This species is common both at Hawaii and Satnoa, where it reaches a large size, and is highly 
valued as food. It is easily distinguished from related species by the two or three broad cross-shades, 
one under each dorsal. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. '275 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, called ttxilalait nliuli, dusky vi()U't-l)ro\vn, no red; traces of 
faint diffuse dusky crossbars, one under tirst dorsal, one under second, the thinl nn caudal peduncle; 
head with faint violet and golden specks and edgings; barbels black, yellow at tip; two faint paler 
cross-rings, one before and one behind dark bar on caudal peduncle; fins dusky; first dorsal dull 
bronze with pinkish rays; second dorsal and anal dull violet, with dull yellowish cross-streaks; caudal 
violet-black mottled with yellowish; ventral dull violet-bronze; jjectoral paler, similar; a dusky bar 
across its base. A younger example was a little more reddish. 

Another specimen from Apia was dark brownish gray, no red; three broad blackish cross-bands, 
the first at front of first dorsal, second under second dorsal, third on caudal peduncle; first dorsal 
l)lackish, tinged with dark red, olive at base, the rays pale violet; soft dorsal light olive with blue 
lines, and a broad black edge; caudal and anal similar; ventral dull red, shaded with black, a dusky 
bar across base of pectoral; pectoral pale reddish; barbels yellow. 

A specimen called marja (young), from Apia, wa.s dirty green, much marbled; a black bar below 
front of first dorsal and one below front of second dorsal; second dorsal and anal blackish, edged with 
pale; caudal dusky olive brown, pale-edged; ventral black, pale-edged; tirst dorsal brown; barbels 
yellow; head soiled and mottled olive. 

756. Pseudupeneus semifasciatus (Macleay). New Guinea. 

riiai' «< s. uiifasri„lif.< M;h'1mi\ . l'u<<: Linii. Soc. X. S. W. 18*4. SUS, Hood Bay. 

757. Pseudupeneus porphyreus Jenkins. Hawaii. 

758. Pseudupeneus chryserydros ( I.accpcde). itnliilfiu. Samoa; Hawaii; Tahiti; Fate (Seale); 

East Indies. 
Faruiiaieii)! xanth(,si>iliiiiis Bleeker, llulloides. .u, 1S74, Amboina. 

This species is common about Samoa, as also about Hawaii. It is well distinguished by its 
peculiar violaceous coloration, like the lees of wine, according to Commerson, and by the golden or 
pale area on the back of the tail. The barbels, as in Upeneus cyclostomus, are elongate. There seems 
to be no question that Lacepede's glowing description of the " Mullus rougeor " belongs to this species. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, very pale violet, pinkish and greenish, not nearly so dark as 
in Hawaii. 

759. Pseudupeneus cyclostomus (Lacepede). Samoa: Kast Indies. 

Of this species we have three large specimens from Pago Pago. The species resembles Pseudupe- 
neus chri/seiijdrus, but lacks the pale saddle on the tail, while the general color is clear red without 
markings. The barbels, as in Pseudupeneus chryserydros, are long, reaching past base of ventrals. The 
species is well rejiresented in Sauvage's figure of Upeneus cyclostomus. 

760. Pseudupeneus saffordi (Seale). Guam; East Indies. 

Vpeniiis cyrltistoiiuis Giinther. Fische der Sudsee, 60, 1K73, Mascarene I.; not of Lacepede. 
Upeneus chryserylhrm Sauvage. Poiss. Madagascar, 22.S: not of LucOpede. 
Upeneus saffordi Seale. Bishop Museum 1901, 72, Guam. 

This species was not seen by us. It is apparently the Upeneus cycloslomas of Giinther, with short 
liarbels, reaching preopercular margin, and with a pale area on the back of the tail. 

761. Pseudupeneus crassilabris (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Johnston I.; Papua. 
> Upeneus tuteus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Xat. Poiss.. vn. 521, 1S31, Isle de France. 
Upeneus crassilabris Cuvier tfc Valenciennes, op. eit., 523, Papua. 

762. Pseudupeneus chrysonemus Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

763. Pseudupeneus fraterculus (Cuvier t^ Valenciennes). Hawaii (Steindachner); Seychelles; 

Zanziliar. 

764. Pseudupeneus tBeniatus (Rner). Fiji; China?. 

Upeneus barbcrinnides Kner, Novara Fische, pi. iv, 81, China; not of Bleeker. 
Upeneus Ucnialus Kner, Sitz. .\k. Wiss. Wien 18G8, 13, Kanathia (Fiji). 
Parupcncus kneri Bleeker, Ned. Dierk., iv, 142, China; after Kner. 

This species was not taken by us, unless it should prove to be the young of Pseudupeneus rhrysoue- 
vius, which shows two pale lengthwise stripes on the upper anterior portion of the body in life. 



276 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

765. Pseudupeneus barberinus ( Lac^pede ) . Ta'iileUi. Samoa; Talau Is.; Paumotu Is.; Harvey 

I.; Kint;siiiill I.; Solomon Is.; East Indies. 

This widely diffused species is rather common about Samoa, where three large examples were 
taken. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, reddish gray, with bluish and yellowish streaks on head, 
the scales edged with bronze; a blackish brown stripe from snout through eye to last dorsal rays; a 
large dark brown spot at base of caudal; dorsal reddish, brown-edged in front; second dorsal and anal 
with obscure yellowish cross-streaks; caudal reddish, the rays yellowish; ventral and pectoral pale, 
tinged with yellowish; barbels white. 

A larger example redder, with marks fainter. 

766. Pseudupeneus barberinoides (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

767. Pseudupeneus indicus (Shaw). Ta'uleia; Lallai. Samoa; Tonga; Fiji; Waigiu (as U.waigi- 

enais Cuvier & Valenciennes); East Indies. 

Of this species we have two large specimens from Apia. The golden spot on the side of the back 
and the black spot on the back of the tail are characteristic. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, olive-green, each scale darker olive at edge; a large oblong 
golden yellow blotch under soft dorsal; a large black blotch before base of caudal; cheek olive, with 
blue streaks; dorsal olive, second dorsal faintly barred with brassy; anal pinkish, similarly barred; 
ventral pink; pectoral pinkish; caudal pale yellowish olive, the outer rays pink; ventral bright pink; 
barbels pinkish. 

768. Pseudupeneus pleurostigina (Bennett). Hawaii; Tahiti; (iilbertls.; East Indies. 

769. Pseudupeneus pleurospilos (Bleeker). Shortland I.; Solomon Is. (Seale); .Tapan;Ea,st Indies. 

770. Pseudupeneus preorbitalis (Smith & Swain). Johnston I.; southwest of Hawaii. 

771. Pseudupeneus filameutosus (Macleay). New Guinea. 
rpatuiatilaiNi iilosuf Miirlfiiy, I'roc. Linn. Soe. N. S. W. 1884, 2ni. Hood Bay. 

MTJLLOIDES Bleeker. 

772. Mulloides auriflamma (Furskal). J'la'oa; Vele. Samoa; Hawaii; New Guinea; (iuam; 

Borabora; Tuljuai; Tahiti and Xukuhiva (Seale); East Indies. 
/ I'pcncus alhcrimikks Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vii, 526, Guam. 

This species is abundant throughout the Pacific. We took several specimens in Pago Pag(5 and 
about a dozen in Apia. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia called ula'oa, olive, belly silvery, flushed with red; a golden 
stripe, very bright, with yellow shades above and below; a black bar across base of pectoral; ventral 
and anal blackish yellow; caudal and both dorsals plain golden; pectoral colorless; no bars or spots. 

Another specimen from Apia, light gray olive; back pinkish; opercles pink; a brownish yellow 
lateral band with yellow shades below; upper fins yellow; lower gray; yellow on sides of head; caudal 
dull yellow; barbels white. 

773. Mulloides vanicolensis (Cuvier A Valenciennes). Vanicolo; Johnston I. (Smith & Swain). 

774. Mulloides samoensis Giinther. Afolu; Fa sina (white or lady fish — the young). Hawaii; 

Samoa. 

This species is very abundant about Samoa, and scarcely less so in Hawaii. The small black spot 
on the side near the tip of the pectoral fin is very constant. 

In one specimen from Apia there was a golden orange lateral band somewhat interrupted. Another 
specimen from this locality was pale, a broad deep dull yellow lateral stripe with yellow shades above 
and below; yellow dashes on sides of head, besides coppery; a small dark brown spot above end of 
pectoral in lateral shade; first dorsal anteriorly deep yellow, fading behind; second dorsal pale yellow, 
caudal bright yellow; lower parts, barbels and fins pure white. 

The i'a sina is plainly the young of the (ifolu. 

775. Mulloides erythrinus Klunzinger. Hawaii; Laysan; Tahiti; Ea.st Indies. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 'J I I 

776. Mulloides flammeus Jordan & Evermann. Hawaii; Kaiati-a ami Tahiti (Seale: peiliaps 

tli»' yniHifrof .\f.]tlhic,,:ri). 

777. Mulloides pflugeri Steindachner. Hawaii. 

778. Mulloides zeylonicus (Cuvier A Valencienneti). New Guinea (Bleeker); Ceylon. 

Family TOX()TII).€. 
TOXOTES Cuvier. 

779. Toxotes jacalatrix (Pallas). New Guinea ( ilacleay ); Fate, New Hebrides (Seale); East 

Indies. 

Family SILL.VCIMD.-E. 

SILLAGO Cuvier. 

780. Sillago sihama (ForskaU. Admiralty Is. (Gunther); Bougainville Is. (Peters, Berl. Mon. 

IsVii, y36); East Indies. 

781. Sillago ciliata Cuvier & Valenciennes. Percy I.; New Guinea ( Macleay) ; Australia. 

782. Sillago insularis Castelnau. New Caledonia. 

Sillago ciliata or ijistilaris Castelnau, Proc. Zool. Soc. Vict. 1S73. 113. New Caledonia. 

783. Sillago gracilis ^lacleay. New Guinea. 

Sillagu i/mcilis Macleay, Proc. Linn. Scic. N. S. W. 18S4. 2T9. Hall Sound. 

Family MALAC.\.\THll).4i. 

MALACANTHTJS Cuvier. 

784. Malacanthus parvipinnis (Vaillant & Sauvage). Hawaii. 

OCEANOPS Jordan & Seale, new genus. 
('>c(iin(ijis Jordan c^ Seale, new genus of Malacanilddx i M. taloeiUatus Lacepede). 

785. Oceanops latovittata (Lac^pMe). Gatasami. Samoa; Palau Is.; Papua; East Indies. (PI. 

.w.xi.x.) 

This singularly beautiful fish is rather rare at Samoa. Two large specimens were taken at Pago 
Pago. The large size and brilliant blue coloration distinguish this species, in a very marked manner, 
from its dull gray-colored congeners. It has also a much longer, pike-like snout, thus unlike Mala- 
canthus plumieri a.nd parvipinnis. It may be held asthe type of a distinct subgenus or genus — Oceanops — 
this appellation being a translation of the native name. 

Lite colors of a specimen from Pago Pago called gatasami (eye of the sea), intense violet blue; 
back black, with the blue reduced to streaks; jet black lateral band; belly abruptly white; dusky 
across base of pectoral; dorsal dusky at base, abruptly grayish above; caudal black, with a white 
square, bluish white stripe above, upper angle brown; anal whitish; ventral whitish; pectoral blue. 

Family PSEUDOCHROMID^. 

PSEUDOCHKOMIS Mnller & Troschel. 

786. Pseudocliromis fuscus Muller & Troschel. Solomon Is.; Yajil.; Palau Is.; East Indies. 

PSEUDOGKAMMA Bleeker. 

787. Pseudogramma polyacanthus (Blcekeri. Tahiti: Fiji; .Marcus I.; Raiatea, East Indies. 
rseudocliromis polyacaiUlius Bleeker, Ternate. vii. 37.5, 1866. Ternate. Kncr. Snz. Ak. Wis."!. Wien 1867. 717. Fiji 

Guntlier, Fische der Sudsee, 159, taf. 98, fig. A, Tahili. Raiatea. Fowler, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1900, 623 
Tahiti. 
Pseudogramma polyacantlius, Bryan & Herre. Bishop Museum, vol. ii, no. 1. 1903, 139, Marcus I. 



278 BULLETIN (IK THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Family CIKKHITIU.^. 
CHEILODACTYLTIS Cavier. 

788. Cheilodactylus vittatus (iarrett. Hawaii. 

CIEEHITUS Lac^pede. 

789. Cirrhitus marmoratus Lacepede. Polali. Hawaii; Rarotonga; Samoa. 

This species, very common at Hawaii, is not rare about the reefs of Samoa. Six specimens w^ere 
taken at Apia. 

790. Cirrhitus oxycephalus J'.eiinett. Bonliam I.; Marshall group; F-ast Indies. 

PARACIREHITES Bleeker. 

791. Paracirrliites forsteri (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; Marquesas Is. (Seale). 

792. Paracirrhites arcatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; New Ciuinea. 

793. Paraoirrhites cinctus (Giinther). Hnvaii. 

794. Paraoirrhites hemistictus (Giinther). Kingsniill I.; Tahiti. 
Cirrhilcs hcmislictus Giinther, Fische der Sudsee. 69, taf. .50, tig. B, Kingsmill, Tahiti. 

795. Paracirrhites polystictus (Giinther). Tahiti; Kingsmill I. 
Cirrhites pulystictus GuTtther, Fische der Stidsee, 70, taf. .50. fig. a, Kingsmill, Tahiti. 

796. Paraoirrhites melanotus (Giinther). Tahiti; Raiatea. 

ai rhiles mclanotus GiiiitheT, Fische der Siidsee, 72, taf. 82, fig. c, 1873, Tahiti, Raiatea. 

797. Paraoirrhites punctatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Savaii (Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1868, 

16).. 
This species, obtained at Samoa l)y Kner, was not seen by us. 
CIRRHITOIDEA Jenkins. 

798. Cirrhitoidea bimacula Jenkins. Hawaii. 

Family P(IMACE.\TRII).€. 
PREMNAS Cuvier. 

799. Premnas biaculeatus (IMoch). New Guinea (^lacleay ); East Indies. 

AMFHIPRION Bloch & Schneider. 

800. Amphiprion melanopus Bleeker. Samoa; Tonga; Ponape; Solomon Is.; Guam; Wood- 

lark I.: New (h.iiiea; East Indies; D'Entrecasteaux Is. (Macleay.) 
Ami>liipno}i mehuwpiis Bleeker, Amboina, Nat. Tijds. Ind., in, 561, Amboma. Gunther, Cat., iv, 8. 
Prochilus melanopus Bleeker. Atlas, Pomacentridse, 26, tab. cccci, tig. 7, 1877, Singapore. Ceram, Ternate, Amboini 

Solnr. New Guinea. 
Amphi]"i">' t,,if,i,i,i„m Gunther, Fische der Sudsee, 225, Tonga, Samoa, Ponape, Solomon Is. Seale, Bishop 

Mn- 1-1 -' '.n„m, not of Bloch. 

AmpI,,. ' ,. rhloUiire, Fauna Woodlark, 198, 1857, Woodlark I. 

Of this ^1M ' I. - 1 ill I I Kcimens were taken by us at Apia, and one at Pago Pago. The specimens 
agree well with lileeker's plate and with each other, and the species is no doubt a valid one. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, deep reddish brown, the caudal peduncle bright brownish, 
tfie anterior region deep orange brown or cinnamon; a pale violet strijie across head edged before and 
behind with indigo-blue; ventral and anal black; dorsal reddish brown; paler behind; pectoral deep 
cinnamon brown; caudal pale brownish yellow. 

801. Amphiprion arion De Vis. South Seas. 

Ampluprion arion De Vis, Proe. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1884. 4.50. South Seas. 

802. Amphiprion polymnus (Bloch). Palau Is. ; Ponape; East Indies; Japan. 

According to Giinther this species, with melanopus, tricolo ■, chrysoplerus, and xanthurus, is based 
on variants of Amphiprion ephippium. Tliis view is open to question. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 279 

803. Amphiprion tricolor Giinther. Palau Is.; New Guinea; East Indies. 

804. Amphiprion xanthurus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Samoa (Giinther); Ponape. 

805. Amphiprion chrysopterus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Kingsmill I. (Giinther) : Bourbon I. 

806. Amphiprion bicinctus Riippell. Solomon Is. ; Guam; East Indies. 

807. Amphiprion percula (Laoepede). Borabora; Vanicolo; New Guinea; Xew Ireland; New Brit- 

ain; Solomon Is. 

808. Amphiprion papuensis Macleay. New Guinea. 
Amphiprion jmpucttsis Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 18«3, 271. 

809. Amphiprion perideraion Bleeker. Palau Is. ; East Indies. 

810. Amphiprion bifasciatus (Bloch). New Guinea; East Indies. 

811. Amphiprion rosenbergi Bleeker. New Guinea. 

POMACENTRUS Lac^pede. 

812. Pomacentrus pavo (Bloih). Tmij/oii. Samoa; Tahiti; Ponape; Bonham I.; Woodlark I.; 

New Britain (as J'omacentrus notaliis De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. \V. ],SS4, 4-51); East 

Indies. (PI. XL, fig. 1.) 

This beautiful little fish is very abundant about the coral reefs of Samoa, and is the handsomest 

of all blue fishes called taupou, or damsel. We have about 100 specimens. In the smaller examples 

the back and sides are nearly uniform sky-blue. In the adult the blue becomes differentiated as 

streaks and lines on each scale, the orange ground color nearly hidden by the blue markings. 

Pomacmtrm nolalus De Vis seems to agree fully with Pomacentrus pato. It is doubtless the same 
species. 

Life colors were noted as follows in various specimens of P. pavo: 

(1) Specimen from Apia, called taupou. Brilliant sky-blue, grayer lielow and on caudal peduncle; 
a dark steely edge on each scale; head profusely spotted with blue, the spots small and darker-edged; 
a large black ocellus on opercular angle; dorsal blue, deep blue on distal half, the tips of first soft rays 
almost black, posterior rays mostly golden; caudal golden, pale blue mesially at base; anal pale blue, 
distally pale olive; pectoral and ventral slightly yellowish. 

(2) From Apia. Deep violet-blue, clear, the dorsal, anal and caudal, with caudal peduncle, 
shading into bright golden; base of dorsal and anal deep blue; a small opercular spot, none on body 
or axil; pectoral pale yellowish; ventral blackish. 

(3) From Pago Pago. Deepest violet-blue, intensely dark blue on back; head with many pale 
sky-blue dots and curved lines; two from eye to mouth; a blue line around chin; caudal peduncle 
and posterior part of soft dorsal and anal with whole caudal deep orange yellow; a deep black spot on 
opercular angle; axil with a blue dot rather faint; no spot in axil of dorsal and anal; spinous dorsal 
and front of soft dorsal deep blue, edged with sky-blue; ventral and pectoral pale bluish; anal and dorsal 
pointed; caudal pointed with unequal lobes; breast blue, with dark streaks. 

(4) From Apia. Bright blue, with indigo markings on head; a black opercular spot with a white 
one before it; spinous dorsal deep blue; soft dorsal golden; caudal pure yellow; anal pale yellow; no 
fin spots; ventral blue; belly pale blue; pectoral colorless. 

(5) From Pago Pago. Vivid blue head, shoulders and back, with numerous spots of light blue, 
also violet; small black opercular spot; axil unspotted; first dorsal blue, with blackish edge; second 
dorsal golden, black-edged; no black spot; caudal and caudal peduncle bright yellow; anal blue; 
ventral dusky, jiectoral bluish. 

813. Pomacentrus cyanomus Bleeker. New (iuinea (Macleay). 

814. Pomacentrus prosopotaenia Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

815. Pomacentrus tseniurus Bleeker. Tahiti and Fatd (Scale); East Indies. 

816. Pomacentrus bifasciatus Bleeker. Boston I.; East Indies. 



280 BULLETIN Oi' THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

817. Pomacentrus trimaculatus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Palau Is.; Guam; Marcus I.; New- 

Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 
This species is easily recognizable by the black spots on the side of the back. It was not taken 
by us. Bleeker identifies P. perspicillahis with P. trimaciUalus, but the description of the former is too 
scanty to permit of certainty. 

818. Pomacentrus notophthalmus Bleeker. Woodlark I.; Fat6; New Hebrides (Scale); East 

Indies. 
This s|>ecies, not taken by us, is very well marked by its coloration, the anterior dorsal region 
being violet-brown, the rest of the body largely yellow. 

819. Pomacentrus vaiuli Jordan & Scale, new specie.s. Vainli Samoa. (PI. xl, fig. 2.) 

Head 3.50 in length; depth 2; eye 2.8.5 in head; dorsal .xiii, 14; anal ii, 16; scales 3-30-9, twenty 
scales in lateral line proper, which ends under posterior third of soft dorsal fin; interorbital equal to 
eye; snout 3.40 in head. 

Body compressed, elevated, the upper and lower outlines evenly rounded; depth of caudal 
peduncle 2 in head, its length 2.75; mouth small; maxillary reaching to below anterior margin of eye, 
a single series of rather flat cutting teeth in each jaw; no teeth on vomer or palatines; preorbital 
rather wide, 2 in maxillary, its lower posterior margin strongly toothed; suborbital very narrow, about 
one-half as wide as preobital, its lower margin toothed; opercle entire; preopercle denticulate; gill- 
rakers rather blunt, the longest less than width of pupil; base of dorsal 1.75 in length of fish without 
caudal, its longest ray 1.20 in head; posterior extremities of dorsal and anal pointed; base of nnal 
equal to head; pectoral equal to head ; first rays of ventral somewhat prolonged and filiform, reaching 
to base of anal; caudal forked, its lobes slightly longer than head. 

Color in spirits, purplish, lighter with yellowish wash on upper third of body, the colors thus being 
reversed from the usual coloring in fishes; scales with blue dots in the center which form numerous 
blue longitudinal lines on body, about 17 on each side, some more or less irregular, the upper one of the 
lines extending from tip of snout over interorbital space along base of dorsal; the second has its origin 
on nuchal region; the third has its origin at posterior of orbit; two narrow blue lines from orbit to 
mouth; a di-stinct black opercular spot; a black blue-edged ocellus on the base of the 7 posterior soft 
dorsal rays; dorsal yellowish with dark margin; caudal bright yellow; pectoral bright yellow; ventral 
and anal dark blue; the anus has 3 bands of blue dots. 

Life colors were noted in various specimens as follows: 

(1) Specimen from Apia called vaiuli (blue water). Brilliant deep blue, darkest below; the back 
abruptly orange-yellow with two blue stripes on each side, breaking up behind into rows of dots; no 
median stripe; dorsal orange with blue edge and blue dots; soft dorsal with a large, black, blue-edged 
ocellus; caudal and pectoral golden; ventral and anal blue-black. 

(2) From Apia. Deep purplish; dull golden about gill-openings and on tail; sides of head and 
region of gill-opening with numerous sky-blue spots; a small round black spot on angle of opercle 
above black speck in axil; dorsal brownish, dull golden behind with a black, bluish-edged ocellus 
on base of soft dorsal; obscure blackish band along middle of spinous dorsal; anal brownish, with 
four or five oblique irregular blackish bands; pectoral and caudal golden; ventral blue-black. 

(3) From Pago Pago. Iridescent purple-blue on sides in post-pectoral region, fading behind into 
brown-blue; above rich umber with blue in longitudinal seHes of dots; dorsal light umber with a very 
narrow marginal bright blue line; anal purplish brown; pectoral thin clear yellow, purple-violet 
below; dorsal with black ocellus w;ith narrow blue margin on posterior end. 

(4) From Apia. Back golden brown, grayish on tail; sides and belly deep blue; a row of dark 
blue spots along each row of scales; two dark blue stripes from snout to dorsal; dorsal golden brown, 
blue-shaded; a large, black ocellus, blue-edged, on the base of last soft rays; caudal pure golden; anal 
blue-black, with two oblique shades across it; pectoral golden; ventral blue-black. 

The young of this species is remarkable for the reversal of the coloration, the back being golden, 
the lower parts violet black. With age, the dark coloration extends upward on the back. The black 
opercular spot and the black ocellus at the end of the soft dorsal remain the same at all ages. The 
violet spots on the side grow fainter with age but do not disappear. 

Fifteen specimens from Apia and one from Pago Pago. The type, no. 51740, U. S. National 
Museum, is 2.75 inches long. 



THE FISHKS OF SAMOA. 281 

820. Pomacentrus tripunctatus Cuvier & Valenciennes. Vanicolo; Fiji; East Indies. 
I'miHicciitnts trlimiicftifu^ Cnvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poi.ss., V, 421, 1830, Vanicolo. 

i l^iiinttrnilrus trilincutus Ehrenberg in Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., v, 428, ISHO, Red Sea. Sauvage, Poiss. 

Madagascar, 423. 
Pumactntnis kriiwmelopon Kner. Sitz. Ak. Wis. Wien 18J8, 5G, Kandavu. 
Thi.s sjiecies was not taken by us. The black ocellus on the Iwck of the tail seems to be a distinc- 
tive character. It is doubtful whether Pomacenlrus dorsalis of Japan is the same sjiecies. 

821. Pomacentrus amboinensis Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay). 

822. Pomacentrus bankanensis Bleeker. Guam; East Indies. 



823. Pomacentrus semifasciatus Giinther. Boston I., Marshall (iroup. 
I'umanntriis scmifdsciatus GiiiitlicT, Fische fler Siidsee, 22(5, with plate, 1873, Boston I. 

This species was not seen by us. 

824. Pomacentrus jenkinsi Jordan & Evernianii. Hawaii. 

825. Pomacentrus analis Macleay. New Guinea. 
P.jjiiamifrus analis .Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 18S3, 3G4. 

826. Pomacentrus melanopterus Bleeker. Tusina; Tu'u'u. Samoa; East Indies. 
Pomarentrns inegalops Sauvage, Poiss, Madagascar, 426; after Li^nard. 

Ten spetdniena from Apia. This species is easily separated from P. nigncans and other black 
species by the large black spot covering the whole base of the pectoral. From most of the black 
species it may be known by the presence of 13 dorsal spines, there being but 12 in P. nigricans and P. 
lindiis. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, called tu'u'u, all black, a large jet black spot or cross bar on 
base of pectoral; belly with coppery shade; gray spots on scales. 

827. Pomacentrus littoralis Kuhl & Van Hasselt. Tahiti; Caroline Is. ; Waigiu; Guam; Shortland 

1.; Raiateaand Makatea (Seale); East Indies. 

This sjiecies is distinguished by the presence of 13 dorsal spines, a plain dusky coloration with a 
black spot on the tip of the opercle only, and a strongly serrate suborbital. In P. inornalm, which .is 
similarly colored, this bone is nearly entire. In P. nigricans, P. lividus, and its allies or variations 
there are 12 dorsal spines. 

This species was not taken by us. The species called /'. , jNinyiiinliix and P. chrysurus are almost 
certainly identical. They would be certainly placed in P. Iiii.n'ilis \v< re it not stated that the caudal 
is yellow, and there is no mention of an opercular spot. Accurdiu-^- t<i Sauvage, iheldtoralis of Bleeker 
is a different species, properly called Pomacentrus pristiger Cuvier & N'alenciennes. 

828. Pomacentrus inornatus De Vis. Samoa. 

Pomacentrus inornatus (misprinted niomatus) De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. X. S. \V. 1884, 451, South Seas. 
Three specimens from Apia. This fish is plain blackish, without spot. The nose is distinctly 
blacker than the rest of the body. There are 13 dorsal spines, largely enveloped in the scaly sheath, 
and the suborbital is almost entire, without the strong retrorse serrations seen in most of the other 
black species. The species is certainly identical with P. inornatus of De Vis. Pomacenlrus emarginatus 
seems to differ in the strongly serrated preorbital. 

829. Pomacentrus nigricans Lac^pede. Tu'u'u. Samoa; Fiji; Tonga; Palau; Pmiaiie; Tahiti; 

Raiatea; Manjuesas I. and Fate (Seale); East Indies. 
{J'oinacentrus sculoiiscus Quoy & Gaimard; Pomacentrus tseniops Lesson,) 
This species is very abundant in all the pools on all the coral reefs of Upolu and Tutuila. It njay 
be known from its intimate associate, P. lividus, with which Bleeker has confounded it, by the narrow 
preorbital, more e.xtensively scaled forward. In both species there are 12 dorsal spines, and the 
preorbital is strongly serrated. Usually the color of the body is plain dusky olive, without blue 
spots. The dusky spot or shade on soft dorsal and on axil of pectoral is variously developed, some- 
times very distinct, sometimes obscure. The blue stripe on the sulicirbital is usually but not alwavs 

B. B. I-M'.lO.S— 19 



282 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Either this species or P. albqfcrsciatm must be the original P. nigricans of Lacepfede. In view of 
tlie fact that albofasciatus is perhaps a color variation, or else the female of scolopseus, we may adopt 
the name nigricans for the latter or for both. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, greenish black; a sharp pale streak below eye; base of 
pectoral black; spinous dorsal, anal and base of soft dorsal and caudal blackish; pectoral bright 
yellow; rest of soft dorsal and caudal bright yellow, brightest behind. 

A specimen called (u'M'rt, from Apia, was sooty; middle of body paler olivaceous, darker above, livid 
bluish below; two blackish cross shades under front of dorsal; posterior parts and head black; opercle, 
iris, space below eye violet; axil black; fins all black, paler behind; axils of dorsal and anal very black. 

A young individual from the same locality was olive; brownish anteriorly, yellowish behind mid- 
dle; dorsal dull orange, with a large jet-black spot in the axil; caudal golden; anal black, with orange 
shade; pectoral golden with a black spot in the axil; ventral black. 

The original Pomacentrus nigricans is described from an unknown locality in the Pacific. It is 
plain blue-black, the depth half the length, the preorbital serrate; dorsal xu, 17, anal ii, 15. It can 
be no other species, as the other black ones have. 13 dorsal spines. Pomacentrus nigricans of Quoy & 
Gaimard and of later writers is Pomacentrus jenkinsi, a species with 13 dorsal spines. 

830. Pomacentrus albofasciatus Schlegel. Ulavapua. Samoa; Palaul. ; East Indies. 

This species or form is abundant about Samoa, swarming in the crevices of the reefs. We have 
over a hundred specimens from Apia and Pago Pago. It is dull-colored, usually blue-black, with a 
broad whitish cross-band on the posterior part of the body. This band is never wholly absent. 
There is also a black pectoral spot and a black blotch, not oeellated on the last rays of the dorsal. 
This species is regarded by Giinther as a variety of P. scolopseus. We find no difference except in the 
presence of the broad pale cross-band in albofasciatus. This is wanting in S. nigricans. It is usually 
but not always present in the form or species called eclipticus, which has in addition a short very white 
bar before the black dorsal spot. The three forms agree in all other regards, and are probably, as 
Dr. Giinther has indicated, variations of Pomacentrus scolopseus, or Pomacentrus nigrican.'t, to adopt the 
earliest name given to any of these dusky species with 12 dorsal spines. All the dusky species of 
Pomacentrus have 13 dorsal spines, excepting Pomacentrus nigricans and its allies or variations. Eight 
of our specimens of Pomacentrus albofasciatus are females. Two are apparently male, but may possibly 
be spent females. Both males and females are found among the specimens of nigricans and eclipticus. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, brown with vertical pale blue streaks on many of the 
scales; a broad, yellowish-white cross-band under last dorsal spines; a violet-pink streak below eye; 
violet scale above axil; axil black, as also base of pectoral; dorsal colored like body; first three spines 
black, rest pale; soft dorsal with large black blotch in axil; caudal dull olive-gray; anal similar, with 
violet dots on scales at base, and with violet edge; ventral dusky with thin violet edge; pectoral dull. 

A specimen from Apia, called ulavapua, was dirty olive; a yellowish cross-baml under soft dorsal. 

831. Pomacentrus eclipticus Jordan & Seale, new species. Samoa. 

Head 3.20 in length; depth 2.20; eye 3 in head, equal to interorbital space; dorsal xii, 1.5; anal ii, 
12; scales 3-29-9, 19 in lateral line. 

Body oblong, compressed, elevated, scales covering head and body; caudal peduncle 2 in head, its 
depth equal to its length; mouth small, its angle under anterior margin of eye; a single row of rather 
flat cutting teeth in each jaw, no teeth on vomer or palatines; opercle with a single flat spine on mar- 
gin; preopercle strongly denticulate also, its width at angle of mouth equal to pupil, directly below 
median line of eye, preorbital width two-thirds of pupil; gillrakers not very sharp, the longest two- 
thirds width of pupil, 9 on lower limb; spines of dorsal graduated posteriorly, the last being the longest, 
2 in head; first dorsal spine less than eye; middle ray of soft dorsal the longest, 1.45 in head; base of 
anal 1.25 in head, its longest spine about equal to base; pectoral 1.10 in head, its tip on line with 11th 
scale of lateral line; first rays of ventral slightly elongate, extending to anal opening, the length 
slightly greater than head; caudal forked, the lobes rounded, the upper one slightly the longer, about 
ei|ual to head. 

Color in spirits ranges from light yellowish brown to dark brown, almost black; the type specimen 
is light yellowish brown, with slight shading of dusky on head and upper surface of body; all speci- 
mens show a distinctive black spot in axil of soft dorsal with a white spot of equal size and shape just 
anterior to the dark spot; in size this dark spot is equal to the orbit in height and two-thirds of orbit 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 283 

in width; a very distinct black spot <m the upper base of pectorals which extends into the axil of the 
tins; a more or less distinct blue line on preorbitals, and there may be 3 or 4 indistinct pearl-colored 
spots on the opercles or cheeks; dorsal fin witli a black blotch near margin of 3-4 spines, with a 
yellowish white line below; in general, the tins follow the shading of color shown on the body, the 
dorsal with a narrow margin of dusky, the anal with a dusky blotch; ventral with a dusky wash; 
iris blue. 

Life colors of a specimen from .\pia, dull brownish, paler behind middle of body; fins plain; a 
large black spot on last rays of soft dorsal; a large golden one before it; a black spot in anal axil, one 
in pectoral axil, and one on opercle. 

A specimen from Pago Pago was black, blacker on base of last dorsal and anal rays; a short, 
vertical wliitish bar just before the spot on dorsal; a black blotch on ba.se of pectoral, covering axil; 
fins all black, the caudal and soft dorsal a little paler at tip; iris brownish; preopercle serrate, a faint 
rather broad blue streak below eye to tip of snout. 





Fig. W.—Pomacnilrus tiUplicus Jordan & Sealc 



Of this abundant species or form, we have about 30 examples from Apia and 10 from Pago Pago. 
The species may be known by its plain coloration, the pectoral spot being distinct and the dorsal spot 
still more so, preceiled by a short vertical bar, which is typically pure white. Among our specimens are 
both males and females, a fact which shows that this is not the male of Pomacei>trui< alhofascialnK. 
For the present we may regard it as a distinct species. 

The ty[)e is no. 51735, U. S. National Museum, from Apia, length 3 inches. 
832. Pomacentrus lividus (Forster). Tu'xi'usueuli: rusina. Samoa; Vavau; Ponape; Boston I.; 
Borabora; Huahine; Santa Cristiiia; Fiji; Marcus 1.: Tahiti; (niam; Falo; Xukahiva and 
Raiatea (Seale). 
Ch:ii,xlon liridus (Forstei), Bloch i Schneider, Syst, Ichth., as-a, IsiM, Bolabola. 
Ei{i>omaca7trus Hindus, Bleeker, Pomac, 73, 1877, East Indies generally. 
Pomarnifrus lii^lus, Sauvage, Poiss. Madaga-scar, 426. 

Pomnrrnlnif pinictahi!:. Quoy & Gaimard. Voy. Uranie, 395, taf. 64, fig. 1. l.^L'J. He de France. Giintlier, Cat., iv, 
■2:1 Kn. r. Xnvnri Fische, 243, Tahiti, Nicobar I.«. Seale, Bishop Jlnsenm. 1901, SO, Guam. Bryan & Herre, 
I;.-: ■ '• "I - .■ . :'.«i3, Marcus I. 
Pniin'' ,/^</<?es Bleeker, Amboina and Ceram, 286. 

Poni'i' , ' ,,,,,,„,.■ Bleelier, Ceram, 11, 709, Ceram. Gunther, Cat., iv, 30, East Indies. GUnther, Fische tier 

Sudsec, 2J'.i, tai , Boston I., Upolu, Vavau, Ponape, Huahine, Borabora, .Santa Cristina. 
Pomacra(ru« ri(iaHHS Sauvage, Bull. Phil. Soc, ni, 1,S79, 20(i, Viti Levu (Fiji). 
This large species is very abundant in the rock pools of the coral reefs of Samoa. It is found in 
company with Pomacentrus nigricans, which it much resembles. It is, however, easily distinguished 



284 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

by the broad naked preorbital, a character well shown in ( ninthf-r's plate. The l)lue or w hitish spnts 
are generally conspicuous, especially on the sides of the head. 

We can not see that Pomacenlrxis vitianus Sauvage differs in any respect from PomaceiUrus lividuii. 

Life colors of various specimens were noted as follows: 

(1) From Pago Pago. Violet-black, with three obscure black cro.ss-bands; eye bluish; a violet 
stripe below eye to snout; a violet shade on opercle; a faint dark blotch at base of pectoral; no spot, 
either black or white, in axil of dorsal; fins all black. 

(2) Same locality. Black body and fins; axil with a black spot extending on base of pectoral; 
anal edged with violet-blue; tins all black. 

(3) From same locality; specimen called i'limna (white tail). All black, unspotted; axil and 
broad bar across base of pectoral black; edge of dorsal, anal, and caudal dull whitish. 

(4) From Apia. Grayish black mottled with sooty gray; a round black opercular spot; no other 
markings; ventral black. 

(5) From Apia. Dull olive brown, each scale posteriorly with a black spot; dorsal dusky, the 
soft dorsal dull yellow at base, with a curved black bar behind it; anal similarly marked; caudal dull 
yellow at base; pectoral dull orange; ventral brownish. 

(6) From Apia; fins low. All grayish black; base of dorsal, anal, and caudal golden washed; 
axil dark. 

833. Pomacentrus devisi Jordan & Scale, new name. South Seas. 

Puinaniitrua irijasrmtitf De Vis. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. \V. 1S84. -I.'.-J. South Seas; mime preoccupied. 

834. Pomacentrus onyx De Vis. South Seas. 

Pumacciitrus onyx De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 1«84, 4.51, South Seas. 

ABTJDEFDUF" ForskM. 

(Ghi]>hko<lon Lacepede; Sleyastcs Jenyns; Chrijsiptera Swain.son; Euschistlodus Gill; Parngh/phi- 
doihiii, Glyphidodontops, Hemiglyphidodon, and Amblyglyphidodon Bleeker. ) 

835. Abudefduf sordidus (Forskal). Ulavapua. Samoa; Hawaii; Tahiti; Eaiatea; Bonham I.; 

Fate and Makatea (Seale); East Indies. 
This species, recognizable by its large size, by faint dark cross-bands, and the black spot below 
the axil of the dorsal, is common throughout the tropical Pacific. It is abundant both at Hawaii and 
Samoa, but is found among lava rocks only, not about the coral reefs. A specimen from Apia in life 
had six dark cross-bands and the usual spot at base of last dorsal ray. 

o We have referred the question of the propriety of the use of Abudefduf instead of Gtyphisodon, and of the rejection of 
Ahuhamrur, Farer, and other quasi subgeneric names of Forslial, to our friend Dr. Leonard .Stejneger. From a letter dated 
November 23, 1904, we quote his view of the matter, with which we fully concur: 

" Forskal, we are informed, based his nomenclature and systematic arrangement principally on Linnaeus. 10th ed., 
probably the only systematic work he had with him. It is therefore of importance to examine into the "subdivisiones" 
of genera which Linnaeus employed. He has four kinds, for instance: 

1. Pe}-ca. p. 289. 3. Salmo, p. 308. 
X. Pinnis dorsalibns 2 distinctis. X. TruttEe. 

XX. Dorso monopterygio. etc., etc. XX. Osmeri. 

2. Cimex. p. 441. XXX. Ooregoni. 

a. Apteri. 4. Gryllm, p. 42.i. 

b. Scutellati. X. Mantis. 
r. Coleoptrati. etc. XX. Acridia. 

XXX. Bulla, etc. 
Only the fourth kind of subdivision corresponds exactly to our subgenus, but the names of subdivision 3 are by common 



The question as to Forsk^'s names then resolves itself to which of these categories they are to be referred. If they 
are used as subgenera, or in a subgeneric sense like category 3, we must accept them. 

It seems then to me that Abudefduf comes within category 4, Both Chwtodon and Acanlliiiru^ are in the singular, and 
Abudefditf is in no manner distinguishable from them. 

On the other hand, Perca dentibus Louti. Daba, Scams derUibus Sidjan, Abu djubbe, Harid, fall under category 1. 

The subdivisions of Scisena (p. 44) seem to me to be very much of a similar character, or, rather, they correspond 
almost exactly to the modem way of subdividing "eommode" such large genera according to groups of species, which we 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 285 

836. Abudefduf septemfasciatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Mittu; Alala sayii. Samoa; (iuam; 

Fate; Shortland I.; Rarotonga; Raiatea and Makatea (Seale); East Indies. 
Of this well-marked species we have four large examples from Apia. Life colors of one of tht;se, 
called mutu, dull olive, with black bars, six wider than interspaces; silvery streaks faint along rows 
of scales; pale whitish streak along spinous dorsal; everythingel.se pale. 

837. Abudefduf saxatilis (Linn:tnis). Samoa; Waigiu; Tubuai (Seale); Marcus I.; East Indies; 

Japan. 
This species, common from Japan to the Red Sea, is occasionally taken in the South Seas. We 
have one large example, corresponding to Abudefduf waigiemis from Apia. In Hawaii it is replaced 
by Abtidefdvf abdomhialis, and in America by the ecjually closely related Abudefduf marc/iiiatus. 

838. Abudefduf abdominalis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; Laysaii. 

839. Abudefduf coelestinus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Fill muiia. Samoa; Ulietca; New Guinea; 

Waigiu; Tahiti; Kaiatea; Fat6 and Shortland Is. (Seale). (PI. XLi, fig. 1.) 
This species is very common about Samoa, nearly a hundred specimens being taken at Apia and 

i'ago Pago. It is perfectly well distinguished from Abudefduf sa.mtilis, and rarely inhabits the same 

waters. Its life color is pale sky-blue, not olive-green, and the black stripe on each lobe of the caudal 

is constant. 

A specimen from Apia in life was vivid sky-blue with paler streaks along scales; cross-bands jet 

lilack, a Vilack stripe on each caudal lobe. 

840. Abudefduf curacao (Bloch). Xew^ Guinea (Macleay); Shortlan<l I. (Seale); East Indies; 

Japan. 

841. Abudefduf dicki (Lienard). Tu'u'u. Samoa; Ponape; Guam; East Indies. (PI. xli, tig. 2.) 
i;l!ilihisodon unifasciatus Kner & Steindachner, Sitz. Ak. \Vis.«. Wien 1867, 37.5, Samoa. 

Of this handsome and well-marked species half a dozen specimens were taken at Apia. Life 
colors of one of these, called tuUi' u, golden brown, dark, each scale with a vertical bar of dark blue; a 
large jet-black crescent from front of soft dorsal across body and covering most of anal; behind this 
abruptly pale orange- red, the color covering caudal peduncle, caudal and last rays of dorsal and anal; 
older examples have color deeper, clear orange-red behind black crescent; pectoral bright golden 
yellow, dusky behind; ventral blackish; head plain. 

842. Abudefduf lacrymatus (Quoy & Gaimard). Pa samusama (yellow tail). Samoa; Guam; 

Yap; HowlandL; East Indies. 

Of this well-marked species, black, with bluish white well differentiated spot", we have three 
specimens from Apia. 

Life colors of a specimen called i'u samamma, black, with scattered round spots of deep violet-blue, 
on head, nose, back and sides, also on dorsal; caudal peduncle, caudal and posterior part of soft 
dorsal abruptly pale rayish yellow, the color of the ginger flower; fins otherwise black, the anal 
washed with orange; dorsal and spinous anal with violet spots; ventral black, edged with blue; axil 
a little dusky. 

Another specimen was black (brownish) with bright violet shade on opercle and preorbital and 
numerous violet-blue spots on spinous dorsal, which has a narrow blue edging; axil black, dorsal 
black, its la-it rays abruptly bright orange; caudal dusky orange-brown; anal black with pale blue 
anterior edge; pectoral dusky; ventral blackish. 

843. Abudefduf behni (Bleeker). Samoa; Rarotonga (Seale) . 

Of this species, pale brownish black, with a black axillary spot, we have one fine specimen 
from Apia. 

cio not wish to split up nomenclatorially. It is as if I should say the enormous genus of Eana can he subdivided for the 
sake of convenience into (1) the temporaria 'roup; (2) the esciilenia group, etc. That Forsk&l (or his editor) uses capitals 
and an upper case capital initial means nothing, for he also has " (C) IinntaculaUe" exactly like Abu bamrur. 

The case of the Scuenas, i. e., Abu hamnir, etc., is not exactly like that of AbudefduJ, and I believe there is just 
difference enough to draw the line ju^t between them. I do not Ijelieve they fullill the conditions for being subgenera, 
while Ahudcfduf AcK-f." 



286 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

844. Abudefduf melas (Bleeker). Laysan (Steindachner); East Indies. 

845. Abudefduf nigrifrons (Macleay). New Guinea (Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S.W. 1884, 271). 

846. Abudefduf bimaculatus (Macleay). New Guinea. 

847. Abudefduf leucogaster (Bleeker). Shortland I. (Seale) ; East Indies. 

848. Abudefduf pallidus (De Via). New Guinea. 
AhuJ,-/d,i/j,,:lli'l:'s Ui- Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 18*1, 4.52. 

849. Abudefduf imparipennis (Vaillant & Sauvage). Hawaii. 

850. Abudefduf filamentosus (Macleay). New Guinea. 
Ahndrjilii/iilamailwiis Macleay, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. ia«3, 3fi.s. 

851. Abudefduf plag-iometopon (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay). 

852. Abudefduf emamo (Lesson). Borabora. 
GlUphisiKhii, niiamn L.'ssoli, Voy. CoquiUc, 190, 1830, Borabora. 

853. Abudefduf sindouis (Jordan & Everioann). Hawaii. 

854. Abudefduf bankieri (Richardson). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

855. Abudefduf anabatoides (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 

856. Abudefduf glaucus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Samoa; Guam; East Indies. 
aiypkieodon glaucus Cuvier & Valenelenne.s, Hist. Nat. Poiss.,v. 475, 1830. Guam. 

Glyphisodan modestus Schlegel, Amphipr., 23, tab. 6, fig. 2, East Indies. Bleeker, Pomacentrirlfe, 131. Bleeker, Atlas 

Ichth., tab. IV, fig. 9, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Amboina. Giinther, Cat., iv, 55, Java. 
aiyphisodon phaiosoma Bleeker, Verb. Bat. Gen., .xxii, Ichth. Bali, 9, Bali. 
This species is common about Samoa, where about 100 specimens were taken. It resembles 
Abudefduf zonatus, but is of a washed-out blue color in life without white bar or black ocellus. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, pale sooty olive, yellowish on belly; fins all grayish; pre- 
opercle and preorbital with pale edge; a dull orange tint on soft dorsal and caudal; pectoral deep 
yellow, soiled with dusky; anal dark-edged anteriorly. 

Another specimen from Apia was violet-blackish with green luster; fins all pale bluish with 
yellowish tinge; ventral bright yellow; no fin spots; three whitish spots violet-tinged on sides on 
level of pectoral, 0-shaped; more of the.se on other side and irregular. 

857. Abudefduf zonatus( Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tu'u'u. Samoa; Fiji; New Guinea; Eastlndies. 
aiyphisodon zonatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, 4.S3, 1830, New Guinea. Bleeker, Pomacentrida;, 

138, and Atlas, 407, fig. 3, Cocos. Java, Borneo, Celebes, Ceram, Amboina, New Guinea. 
aiyphisodon brovmriggii Gunther, Fische der Sudsee, 232, taf. 127, figs, c, E, a; not oJ Bennett. 
aiyphisodon rami Bleeker, Kokos, 48, Cocos I. 
aiyphisodon atbocinctus Knor, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 351, Fiji. 
aiyphisodon Imcozona Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, 3.50, Savay; not of Bleeker. 
aiyphisodon cingnUUus Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, LVI, 1867, 725, Fiji. 
This little species is very common about Samoa, 150 specimens, of all sizes, being taken. None 
shows blue stripes or lines, and nearly all have a single white bar on each side. This is lost in the 
very oldest. In the largest of all is a distinct whitish blotch on the soft dorsal near its last rays. 
Life colors of various specimens were noted as follows: 

(1) Specimen called tu'u'u, from Apia. All blackish, with pale centers to scales; head reticulated 
gray and l)lackish; a black speck at end of opercle; caudal with yellowish shadeat base; finsotherwise 
black; caudal and soft dorsal paler behind; pectoral dusky and black. 

(2) From Apia. Dusky olive; a white cross-bar under mi<ldle of body; a black ocellus edged 
with white on last dorsal spines; dorsal jjinkish dusky; other fins all dusky. 

(3) From Pago Pago. Blue-blackish; a broad whitish gray cioss-band; an obscure black spot 
under last dorsal spines; a jet-black spot in axil of last dorsal ray ; dorsal dull orange, blackish at base; 
caudal dull orange; pectoral yellow, axil black; ventral and anal blackish. 

(4) From Apia. Deep steel-blue, each scale with a paler center along side; a distinct white band 
under middle of soft dorsal; dorsal black at base, the upper two-fifths orange, not very bright; belly 
dusky; no opercular spot or ocellus; caudal dull orange, the edge dark; anal all lilue-black, as is also 
ventral; pectoral golden, a 1 lack bar across its base, the axil dark. 



THE ISHES OF SAMOA. 287 

(5) From Apia. Blackish; large white stripes along rows of scales; a whitish bar below middle 
of spinous dorsal; dorsal and anal dusky; soft dorsal half dusky, the tip dull orange; anal almost all 
dusky; caudal dull orange; pectoral bright golden, no ocelli; ventral black. 

(6) From Apia. Blue-black; each scale on front part of sides with a pale gray spot; a vertica! 
whitish bar below middle of spinous dorsal; dorsal dusky bluish below, the upper half dull orange 
with a pale lateral streak; anal blue-black; caudal sooty; pectoral yellow; ventral blackish. 

858. Abudefduf hemimelas (Kner). Fiji. 

Glypliisodon hemimdas Kuer, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1868. pi. viii. flg. 23. 3.il, Fiji. 

aiyphidodon brownriggii var. hemimelas. Gunther. Fische der Sudsee, 233. 
This species is not known to us. From the figures of Kner and Gunther, it would seem to be a 
species distinct from A. zonatus. Dr. Gunther regards it as a "variety" of " Ghjphldodon brou-nriggii;" 
that is, of Ahiiihphif zoHLilus. 

859. Abudefduf amabilis (De Vis). Samoa; Tahiti; Oualan; Faituna; Fiji; Ponape. (PI. xlii, 

fig. 1.) 
GlyphUodon amabitu De Vis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 1884, 452, South Seas. 

Glyphidodon brovmriggii var. xanthozona Gunther, Figche der Sudsee, 234. taf. 127, fig. p, Oualan, Fuluna, .Samoa, 

Tahiti, Ponape; nol Glyphisodon xaixthozona Bleeker. 

This species is very abundant about Samoa. Dr. Giinther regards it as a "variety" of Abudefduf 

zonatus {"broicmriggii") from which it differs wholly in color, though in little else. It is near xantho- 

zona of Bleeker, but that species hag yellow fins and a black ocellus on the dorsal, which is largely 

yellow. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, blue-black; two yellowish white cross-bands; opercles orange; 
an orange streak across axil; base of pectoral dusky; dorsal dusky with alight brown tip; caudal dusky 
at liase, then creamy with a dusky median blotch; pectoral pale yellowish. 

860. Abudefduf antjerius (Kuhl & Van Hasselt). Tu'u'u. Samoa; Guam; New Ireland; Strong 

I.; New Guinea; East Indies. (PI. xlii, fig. 2.) 
Glyphisodon antjerius Kuhl & Van Hasselt, Anjer (Java). Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss.. v, 481, 1830, Java. 

Gunther, Cat., iv, 50 (in part). Gunther, Fische der Sudsee, 233. Scale, Bishop Museum. 1901, 83, Guam. 
Glyphisodon biocellalns Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Pois-s., v, 482, 1830, Guam, Strong I., Java, New Guinea. 

Peters, Berl. Men., 1876. 843, New Ireland. 
Glyphisodon punelulatus Cuvle^& Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss.. v, 484. 1830, Guam. 
This species is known to us from about 40 small specimens. It is near Abudefduf zonatus, but it 
never has a white lateral cross-band, and it always has a vivid blue stripe from snout to dorsal. Other 
blue dots and lines are usually present as well as a black ocellus near middle of dorsal fin. As our 
specimens differ widely from Abudefduf leucopomus, and irotnzonatus of the same size, we must regard 
antjerius as a species distinct from zonatus, brovmriggii, and leucopomus. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, called tu'u'u, blue-black above, a bright sky-blue stripe from 
eye to front of dorsal; a blue-black ocellus surrounded by sky-blue on last rays of spinous dorsal; 
a much smaller one on last ray at base; a blue dot in axil; body becoming more orange-yellow backward 
and downward; pectoral, soft dorsal and caudal brilliant yellow; anal orange-red, edged with dark; 
pectoral orange, with anal dark-edged. 

Another specimen from Apia was steel-blue, not brilliant, each scale with a vertical pale dash; a 
pale shade under front of spinous dorsal; a large black spot under spinous dorsal, a smaller one in axil 
of soft dorsal; dorsal orange, edged with dark; caudal yellowish orange with a black edging; caudal 
peduncle and anal orange, edged with black; ventral black; pectoral golden. 

861. Abudefduf leucopomus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Tu'u'u. Samoa; Oualan; (iuam; Nukahiva; 

Rarotonga (Scale). (PI. xliii, fig. 1.) 
Glyphisodon leucopomus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 4.S0. Oualan i Caroline Is. ). 
Glyphidodon brou-nriggii, "Bastarde zwischen G. brmmriggii und G. unioeeUntuf." Giinther, Fische der Sudsee. 240, 

235, taf. 12S. flg. B. Apia, Oualan. 
1 Glyphisodon antjerius Bleeker; not of Cuvier & Valenciennes. 
This species, one of the prettiest of the taupos, or damsel fishes, is common atout the reefs of 
Samoa, where about 50 specimens were taken. All these, young or old, have a broad blue stripe 
along side of back. Some are otherwise nearly plain golden, others show traces of dark cross-bands. 
The clear-colored ones are in general the largest and brightest examples. 



288 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

.1. hrovmriygii, of Ceylon and the East Indies, has a shnilar blue dorsal stripe, but according to the 
figures of Bennett, Bleeker and Day it lacks the large black spot at upper base of caudal. All our 
specimens in spirits have the opercle white, with a black spot at tip. The species may, however, 
prove inseparable from ,1. brownriggii. 

Life colors were noted in various specimens as follows: 

(1) From Apia. Bluish-black with blue and golden dots; a vivid blue stripe on each side of backl 
a black ocellus below soft dorsal; a larger one at base of caudal above; opercle golden with a black 
spot; axil not black; caudal peduncle before spot pale; dorsal orange and dusky bluish in alternate 
stripes; caudal orange-yellow; anal yellowish with oblique bluish stripes, very faint, the outer rays 
dusky; belly yellow, the breast and throat dark blue; ventral dusky orange; pectoral golden. 

(2) From Apia. Blue-olive, with many blue dots; belly and tail golden; a broad vivid blue stripe 
along back; two black spots above it, the second in axil of last ray largest; a black band nearly across 
base of caudal; opercle golden with a black spot; a golden bar behind pectoral; fins all golden, the 
soft dorsal and anal orange at tip; first dorsal soiled with Ijluish; anal with a blue anterior edge. 

(3) From Apia. Olive, a broad stripe of intense blue from snout above to base of caudal above, 
the two meeting around snout and around dorsal; a broad black median band on top of head to najie; 
two deep blue-black spots under soft dorsal, in front and in axil, the second the larger; a small spot at 
upper base of dorsal; belly gradually yellow; dorsal, anal, caudal, and ventral deep orange; pectoral 
a little paler; a blue streak along lower side of eye. 

(4) From Pago Pago. Golden; blue back; two ocelli. 

862. Abudefduf uniocellatus (Quoy & Gaimard). Tattpoa. Samoa; Fiji; Tonga; Marquesas Is.; 

Futuua; Vanieolo; New Hanover; East Indies. (PI. xliii, fig. 2.) 
{fiiliiptiii^udtm ajfsiHiiVis Gunthcr.) 

This beautiful species is Very common about Samoa, where about 100 specimens were taken on the 
reefs. There is some difference in the color of the sexes, the females having the dorsal more or less 
yellow, the fin in the males being blue. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, called taupo, most vivid blue with violet cross-streaks on back; 
scales on side with yellow dots; belly and lower part of side abruptly yellow; dorsal deep blue, the 
edge almost black, with a pale violet-blue median band; soft dorsal with an indigo-black blotch at 
l)ase of last rays, anterior edge indigo-black, the median part blue-violet; caudal deep orange, bluish 
at base and above, the upper edge indigo-black; anal deep orange, its axil blue; pectoral and ventral 
blue, the ventral with some orange shade. 

A specimen from Pago Pago was of deepest clear blue, sides with many small round golden spots; 
sides of head with violet specks; a black-violet streak from snout to eye, and upward and backward; 
three dark spots forming this streak; belly clear orange-yellow; dorsal deep blue; a large black blotch 
at base of last rays; soft dorsal pale orange, deep blue at base, the margin deep blue black; caudal 
orange-red, blue at base, the upper margin deep blue black; ventral orange-red, blue-edged; pectoial 
colorless. 

863. Abudefduf taupou Jordan & Scale, new species. Vaiulisama; Taupou. (PI. .xliii, fig. 3.) 
Head 3.75 in length; depth 2.75; eye 3 in head, equal to interorbital space; dorsal xiii, 11; 

anal II, 11; scales 2-16-9. 

Body, oblong, compressed; snout rounded; a single row of fine compressed teeth in each jaw; 
preorbital narrow, about one-half as wide as pupil, its margin smooth and rounded; margin of preopercle 
smooth; head, excepting snout, scaled; depth and length of caudal peduncle equal, and equal to post- 
ocular part of head; fourth dorsal .spine 1.50 in head; the soft rays of dorsal much longer, aboutequal 
to head; pectoral equal to head; ventral prolonged into a filament which reaches beyond origin of 
anal; caudal more or less rounded. 

Color in spirits a deep slaty blue black; the belly abruptly yellowish white; a distinct black spot 
on posterior base of soft dorsal at axil; an indistinct black line extending back from the posterior of 
orbit; dorsal fin washed with yellowish white and having a distinct black margin which extends out 
to tip of fin; the lower half of fin blue; caudal yellowish white; the upper ray black; anal yellowish; 
ventral yellowish. Some specimens have a wash of dfisky on base of anal and base of caudal. 

The female fish is without the dark margin to dorsal and caudal, the fins being uniform yellowish 
white in spirits. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 289 

Life colors of various specimens were noted as follows: 

(1) From Apia. Deep sapphire-blue or ultramarine; no S]iots; lielly al)rui)tly golden; dorsal bril- 
liant scarlet, the last rays bluish with a small dark spot in axil; cuudal dull liluisli; anal orange; ven- 
tral ■ irange; pectoral blue; a dark strijie througli eye and a mrdian one on top of head; these and the 
dorsal oci'Uus more distinct in the young. 

\2) From Apia. Deep sky-blue; belly abruptly greenish yellow; a black stripe from snout to 
dorsal above; a black stripe from snout through eye to beginning of lateral line; spinous dorsal bril- 
liant scarlet; soft dorsal pale brownish, with a large black spot at its base; caudal brownish; anal 
orange-red, deeper before; ventral orange; pectoral iiiir]>lish, rather dark. 

(3) From Pago Pago. \'iolet-blue, ahn(»^l iiiiilorm almve; belly abruptly orange-yellow; a black 
median streak above head; black streak throuuh cxf and snout; black streaks and dots on side of head 
and shoulder; first dorsal uniform scarlet; secoiul dorsal duller, with large jet-black spot at base; cau- 
dal bluish, slightly tinged with orange; ventral and anal orange-red; pectoral dusky; no axillary or 
opercular spot; side with numerous fine yellow spots visible under lens. 

(4) From Pago Pago. Vivid deep blue, the belly and throat from chin abruptly yellow; a narrow 
V)lack streak through snout and eye up and back to shoulder; a large black spot at base of soft dorsal; 
spinous dorsal deep scarlet, the soft dorsal and caudal pale bluish; anal and ventrals scarlet; pectoral 
plain; no spots on axil or opercle. 

(5) From Apia. Deepest azure blue, finely dotted with golden on sides; belly whitish; spinous ' 
dorsal light vivid scarlet, dusky at base; soft dorsal pale blue, with a large black non-ocellated s|)Ot on 
base, the anterior edge scarlet; caudal pale blue; pectoral same; ventral and anal scarlet. 

The specimen of Abudefduf azureus figured by Quoy & Gaimard, from Guam, probably belongs 
to Abudefduf taupo. The original type of Abudefduf azureus, earlier called Abudefhif cyaneus by the 
same writers, is from Timor. This species, Abudefduf cyaneus, is not yet known from the South Seas. 

This most beautiful little fish differs from A. uniocellatus in the scarlet spinous dorsal fin. About 
eight specimens were taken at Apia and Pago Pago. 

In company with Pomacentrus pavo, Abudefduf uniocellulus, and other dainty blue species, this fisli 
is known as taupo (damsel, village belle) at Samoa. 

The type specimen is no. 51741, U. S. National Museum, from Apia, length 2.50 inches. 
864. Abudefduf filholi (Sauvage). Fiji. 

Gh/p'iisiidon fllhoU Sauvage, Bull. Sue. Philoui., 1S79. ui, 207, Fiji. 




Fig. h\.~Ahud,ji 



885. Abudefduf metallicus Jordan & Seale, new species. I'ipi. .'^iimoa. 

Head 3.50 in length; depth 2.50; eye 3.25 in head: intcrorhital L'.si) in head; snout cciualing two- 
thirds of eye; dorsal .xiii, 10; anal ii, 11; scale 2-17-7. 

Body elongate, compressed, the profiles evenly curveil; head ronndcd; prcoiliital narrow, about 
one-half the width of pupil, and very short, ending under anterior thir.l of eye; preoper'cle not 



290 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU of FISHERIES. 

toothed; opercle without spines; head entirely scaled except in front of nostrils; mouth small; a 
single row of small compressed teeth in each jaw; tips of all the fins except pectorals prolonged mori' 
or less into filaments; length of fifth dorsal spine L75 in head; pectoral equal to head; filament of 
ventrals reaching to base of anal, the length of the ordinary rays being much less, 1.20 in head; mid- 
caudal ray 1.20 in head, the outer caudal rays greatly prolonged. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia (elongate, with all fins produced), blue-black, paler below; 
a black bar across base of pectoral; no other marks; fins all dusky-edged in a larger specimen 
apparently the same. 

Color in spirits, violet black, lighter below; a distinct black base to pectorals; fins blackish, the 
pectoral and inner part of caudal lighter; the ventrals with slight wash of bluish. 

Of this beautiful species, allied to Ahudefduf cochinchineiisU of Day, we have about ten examples 
from Apia. The type is no. 51742, U. S. National Museum, length 3.30 inches. 

DASCYLLUS Cnvier. 

Dascyllus Cuvier, Regne Animal, ed. h, 1829a (arumms). 

Tetradrachmwm Cantor, Malayan Fishes, 240, 1851; substitute for Dascyllus on account of the 
prior Dascillus Latreille, 1796, a genus of Coleoptera. 

866. Dascyllus aruanus (Linnpeus). Mamo. Samoa; Tonga; Tahiti; Fiji; Guam; New Guinea; 

Woodlark I.; JIarquesas Is.; Shortland I. and Raiatea (Seale); East Indies. 
This beautiful little fish is excessively common in the crevices of the coral reefs about Samoa. 
About 200 examples were taken liy us. It is generally diffused from Polynesia to the Red Sea, but it 
does not occur about Hawaii. In life it is grayish dove-color with jet-black cross-bands. 

867. Dascyllus melanurus Bleeker. Ponape; Shortland I. (Seale); East Indies. 

868. Dascyllus trimaculatus (Riippell). Samoa; Louisiades; Aneiteum; New Guinea; East Indies. 
Of this widely diffused species we obtained three specimens in Samoa. Life colors of a specimen 

from Pago Pago, dusky purplish, the scales dark edged; ventral outline and caudal peduncle brassy; 
dorsal black, with a row of golden spots; soft dorsal rather pale; caudal and anal bleached and golden; 
ventral black, some golden; pectoral yellowish, a black axillary spot; a round white sjiot on each side 
of back, distinct in our specimens, but very faint in others examined, from the Philippines. 

869. Dascyllus albisella Gill. Hawaii. 

This species is rather rare about the Hawaiian Islands, and has never been seen elsewhere. It is 
very close to Dascyllus trimacidalus, but it has a white vertical bar where the latter species has a white 
spot. 

870. Dascyllus reticulatus (Richardson). Kandavu; New Britain; Ponape; New (Guinea 

(Mack-ay), 
//,/„i,,» i;li,'„l„lux Kiiliiir<l>(.ii, Ic-h. Chin., 254, 1838, Canton. 

Tiir.''i ' >,,.,'„ l:i. fkor, Pomacentridfe, 145, 1S77, East Indies, generally common. 

J)„f. '. I! 1.: liiinda, 1,247, Banda. Giinther, Cat., IV, 14, Borneo. Gtinther, Fische der Siidsee, 

-'•;■ l^ !■'>" ^' " r.niMih. I'onape. 

Pmiiwtiitiii^i tniijns,:,„iu^ Kiii-i, Dt-nk. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1869, 348, taf. 8, fig. 24. Kandavu. 
This species of the East Indies was not taken by us. 

871. Dascyllus unifasciatus (Kner). 

Pomacentrus unifascialm Kner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien 1868, 348, taf. 8, fig. 24, Kandavu. 
This species is unknown to us. It is evidently very close to Dascyllus reliculntus, perhaps the same 
species. 

CHROMIS Cnvier. 

872. Chromis ceeruleus (tJuvierA Valenciennes). I'a lanu-monna; Teatea; Mamo. Samoa; New 

Guinea; Ulea; Palaul.; Paumotul.; Yap; Kingsmill I.; East Indies. (PI. xliv, fig. 1.) 

Helioses cxruleus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., V, 497, 1830, New Guinea, Ulea; said to have 13 dorsal 

spines. 
Helioses frenatm Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit.. 498. Guam; snid to have 13 dorsal spines. 
Helioses lepisurus Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., 498, New Guinea. 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 291 

Chromis tepisvrus, Bleeker, Pomacentridae, 164; Atlas, 403, fig. 7. Cocos, Java, Celebes, Sumbawa, Flores, Aru, New 

Guinea. 
Glyphisodon bandanensia Bleeker, Ichth. Bijdr. Banda, Nat. T. Ned. Ind.. ii, 248, Banda. 
Heliasesfrenatus, Bleeker, N. Bijdr. Ich. Ceram., ibid., 710; perhaps not otCuvier & Valenciennes. 
Cantharus cseruleus, Cuvier & Valenciennes, op. cit., v, 342. 

Hcliases cwruleus Bleeiet, Vierde Bijdr. Ichth., Kokoseil; Nat. T. Ned. Ind., viii, 4.55. 
Heliaecs lepidurus, Giinther, Cat., IV, 63. GUnther, Fische der Sudsee, 238, taf. 128, figs, c and i>, Palau, Paumotu 

If.. Yap, Kingsmill I. 
Glyphisudon amibatoides Day, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1870, 6%, Andaman Is. 

Glyphisidon amhoinen^-is Scale, Bishop Museum, 1901, 84, Guam; perhaps not //. amboincimsi^i Bleeker. 
This beautiful species is very common about Samoa, where about 100 specimens were taken in 
pools on the reefs. With a general blue-green coloration usually with small yellow dots, there is con- 
.siderable minor variation in the markings in this species. The pale blue frenum is probably never 
wholly wanting, although much more conspicuous in some speciinena than others. 
Life colors were noted in various specimens as follows: 

(1) From Pago Pago_. Vivid steel-green, becoming violet-blue iii spirits, silvery below; faint 
bluish lines along sides of belly; tins all bluish; a large black spot on base of jjectoral; a narrow clear 
blue streak before eye; ventral sometimes pale, sometimes dusky; no other marks. 

(2) From Apia; called mamo. Clear sky-blue with a strong greenish tinge, whitish below; no 
yellow, orange or brown; side with 5 or 6 dark blue streaks like pencil marks along rows of scales; 
axil with a b lue-black spot; first dorsal deep bluish; caudal gray, with a bright blue stripe along each 
lobe; other fins bluish. 

(3) From Apia; called i'a lanu-moana or blue-fish, scales 2.5. X'ivid sky-blue \vith bright reflec- 
tions[ finely dotted with black and with fine golden yellow si)Ots, about one for each scale; belly 
white; fins plain, like body; ventral darker; chin blue. 

(4) From Apia. Vivid sky-blue, growing paler below; usually with small yellow dots anteriorly; 
axiTbiack; spinous dorsal blue black; soft dorsal and caudal mostly bright orange; anal vivid blue; 
axil black; ventral pale; pectoral dusky. 

(5) From Pago Pago. Clear blue-green, silvery below; some specimens rather green, others blue; 
three pale blue streaks on side of body; base of pectoral dusky; back of caudal peduncle deep green; 
fins dusky, without blue. 

(6) From Pago Pago. Light blue; darker violet-blui- i.n .-In.iil.lcr; whitish blue below golden on 
caudal peduncle and below base of second dorsal; a lihn k ;i\il -]i<<\: fins all dusky blue, some yellow 
on second dorsal; pectoral almost colorless; ventralT^i^ti i i.iilv M.ukish 

The nominal species ca-ruleus and J'reiiatus are doubtless identical with Chromig lepimrus, in which 
case the name aeruleus has precedence. The type of aemleus is said to have 13 dorsal spines, while 
Chromig lepmirus has 12. No other difference appears in the description. Cliromis frenatus has a more 
distinct blue stripe from the snout to the eye, and the caudal lobes less produced. Both these char- 
acters are seen in young specimens. In some of our specimens especially, but not always the smaller 
ones, there is a sharply defined narrow blue streak from eye to snout, as in frenatus. In others there 
is a faint pale streak, and in some a dark streak a little lower down, or on the lower edge of the pale 
streak. 

In response to a request to reexamine the original types of these species, Dr. Leon Vaillant writes 
(October 12, 1904): 

Les types de Heliases {ou Chromii) cseruleus, /renatus et H. lepisurus sent dans un etat de conservation qui en permet 
facilement I'etude. II y'a quatre exemplaires du Chromis lepisurus venant de la Nouvelle Guin^e (No. 8754) deux du 
Chromis cseruleus ie la meme localite (No. 5644) septdu Chromis frenatus ie Guam. (5744 et A 253.) Touslesanimauxont 
ete rapportes par Quoy & Gaimard. Ce sont les types de I'Histoire des Poissons. 

" Les caracteres donnes par les autores de ce travail 6tant du caractOre de coloration ne se retrouvent gui»re sauf par 
le trait argent^e qui va de I'oeil au museau, quon voit tres dlstinctement, et sur toutes les exemplaires du Chromisfrenalus 
mais en ce que tous les exemplaires sont sensiblement plus petit que ceux des deux autres esp^ces. ce pouvait etre un 
caractere de jeune age, una sorte de livr^e neoterique. 

"A premiere vuc, ce Chromis Jrmiatus m'avait paru assez different des Chromis lepisurus et Chromis aeruleus pour 
lesquelles I'identification ne sauriat pas faire de doute, mais en prenant les dimensions exactes et les reduisant propor- 
tionellement a les longueurs donnas, j'ai pume convaincre que les differences de proportions n'etaient iiue apparent et 
due's a les diflicultd-s qu'on epreuve de comparer des exemplaires. . . . 

•■ En r^sum(5, je partage tout a fait votre avis et pense comme vous que ees trois espices n'en font qu'une. a peine 
serait on autorise a regarder le Chromisfrenatus comme une vari6t6." 



292 BULLETIN OF THE HUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

Dr. Vaillant notes that the caudal angles are more prolonged in the specimens called Chroink 
lepimnLK, but a table of measurements sent by him shows no important difference in proportions. 

873. Chromis analis (Cuvier & Valenciennes). P a laau-moana. New Guinea (Macleay); Samoa; 

East Indies. 
This well-marked species is common at Samoa, where about 25 specimens were taken. Life colors 
of a very deep specimen from Apia, pale blue, light golden behind and on soft dorsal, anal, and caudal ; 
sides with a few narrow bronze lines; ventral white, dusky-edged, very long; caudal, dorsal, ami 
especially anal dark-margined; a little dusky shade at base of soft dorsal and anal behind; iris blue; a 
dark speck in pectoral axil. 

874. Chromis ovalis (Steindachncr). Hawaii. 

875. Chromis elaphrus Jenkins. Hawaii. 

C76. Chromis dimidiatus (Klunzinger). Tahiti; Raiatea; Fast Indies. 

lli'lhulisiliiiiidintiis Klunzinger, Fischo Rothen Meeres, 529. Red Sea. 

Heliastes dimiJiiilus, Giinther, Kische der Siidsee, 237, taf. 125, fig. B. Taliiti, Raiatea. 
This species w'as not seen by us. It is very close to our Chromu iomelas, but according to the 
figure of Dr. Giinther, and the description of Dr. Klunzinger, the posterior boundary of the black area 
is at the front of the anal fin. 

877. Chromis iomelas Jordan & Scale, new species. Samoa. 

Head 3.30 in length; depth 2; eye 2.10 into head, equal to interorbital; dorsal .xii, 11; anal ii, 12; 
scales 2^-16-8. 

Body rather deep and stout; head scaled, except between and in front of nostrils; teeth small, in 
several rows on each jaw; caudal peduncle short, its length equal to its depth; preorbital narrow, 
equal to about one-half of pupil; fourth dorsal spine about equal to postocular j)art of head; lobes of 
caudal prolonged into filaments; pectoral fin slightly longer than head; filamei.ts of ventral reaching 
to base of anal. 

Life colors, specimen from Pago Pago, anteriorly deep brownish black, abruptly pale lavender 
behind, the color deepest anteriorly; a large black ocellus on base of pectoral; fins colored like rest of 
body, the elongate caudal very pale lavender, the elongate ventral black. 

In preserved specimens anterior from a line with base of fifth dorsal spine vertically down, the 
color is brown; all posterior to this line is yellowish white; base of pectorals black; ventrals black; four 
anterior dorsal spines black, the remainder of dorsal yellow'ish white; caudal and anal yellowish white. 

This species is very close to Chromis dimidialus, but the lavender-colored caudal region begins 
much in front of the anal fin. Three specimens were taken at Pago Pago. The type is no. 51743, 
r. S. Natidual Museum, from Pago Pago; length 2.25 inches. 

878. Chromis axillaris (Bennett). Raiatea (Seale); East Indies. 

ACANTHOCHROMIS Gill. 
Jlcptaderaainlliiis Alleyne A Macleay, Proe. Linn. Soc. N. S. AV. 1876, 343 {lom/icauihis). 

879. Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker). Fati'' and New Hebrides (Seale); East Indies. 

Family LABRID.€. 

CHCEROPS Kiippell. 

880. Chcerops anchorage (Bloch). I'alau; Yap; New Hanover (Peters); New (iuinea (Macleay). 
{CkiETOps macrodontes Lacupi^de. ) 

Chcerops meander Cartier, from the Philippines, is doubtless the young of this species. 

881. Choerops brenchlyi (ii'mther. Misol. 
Champs bi-enchlyi Giinther, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1872, 274. 

882. Choerops cyanostolus (Richardson). New Guinea (Macleay); Australia; Eastlndies. 
Cosst/phus ommopki-Ui Richardson, probaljlynot Chwrops schoenleini oi Bleeker; certainly not Cossijjihus scliociikiui 



THE FISHES OF SAMOA. 293 

According to Gunther, the stuffed skin which is type of C. cyanostolus Richardson belongs to the 
species called C. ommopicrus by Richardson, on the next page. This species is characterized by the 
black dorsal spot, which seems to be wanting in the true Cluerops schoenleini. Chnernps schoenleiui of 
Bleeker has this spot, but also a pale spot beyond it, wanting in C. cyanostolus. This seems tt) be the 
same as Chrrrops nnimaaihta of Cartier. 

883. Chcerops cyanodus (Richanlsoii I. Tahiti; .Australia. 

VERREO Jordan & Snyder. 

884. Verreo oxycephalus P.kekiT. Hawaii; XewCiuiiica; .\iistralia; .Japan. 

VERRICULUS Jordan & Evermann. 

885. Verriculus sang'uineus Jordan & Evennaim. Hawaii. 

LEPIDAPLOIS Gill. 

886. Lepidaplois axillaris (Bennett). New llfbri.U-s; I'lea; Tahiti; Paumotuls.; Guam; East 

In.lirs. 

887. Lepidaplois hirsutus (Lacepede). Vavau (Giinther); Eai^t Imlits. 

888. Lepidaplois albotseniatus (Cuvier & Valenciennes). Hawaii; .lohnston I. 

This species, very abundant about Hawaii, was not taken by us at .Samoa. It reaches a consid- 
erable size, and is subject to some changes in color with growth. 

We can not identify the Hawaiian species with Lepidaplois bilunulalus of the East Indies. The 
latter species, according to Bleeker's figure, has two broad, black curved stripes on tlie liead, instead 
of the narrow maroon streaks seen in our species. The incomplete account given by Cuvier bears out 
this prol)able difference. 

889. Lepidaplois strophodes .lordan & Evermann. Hawaii. 

This species, thus far known from small specimens only, is occasionally taken about Hawaii. 
Tlie black blotch at ba.se of soft dorsal behind extends across the body, forming a bread black bar. 
This species is probably not the young of Lepidaplois albotseniatus, as supposed by Giinther, as we have 
specimens of the latter of about the same size as the types of strophodes which have the characteristic 
markings of the adult. Still it is possible that these are accjuired by some examples at an earlier 
stage than by others. 

890. Lepidaplois modestus ((iarrett). Hawaii. 

891. Lepidaplois perditio (i^wy & Gaimard). Tonga; Saumarez Reels; Aneiteum; .lapan; 

Mauritius. 

NESIOTES De Vis. 

892. Nesiotes purpurescens De Vis. South Seas. 

Xesiutes inirpiii-curenf Dc Vis. Proc. Lmn. Six- N". .- W. is^i. i:,:;. South Seas. 

LABROIDES Bleeker. 

893. Labroides dimidiatus Cuvier & \'alenciennes. i-^amDa and Hawaii (Giinther); Palau: Yap; 

New Hebrides; East Indies. 
This species was not taken l)y us. 

894. Labroides paradisseus (Bloelu. New < niinea i Maeleay ) ; East Indies. 

DUYMaiRIA Bleeker. 

895. Duyniaeria ceeruleoniaculata (iiinther. .\neiteum; New Hel)riiies. 

896. Duymaeria nematoptera Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay); East Indies. 



294 BULLETIN OF THE BITREAU OF FISHERIES. 

PSEUDOLABEUS Bleeker. 

897. Pseudolabrus unilineatus Giiithenot. ( iuaui. 
Tliis sjn'cies is iicrluqis tlie tyjie of a distinct genus. 

LABEICHTHYS Bleeker. 

Labrichllirjs B\eeker, Flores, 331, 1854 (cyanoisenia) . 

Thysanochilus Kner, Denks. Ak. Wiss. Wien, x.xiv, 1865, 5 (ornatus). 

Charojulis Kner & Steindachner, Sitz. Ak. Wiss. Wien, Liv, 1867, 393 (castaneus) ; not of Gill. 

898. Labrichthys cyanotsenia (Bleeker). Sugale uliuli. Samoa; East Indies. 
Labriddhys cyanolscnia Bleeker, Bijdr. Ichth. Flores, Nat. T. Ned. Ind., vi, 331, 1854, Flores. 
Tki/sanockUun cyanotstnux Giinther, Fische der Siidsee, 242. 

ThymnocMlm omatua Kner, Denks. Ak. Wiss. Wien, xxiv. 1865, 5, taf. 3, fig. 1, Samoa. 

riatyglosms ocellatus (or Platygloseus chrymtstnia var.) Kner & Steindachner, Sitz. Ak. Wi.ss. Wien, i.iv, 1R67, 377, 

Upolu. 
CImrojutis castaneus Kner & Steindachner, op. cit.. 393, fig., young, Upolu, same specimen as Plalyglossua occUatuB. 
We have 8 specimens of this dainty fish from Apia. It is notable for its small mouth and very 
wide lips. There is a posterior canine tooth and 9 dorsal spines. 

Life colors of a specimen called sugale uliuli, dark brown, almost black, with obscure stripes of 
bronze and blue, very dark, and therefore faint; a black spot at base of pectoral; head with wavy 
blue stripes, lips yellow; dorsal colored like body, with blue edge; anal with blue edge and blue 
median stripe, elsewhere dark bronze; caudal like body at base, with blue curved streak, posterior 
part black, the edge pale; ventral blue, with black stripe; pectoral dusky greenish yellow at base. 

Another .specimen from Apia was jet black, with two white longitudinal streaks, the upper from 
end of snout to base of caudal, the other from throat alongside of belly to middle of anal; mouth 
golden; fins black, the caudal white edged. 

899. Labrichthys australis Steindachner. South Seas. 
Lnljr,rhlliiif iih,«(/m//s Steindachner, lohth. Mitth., vni, 1860, 470, South Seas. 

EPIBULUS Cuvier. 

900. Epibulus insidiator ( Pallas). Lupiyn: < hiiii-umi:. Samoa: Tahiti; New Guinea; Raiatea and 

Fate (Seale); East Indies. 

This singular fish, which early attracted attention, is common about Samoa. We have 49 exam- 
ples from Apia and 10 from Pago Pago, and these well illustrate the wide variation in color exhibited 
by this fish, it being dichromatic, some individuals bright yellow, others dark olive-brown. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia called Inpega, dark lemon-yellow, brown on top of head, with 
vertical bar of blackish on each scale; anal yellow and lower part of head yellow; spinous dorsal 
brownish, yellow at base, then greenish yellow, then brownish red, then green, then orange-brown; 
a deep blue spot on front of dorsal, with orange below it. 

Young very dark brown; a blue spot followed by yellow on froat of dorsal. 

HEMIGYMNUS Ganther. 

901. Heniig-ymnus melapterus (Bloch). Alaii moanu; Paumutu; Afataimi; Tagitagi; Sugale uli; 

Sugale aha. Samoa; Palau Is.; Ponape; New Guinea (Macleay); Shortland I. (Seale); East 

Indies. 
This is a very common fish about Samoa. We have 14 examples from Pago Pago and 24 from 
Apia. The coloration changes with age in a marked degree. In the young the anterior half of the 
body is largely white. 

Life colors of a specimen from Apia, called afataimi, or tagilagi, dark brownish olive; most scales 
brown at base, with violet blue spot mostly obscure; head dark, the cheek bright yellow, the space 
behind eye coppery; head everywhere with vermicular streaks, green above, blue below; lips and 
chin dirty grayish, unmarked; dorsal brownish red, with blue spots and two blue marginal streaks, 
the lower violet blue and broader; caudal dirty blue, the rays blue, the margin dirty brown; anal (hil! 
blue, with many round blue spots and a blue stripe, the edge brownish; ventral whitish, with dull 



THE KISHES OF SAMOA. 295 

orange on first soft ra.v, and yellow and orange dashes behind; pectoral pale, the axil golden, the 
ujiper ray and a bar across liase blue, the latter with golden antl bluish edge behind; lips very thick; 
some scales on cheek. A smaller example has the ventrals brighter, orange and blue; otherwise it is 
the same. 

Another specimen from Apia, a large one, was uniform blackish green, the scales showing traces 
of green and violet markings when examined closely; belly bronze brownish, with a violet spot on 
each scale, these violet shades scattered over the sides; cheek and interopercle clear olive green; lips 
dusky olive; a bright grass-green ring about eye; a dull dark blue blotch behind eye; preorbital, 
suborbital, lower and upper part of cheek and opercle dull bronze-orange with sharp vermiculations; 
throat reddish gray; dorsal blackish, orange, very dark, with a dark blue edge and a dark blue stripe 
below; many deep violet spots on membranes; caudal violet blackish, sha(ied with green on rays and 
edged with dull orange; violet spots and vermiculations; anal dusky orange, a deep violet blue intra- 
marginal band, and with deep violet spots; ventral orange, with large blue spots; pectoral dusky 
bluish, paler below. 

A specimen called alali moana, from Apia, was deep blue black with olive shades behind front of 
first dorsal and vent; shoulder light green with dull orange spots, the shade becoming golden olive 
behind gill-opening and on opercle and cheek; the breast, throat, and belly gray; pink shades on 
opercle; a pink stripe below eye; a large violet-coppery blotch behind eye, with deep violet spots 
within, these having paler centers; forehead coppery violet, mottled with green; bright blue close 
behind eye; dorsal violet black, with green on basal scales, then bright blue marblings anteriorly; 
violet-blue spots on membranes, with marginal stripes of deep violet-blue, light pinkish brown and 
black; caudal olive-black, with a median narrow stripe of violet-blue from base to tip; anal brown 
suffused with blue, with violet-blue spots, and blue, pinkish, and black edgings; ventral colorless, 
olive-shaded, the anterior rays pink, margined before and behind by dusky blue; pectoral colorless, 
the upper edge blue. Canines 2-2; no posterior canines; a few scales on cheek; lateral line continuous. 

Lift- I'olors of a specimen called paumutu, from Apia, posterior parts, behind middle of 
pectoral, deep brownish black; anterior parts abruptly soiled gray; dark brown on top of head, with 
bluish reticulations; upper lip gray, lower whitish; a whitish undulate streak below eye; axil black; 
dark brown spots about eye; dorsal dark brown, lighter above with streaks of bluish; anal similar, 
with a blue .stripe and an orange margin; caudal with peduncle light brown, spotted with blue; 
pertiiral colorless: ventral tinged with orange. 

902. Hemigymnus fuliginosus (Lacepede). Samoa; Carolines; New Guinea (Macleay); East 
Indies. 
Vulluf fascmtus Thunberg Reise nach Japan n 17<il »1 pi 314 Cit% of Meaco" (doubtles.s Miyakoshima, 



1 I II I u 1 .1 IsOi altir BliM h 

^; . ,. //," M .;a/i;s Binmtt I- i-lics < o l(.n 1SJ9 pi 23 Ceylon 

Tii/r .; I //!')(, Hw Cuvierd. \alencienne« Hist Vat Poiss \ni SO"! 1839 Caroline"!. 
(I, ihini n //( ( iivier i \alencienne- Hist Nat Poiss mv 1839 lOS after iaftrus rasc(a/»s Blooh, 
f'tiil lakiiii, 1,111 Bleeker Biliton iv 239 Bihton \oung 
/fewK/ymnus icucomusGunther Cat i\ 139 1S(,2 
Of this species we ha\e one large specimen from k\n\ The nunt t(i\( uiIuk is not tenable for it, 
having been preoccupied. 

ANAMPSES Cavier. Saga!,: 

903. Anampses cuvieri Quoy & Gainiard. Hawaii. 

904. Anampses caeruleopunctatus Riippell. Suyule Inpe. Samoa; Tahiti; Guam; New Guinea 

(Macleay); Karotonga (Scale); East Indies. 

This species is not uncommon in the South Seas. We have 9 specimens from Apia. 

Life colors of a specimen called sinjale lupe, olive, the belly gradually scarlet; each scale with a 
violet-blue spot, edged with blackish blue, these confluent into streaks behind and below eye; dorsal 
orange-brown, spotted with blue and blue-edged; caudal like body, the spots smaller, the edge dusky 
and then whitish; anal bright orange-brown, spotted with blue and with blue edge, the lowest (basal) 
row of blue spots oblong; ventral orange streaked with blue; pectoral yellowish; dark brown at base. 



296 BULLETIN OF TH?: BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

905. Anampses evermanni Jenkins. Hawaii. 

906. Anampses godeffroyi (iiinther. Hawaii. 

Anampses godeffroyi Gunther, Fisclie der Sudsec, 252, taf. HO, 1873, Sandwich Is. 
This species is described from a drawing made by Garrett at Hilo. We have specimens froiu 
Hawaii corresponding to this drawing, but they seem to vis only highly colored examples of the spi'iiis 
called Anampses evirmanni. Doulitless the two are identical. 

907. Anampses diadematus Riippell. Samoa (Giinther); Paumotuls. ; King.«mill l^.; Iluahinc: 

Misol; East Indies. 

908. Anampses neogiiinaicus Bleeker. New Guinea. 

Aimmpses neuguinaicus Bleeker, Archiv. Neerl. 1878, 57. 

909. Anampses melanurus Bleeker. Savaii. 
Aiiiiiiii,s,s melanurtis Gunther, Fische der Sudsee, 2.'j2, Amboina. 

910. Anampses pterophthalmus Bleeker. New Guinea (Macleay); Oualan (Giinther); East 

911. Anampses fidjiensis Sauvage. Fiji. 

Anampses fidjiensis Sauvage, Bull. Soe. Philom. 18so, 224. Fiji. 

AMPHECES Jordan & Evermann. 

912. Ampheces g'eographicus (Cuvier & N'alenciennes). New Guinea (Macleay) ; East Indies. 

STETHOJULIS Giinther. 

913. Stethojulis strigiventer Bennett. Samoa (Giinther); Palau; Fiji; Vavau; Ponape; New 

Guinea; East Indies. 

914. Stethojulis fulvoventris Seale. Guam. 

915. Stethojulis renardi Giinther. Samoa (Giinther) ; Guam; Ponape; East Indies. 

916. Stethojulis albovittata (Kolreuter). Hawaii. 

This species is common about the Hawaiian Islands. It is not certainly known from el.sewhere, 
though Giinther lists it from Zanzibar and Madagascar. It is well separated from Slrtliojulis casturi, 
its representative in Polynesia and the East Indies. 

917. Stethojulis casturi Giinther. Samoa; Palau Is.; Futuna; New Guinea; Rarotonga (Seale); 

East Indies. (PI. xlv, fig. 1.) 
Stethojulis albnviUata, Bleeker, Atlas, 132, tab. XLIV, fig.5. East Indies; not of Bonnaterre. 
Stethojulis casturi Gnnther, Fische der Sudsee, 25,5,1873, Palau, Futuna, Yap. 

We have 10 specimens of this fish from the coral reef at Apia. It is readily distinguished from 
Stethojulis alboviltata, with which it has been confounded, by the presence of but one stripe extending 
the whole length of the side. In Stethojulis alborittata, which is known from about Hawaii only, there 
are two bluish stripes from pectoral to caudal, and the interspace between them is red. 

Life colors of a specimen of .S'. casturi from Apia, violet-black; abruptly livid bluish white below; a 
sharp boundary stripe bright sky-blue, widened behind and bordered below by pale golden; head olive 
green, clear on sides; four curved unequal stripes on head, sky-blue with darker edgings, (1) one above 
eye, including its upper edge, extending along back to last ray of dorsal, (2) a violet line behind eye to 
above gill-openings, (3) from angle of mouth to lower part of eye, curving above axil and becoming the 
blue lateral stripe on body; lowest stripe curving across cheek to join its fellow on the chin. A long 
crescent of vivid scarlet, including the axil. Edge of shoulder-girdle below it deep blue; dorsal dull 
brownish gray; caudal grayish, the median blue streak extending on it; ventral and anal colorless, 
pectoral also. 

918. Stethojulis trilineata ( Bloch & Schneider). New Guinea (Alacleay); New Hanover (Peters); 

Paiau Island (Giinther); East Indies. 



THE FISHES OB' SAMOA. 



2\)7 



919. Stethojul 

Ea^t In. 



phekadopleura Bleeker. Samoa; Solomon Is. ; I'onape; New Guinea ( Macleaj- ) ; 



Tlii.s is a common species in the East Indies; it also occurs abundantly in the South Seas. We 
obtained 14 examples at Pago Pago and 54 at Apia. We have also examined specimens from Negros 
in the Philippines. 

Life colors of Samoan specimens were noted as follows: 

(1) From Apia. Back clear olive-brown with rows of bluish white dots; belly abruptly white, a 
golden brown boundary stripe widening into a grayish stripe below eye, edged above with a fine white 
line; the boundary stripe faint with age; belly with 3 or 4 rows of blackish brown spots, one in each 
scale; base of anal livid blue; a large black spot at base of caudal, surrounded by orange-brown (fainter 
and more diffuse in old examples, in which the gray stripe below eye is lost, the pale line above it 
remaining distinct); dorsal orange, dull with bluish and orange .spots; caudal dull orange and livid 
bluish; ventral same, as is also the anal; pectoral colorless; iris reddish; axil unmarked. The lack of 
axil markings, the white dots above and dark below are characteristic. 

(2) From Pago Pago. Green olive above; livid silvery below, brownish above posteriorly; head 
and all upper parts finely dotted with pale bluish; lower parts with larger dark brown spots in 4 rows; 
a pinkish white stripe before eye; a black spot on base of caudal above, faint in adult; fins all pale 
brownish red, the dorsal very finely checked; a pinkish streak below eye, breaking into spots behind; 

.id bluish. 




Fig. b'l.—SttthoJuUe phekadopleura Bleeker 



(3) From Pago Pago. Very finely dotted above, coarsely spotted below; no axil or caudal spot; 
a silvery streak below eye; fins reddish; dorsal much speckled. 

(4) Very young; from Pago Pago. Bright reddish brown with a i>ale streak below eye and 
another from snout above eye along side of back; bluish spots on scales and some black ones on side 
of belly; a black spot at base of caudal and another on upper fin rays: caudal colorless; other fins 
orange. 

920. Stethojulis axillaris Quoy & Gaimard. Hawaii. 

This species, as understood by us, is found only about the Hawaiian Islands, where it is rather 
common. Farther south it is represented by a marked subspecies or closely related species, with 
slenderer body and paler lower parts, Stethojulis bandanensis of Bleeker. It is barely possible tliat 
larger series may show the two to be identical, as supposed by Bleeker and Giinther. 

921. Stethojulis bandanensis (Bleeker). Samoa; Palau Is.; Solomon Is.; Fiji; Tahiti; New 

Hebrides; Ponape; New Guinea. (PI. xlv, fig. 2.) 
Julis bandanensis Bleeker, Banda, i, 254; Banda. 

Stelhojutas axillaris B\eekei, Atlas, Labr., 136, tab.xLiv, fig. 3, 1862, East Indies; not of Qnoy&Gaimard. Giinther, 
Fische der Siidsee, 254, taf. 136, tig. c, Palau, Solomon, Fiji, Samoa, Society Is., New Hebrides, Ponape. 
This species has been confused with Stethojulis arilkiris (Quoy & Gaimard), of Hawaii, to which it 
is closely related. The only tangible differences are these: Stethojulis axillaris has the body deeper, 

B. B. F. 1905—20 



298 BULLETIN OK THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

and the belly is not very pale, its coloration not sharply separated from that of the sides. SteOuyjuliii 
handanemis is a slenderer fish, and the belly is abruptly whitish, with a dark sha<le on each scale. 

This species is very common about the coral reef at Apia, where we obtained 55 specimens. We 
also collected 9 at Pago Pago. Life colors of a specimen from Apia, gray, silvery on lower half; every- 
where with fine lengthwise streaks of white, these broader and more conspicuous below, especially the 
one below eye, which has a dark streak above it; a small jet-black spot in axil of dorsal and one on 
upper part of caudal peduncle just before base of caudal; fins all pale (in young of 2 inches) . 

A specimen from Pago Pago was olive-green, posteriorly purjilish; cheek abruptly golden; anterior 
region with fine pale dot.s; whitish pink spots along side; a white spot across base of pectoral; a black 
ocellus on last rays of dorsal, anal and base of caudal; fins otherwise light orange. Another specimen 
has three caudal ocelli. 

Another specimen from Apia has its upper half grayish dusky with very fine bluish-white dots; a 
grayish lateral band, edged with dark above, a broad metallic purplish gray band below it, the belly 
silvery, each scale with a dark purplish-gray basal spot, two black pale-blue-edged ocelli on caudal 
peduncle, a black bar across base of pectoral, a bright scarlet dash in axil, with blue on each side of it; 
side of head below eye abruptly golden; chin and throat white; dorsal golden brown, finely dotted; 
caudal dull yellowish; ventral, pectoral, and anal colorless, belly livid blue at base of anal. 

922. Stethojulis filholl Sauvage. 

Stethojtdis/HhoU Sauv&ge, Bull. Sci. Phil. 1880, 1.5 (reprint), Fiji. 

923. Stethojulis kalosoma (Bleeker). New Guinea (Macleaj'); East Indies. 

LEPTOJTJLIS Bleeker. 

924. Leptojulis pardalis Kner. Fiji; Guam; Samoa. (PI. xlv, fig. 3.) 

Leplujulis pardatis Kner, Sitz. Akad. Wi.is. Wien 1867, 727, taf. ni, fig. 2 (fig. 9 in text), Viti Levu (Fiji Is.). 

FkUi/ijlussus nigromamlatus Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, 666, pi. 60, Samoa. 

Halkhisres nigropunctatus Scale, Bishop Museum, 1901, 89, Guam. 
We have 4 specimens of this handsome species, taken at Apia. Life colors of one of these, 
clear olive-green, yellow below; everywhere with reticulations of ground-color, yellow with blue 
margins around the black; these marks orange-brown instead of black on forehead, lower part of 
head, and belly; oblique dark stripes from eye around jaws, edged with light blue; dorsal, caudal 
and anal similarly marked, the brown becoming distally very bright clear orange-brown; ventral 
yellow, orange banded ; pectoral plain; dorsal edge of body clear olive brown; greenish cross-bars 
on head. 

A canine tooth; scales rather large; lateral line continuous; a low dorsal sheath ; body compressed. 

MACKOPHARYNOODON Bleeker, 

This well-marked genus consists of small sjiecies, deep bodied and beautifully colored, the lower 
pharyngeals very small, with large teeth. 

925. Macropharyngodon geoffroy (Quoy & Gaimard). Hawaii. 

926. Macropharyngodon meleagris (Cuvier & Valenciennes). New Guinea; Samoa; Ulea; 

Shortland I. (Scale); East Indies. 

Julis meleagris Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xni, 481, Ulea. 

Macropharyngodmi geoffroyi Bleeker, Atlas, Labr., 129, tab. x.xxvii, fig. 5, Celebes; not of Quoy & Gaimard. 

Plalyglossus geoffroyi, Gunther, Cat., IV, 145 (copied). 
This species is scarce about Samoa, one fine example being taken at A})ia. Life colors, violet- 
brown; a large, bright-green spot edged with blue on each scale, these confluent into short stripes on 
the head; belly mostly light blue; a violet-black spot on breast; dorsal orange, shaded with bluish at 
base, edged with gray, two rows of clear green blue-edged spots; caudal dull orange, brighter on upper 
and lower margins and covered mesially with large greenish-blue spots; anal dull orange with three 
rows of greenish, blue-edged spots, the middle ^eries confluent in a band; ventral dull orange, spotted 
with green; pectoral colorless, dusky at base, the axil green; a jet-black spot edged with yellow on 
side above and a little behind base of pectoral. 



THE FISHKS OF SAMOA. SU'J 

PLATYGLOSSUS ( Klein I Bleeker. 

Tliis f;enus in very ckwly allied to Iluliihitrts. The body is deeper and more compressed, and 
the scales along the base uf the dorsal more elevated, forming a low sheath. 

927. Platyglossus marg^inatus (Riippell). Samoa; Raiatea (Seale). (PI. \i.vi, tig. I.) 

Two specimens of this handsome fish were collected by us at Apia. It has nut heretofore been 
found in the South Seas. 

Life colors of one specimen, olive- black, region covered liy pectoral bright cherry- red; a reddish 
streak alontr the edge of each row of scales, these clear brown on back, faint posteriorly and pinkish 
brown on belly; head golden-brown, much striped with dark blue; belly also blue, striped with 
brown: dorsal dark orange-brown spotted with dark blue, and edged with sky-blue with a dark blue 
boimding line; caudal deep orange-brown with dark blue spots and sky-blue edgings; a dark blue 
bounding line, the angles olive-gray; anal like dorsal but further edged with bright yellowish green; 
ventral and pectoral dark bluish; axil cherry-red. 

928. Platyg-lossus notopsis (Kuhl & Van Hasselt). Samoa; East Indies. 

The young of this fish differs markedly from the adult in having four conspicuous white lines 
along the side and two or three similarly colored spots below the dorsal. The dorsal, in both young 
and old, has a small ocellus between the first and second spines, and a very large one between the 
tirst and sixth rays. 

This is a common fish at Samoa. We have 40 specimens from Apia, and 49 from Pago Pago. 
Color in life of a specimen from Apia, almost jet-black, with very obscure whitish spots on scales; 
caudal paler sooty; iris red; pectoral dull olive, a black bar across ba.se; breast and chin purplish 
black; dorsal, anal and ventral black, the dorsal usually with a large bluish, white-edged ocellus; 
caudal abruptly pale olive (side with about a dozen greenish pale streaks in younger ones) ; teeth 
small, a posterior canine; head naked; body deep, head sharp above; scales large; dorsal uniform. 

Another specimen from the same locality was jet-black, with six irregular interrupted whitish 
lines, plainest on head; dorsal black, with a large white-edged ocellus on first soft rays; caudal 
abruptly bright white, a whiter stripe along anterior edge; anal and ventrals black. 

Life colors of a specimen from Pago Pago, black, with very faint streaks of bluish, scarcely evi- 
dent and distinct only on head; caudal abruptly muddy white; a large, black, whitish-edged ocellus 
on first soft dorsal rays, and a little one on first and second spines; dorsal striped throughout with dull 
orange; anal, ventral, and pectoral plain blackish. This is very close to another that has golden 
stripes, very distinct. The latter is apparently the young. 

929. Platygrlossus flos-corallis Jordan & Seale, new species. Samoa. ( PI. xlvi, fig. 2. ) 

Head .3.20 in length; depth 3.50; eye 4.50 in head; dorsal ix, IL'; anal in, 11'; scales 2-30-8, inter- 
orbital equal to eye; snout 3 in head. 

Body oblong, compressed; caudal rather deep, 2.30 in head; head unsealed; mouth somewhat 
protractile, jaws equal, lips thick; teeth in a single series of sharp, somewhat projecting conical teeth 
in each jaw, the front ones the largest; a sharp canine tooth at angle of jaws; opercle and preopercle 
entire; gillrakers very short, sharp, about 13 on lower limb; longest dorsal ray 2.75 in head; longest 
anal spine 2.80 in head; ba.se of anal equal to length of head; pectoral 1.50 in head; anal rounded, 
1.50 in head; ventral equal to length of pectoral, its tips not reaching base of anal. 

Color in spirits, a dull yellowish brown with ten longitudinal blue lines on the side from head 
to caudal; these lines are slightly wider than their interspaces and are most distinct on anterior half 
of body; the caudal peduncle has a median line of yellowish white on its sides extending in from cau- 
dal fin; a bright yellow spot on base and in axil of pectoral with a smaller distinct black spot on 
upper part of base; head yellowish with two blue lines from interorbital to tip of snout, a blue line 
from anterior margin of eye to tip of snout, a curved blue line around chin over cheek across oper- 
des to base of pectoral, below which are two indistinct blue lines; just back of orbit is a black spot 
forming the termination of the 4-5 lines of body; the three upper body lines extend on nuchal region, 
the second joining the line above, the other terminating at upper po.sterior margin of orbit; a blue 
crescent on opercular flap; dorsal with seven longitudinal bands of color, the mid one of greenish 
white, occupying the middle of the fin, being the widest; a broad, dark green, black-edged stripe just 



300 BULLETIN OF THE BTJREATT OF FISHERIES. 

l)elow with light green at base of fin; anal similarly colored, except that the mid-band of light green is 
wider and there is no lighter coloring at base of fin; caudal yellowish white with the outer half covered 
with reticulated dark markings, tip of upper and lower margin yellowish white; pectoral and 
ventral yellowish white. 

Life colors of three specimens from Pago Pago were as follows: 

(1) Green anteriorly, becoming deep vitriol-blue behind pectorals; anterior parts with stripes of 
orange-red, which are very bright anteriorly and fade out behind; cheeks golden-green; head stripes